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BR 60 .L52 v.28 
John Chrysostom, d. 407. 
The homilies of S. John 
Chrysostom, Archbishop of 














































The Benedictine Editor has already noticed the principal 
points in which these Homilies differ from others in which 
St. Chrysostom comments upon Holy Scripture. They are 
far more controversial than is usual with him, and the part 
devoted to moral exhortation is shorter. This may be partly 
owing to the number of passages in St. John which bear on 
the doctrine of our Lord's Person and His Divine and Human 
Natures. But it seems further that they were delivered to a 
select audience at an early hour of the day. For toward the 
latter part of Horn. xxxi. he contrasts the coolness of the 
morning, in which they were assembled, with the mid-day 
heat, in which the woman of Samaria listened to our Lord. 
And the character of the instruction given almost unques- 
tionably marks the hearers as having been less miscellaneous, 
and less liable to be supposed wanting in points of common 
duty, than those whom he generally addressed. 

They do not give their own date, but are referred to by the 
Author, while still at Antioch, as already published, in Horn, 
vii. on 1 Cor. ii. 8. Tr. p. 82. ( However, the manner of this 
way of knowledge and of that hath already been declared in 
the Gospel; and, not to be continually handling the same 
topic, thither do we refer our readers.' The place is St. John 
viii. 19. treated in Horn. xlix. 


And since the three first years after St. Chrysostom was 
ordained Priest, A. D. 386-8, seem completely filled up, and 
the Homilies in St. Matthew were probably prior to these, 
it is most likely that they were not begun before A. D. 390, 
while those on some of the Epistles of St. Paul seem to 
have come after them, and still before the year 398, in 
which he was removed to Constantinople. 

In either city there were numerous heretics of the sect 
against which he is most careful to supply arguments, the 
Anomceans, who held that the Son is not even of like 
Substance with the Father. And even in his less generally 
controversial works, we often meet with discussions of their 
tenets. But in these Homilies he is continually meeting 
with texts which they perverted to the maintenance of their 
heresy, and turning them into weapons for its confutation. 
And tins he usually does with great success, since the 
Catholic Doctrine of the true and perfect Godhead, united 
in One Person with true and perfect Manhood, affords a key 
that easily opens texts which most stubbornly resist any 
confused notion of an inferior Divinity, or an unreal 
Humanity. The texts urged by the heretic, put to this 
test, are found not really to belong to him. They are not 
even arguments so far for his view of the case, but perfectly 
consistent with the truth always held by the Church. There 
may remain a few cases, after attentive study, in which it is 
difficult to be sure what is the exact meaning, or even 
whether a given text speaks of the Godhead or of the 
Manhood, but as to the general doctrine of the whole Scrip- 
ture, or the consistency of that doctrine with any and every 
text therein contained, there is no reasonable doubt. There 
are those whose faith seems to tremble on the balance when 
such a passage of Scripture is under discussion, but this 
must be either from an inveterate habit of doubting, or an 
imperfect apprehension of the real meaning of the Catholic 
doctrine. The most skilful commentator may occasionally 
fall into a critical error, but no one who has ever fairly 


entered into the sense of Holy Scripture will dream of the 
alternative being between such and such an exposition and 
the acceptance of heresy. Enough is clear to make us very 
sure what will be the doctrine of any difficult passage, 
though we may be in doubt of its interpretation. St. Chry- 
sostom is usually right, and not only so, but most ingenious 
in detecting the rhetorical connection of sentiments and 
arguments. If any where he fails, it is from some over- 
refinement in rhetorical analysis, and not from any want of 
apprehension of the main truths concerned. 

In the first volume of the Benedictine Edition there is a 
series of Homilies against the Anomceans, in the first of 
which he states that he had been unwilling for some time to 
enter on the controversy, for fear of driving away hearers 
who held those opinions, but that he had now taken it up at 
their earnest request. These Homilies were delivered some 
time before those on St. John, beginning in the first year 
after his ordination with those * On the Incomprehensible 
Nature of God,' in opposition to the pretensions of that sect 
to perfect knowledge of Divine things. And the Benedictine 
editor refers to them as containing a more complete array of 
the positive evidence of St. John to the Catholic doctrines 
than even this commentary affords. 

The history of the woman taken in adultery is omitted in 
this Commentary, and the Benedictine Editor was not able 
to trace it in any of the Works of St. Chrysostom. It is 
suggested that his copies may have wanted the passage, or 
that he may have omitted it for fear it should be taken as an 
encouragement to vice. But he was not the man to shrink 
from so slight a difficulty, nor would he have failed, in com- 
menting on it, to leave an impression on the hearer by no 
means calculated to lessen his dread of sin. Such a reason 
may have prevailed with some copyists to suppress the 
passage, and it is probable that it was not found in the copy 
which he used. It is omitted in like manner by St. Cyril of 


The Text of Savile has been followed, except where 
the Benedictine Edition has supplied improvements. The 
Benedictine sections are numbered throughout: where the 
division seemed to be inconvenient, the number is given in 
the margin. In the earlier Homilies a second series of 
numbers is employed to mark the sections in the translation ; 
this was discontinued as unnecessary, and the Benedictine 
only retained. In some of the references to the Psalms, 
where the Septuagint differs much from the Hebrew, the 
numbers given are those of the Greek. Care will be taken 
in the Index of Texts to give always the reference to the 
Psalm and Verse according to the Hebrew reckoning followed 
in our own Version. 

The Editors are indebted for the present Translation to 
the Rev. G. T. Stupart, M.A. late Fellow of Exeter 
College. It has been kindly carried through the Press by 
the Rev. J. G. Hickley, B.D. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford. The translation of the remaining Homilies is com- 
pleted, and will shortly be in the Press. 

C. M. 

Oeiel College, 
Feast of St. Andrew, 1848. 



Page 1. 


HOMILY II. — -" 

Page 9. 

John i. 1. 
In the beginning was the Word, 


Page 22. 

John i. 1. 

In the beginning toas the Word, 


Page 37. 

John i. 1. 
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God. 


Page 48. 

John i. 3. 

All things were made by Him; and without Him was not 

\y thing made that was made. 



Page 59. 

John i. 6. 

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 


Page 63. 

John i. 9. 

That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world. 


Page 68. 

John i. 9. 

That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world. 


Page 71. 

John i. 11. 

He came unto His own, and His own received Him not. 


Page 81. 

John i. 11. 

He came unto His own, and His own received Him not. 


Page 88. 

John i. 14. 

And the Word was made Flesh, and dwelt among us. 



Page 94. 

John i. 14. 

And ive beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten 
of the Father, fall of grace and truth. 


Page 102. 

John i. 15. 

John beareth witness of Him, andcrieth, saying, This is He 
of Whom I spake, saying, He that cometh after me is pre- 
ferred before me, for He was before me. 


Page 111. 

John I 16. 

And of His fulness have all we received, and grace for 


Page 120. 

John i. 18. 

No man hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, 
which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared 


Page 128. 

John i. 19. 

And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests 

and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? 



Page 138. 
John i. 28, 29. 

These things were done in Bethany beyond Jordan, where 
John was baptizing. The next day he seeth Jesus coming 
unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, Which 
taketh away the sin of the world. 


Page 148. 
John i. 35, 36, 37. 

Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples; 
and looking upon Jesus as He walked, he saith, Behold 
the Lamb of God. And the two disciples heard him speak, 
and they followed Jesus. 


Page 159. 
John i. 41, 42. 

He first findelh his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, 
We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, 
the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus. 


Page 166. 
John i. 43, 44.' 

The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and 
findelh Philip, and saith unto him, Follow Me. Now 
Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 



Page 173. 
John i. 49, 50. 
Nathanael answered and said auto Him, Rabbi, Thou art 
the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel. Jesus 
answered and said unto him, Because J said unto thee, 
I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest thou ? Thou shalt 
see greater things than these. 


Page 182. 

John ii. 4. 

Woman, what have J to do with thee? Mine hour is not 
yet come. 


Page 190. 

John ii. 11. 
This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee. 


Page 199. 

John ii. 23. 

Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, in the 
feast, many believed on Him. 



Page 207. 

John iii. 5. 

Verily I say unto thee, Except a man be bom of water and 
of the Spirit, lie cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. 



Page 215. 

John iii. 6. 

That which is born of the flesh is flesh: and that which is 
bom of the Spirit is spirit. 


Page 222. 

John iii. 12, 13. 

If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how 
shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly tilings ? And no 
man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down 
from heaven, even the Son of Man Which is in heaven. 


Page 229. 

John iii. 17. 

For God sent not His Son to condemn the world, but to 
save the world. 


Page 237. 

John iii. 22. 

And He came and His disciples into the land of Judcea,and 

there He tarried with them {and baptized). 


Page 246. 

John iii. 31. 

He that cometh from above is above all ; he that is of the 

earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth. 



Page 253. 

John iii. 35, 36. 

The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into 
His hand. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting 
life, and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life ; 
but the wrath of God abideth on him. 


Page 260. 

John iv. 13, 14. 

Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this 
water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the 
Water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the 
Water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of 
water springing up into everlasting Life. 


Page 273. 

John iv. 21, 22. 

Jesus saith tint ο her, Woman, believe Me, the hour comelh, 
when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jeru- 
salem, worship the Father. Ye worship ye know not 
what; we know what we worship, for salvation is of the 


Page 283. 

John iv. 28, 29. 

The woman then left her water pot, and went her way into 
the cify, and saith to the men, Come, see a Man which told 
me all things that ever I did; is not this the Christ? 



Page 292. 

John iv. 40—43. 

So when the Samaritans were come unto Him, they besought 
Him that He would tarry with them: and He abode there 
two days. And many more believed because of His own 
Word; and said unto the woman, Now we believe, not 
because of thy saying : for we have heard Him ourselves, 
and know that This is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the 
world. Now after two days He departed thence, and went 
into Galilee. 


Page 300. 

John iv. 54. v. 1. 

This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when He 
was come out of Judaea into Galilee. After this there was 
a feast of the Jews ; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 


Page 307. 

John v. 6, 7. 

Jesus sailh unto him, Wilt thou be made whole ? The im~ 
potent man answered Him, Tea, Sir, but I have no man, 
when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool. 


Page 314. 

John v. 14. 

After ward Jesus findeth him in the Temple, and said unto 
him, Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more, lest a 
worse thing come unto thee. 



Page 328. 

John v. 23, 24. 

For My Father jitdgeth no man, but hath committed all judg- 
ment to the Son ; that all men should honour the Son, even 
as they honour the Father. 


Page 343. 

John v. 31, 32. 

//' / bear witness of Myself, My witness is not true ; there is 
another that beareth tmtness of Me, and I know that the 
witness which he witnesseth of Me is true. 


Page 354. 
John v. 39, 40. 

Search the Scriptures ; for in them ye think ye have eternal 
life ; and they are they which testify of 3Ie. And ye will 
not come to Me that ye might have [eternal] life. 

ρ BIB 









I. They that are spectators of the heathen games, when 
they have learned that a distinguished athlete and winner of 
crowns is come from any quarter, run all together to view his 
wrestling, and all his skill and strength ; and you may see 
the whole theatre of many ten thousands, all there straining 
their eyes both of body and mind, that nothing of what 
is done may escape them. So again these same persons, if 
any admirable musician come amongst them, leave all that 
they had in hand, which often is necessary and pressing 
business, and mount the steps, and sit listening very atten- 
tively to the words and the accompaniments, and criticising 
the agreement of the two. This is what the many do. 

Again ; those who are skilled in rhetoric do just the same 
with respect to the sophists, for they too have their theatres, 
and their audience, and clappings of hands, and noise, and 
closest criticism of what is said. 

And if in the case of rhetoricians, musicians, and athletes^ 
people sit in the one case to look on, in the other to see at 
once and to listen with such earnest attention ; what zeal, 
what earnestness ought ye in reason to display, when it is no 
musician or debater who now comes forward to a trial of 
skill, but when a man is speaking from heaven, and utters a. 


2 Of the manner of St. John's appearing. 

Homtl. voice plainer than thunder? for he haspervaded the whole earth 
— : — with the sound ; and occupied and filled it, not by the loud- 
ness of the cry, but by moving his tongue with the grace of 

And what is wonderful, this sound, great as it is, is neither 
a harsh nor an unpleasant one, but sweeter and more delightful 
than all harmony of music, and with more skill to soothe ; 
and besides all this, most holy, and most awful, and full of 
mysteries so great, and bringing with it goods so great, that 
if men were exactly and with ready mind to receive and 
keep them, they could no longer be mere men nor remain 
upon the earth, but would take their stand above all the 
things of this life, and having adapted themselves to the 
condition of angels, would dwell on earth just as if it were 

'2. For the son of thunder, the beloved of Christ, the pillar of 

the Churches throughout the world, who holds the keys of 

heaven, who drank the cup of Christ, and was baptized with 

His baptism, who lay upon his Master's bosom with much 

1 •χλ}}π• confidence 1 , this man comes forward to us now; not as an 

σ1αί - actor of a play, not hiding his head with a mask, (for he hath 

■οκζίβαν another sort of words to speak,) nor mounting a platform 2 , 

nor striking the stage with his foot, nor dressed out with 

apparel of gold, but he enters wearing a robe of incon- 

Rom. ceivable beauty. For he will appear before us having put on 

Gal! 3' Christ, having his beautiful feet shod with the preparation of 

27• the Gospel of peace; wearing a girdle not about his waist, 

15. ' but about his loins, not made of scarlet leather nor daubed 

£»•'» outside 3 with gold, but woven and composed of truth itself. 

w Now will he appear before us, not acting a part, (lor with 

him there is nothing counterfeit, nor fiction, nor fable,) but 

with unmasked head he proclaims to us the truth unmasked; 

not making the audience believe him other than he is by 

carriage, by look, by voice, needing for the delivery of his 

message no instruments of music, as harp, lyre, or any other 

the like, for he effects all with his tongue, uttering a voice 

which is sweeter and more profitable than that of any 

harper or any music. All heaven is his stage ; his theatre, 

the habitable world; his audience, all angels; and of men as 

many as are angels already, or desire to become so, for none 

Why men should be earnest hearers. 3 

but these can hear that harmony aright, and shew it forth by Pri 

their works; all the rest, like little children who hear, but 
what they hear understand not, from their anxiety about 
sweetmeats and childish playthings ; so they too, being in 
mirth and luxury, and living only for wealth and power and 
sensuality, hear sometimes what is said, it is true, but shew 
forth nothing great or noble in their actions through fasten- 
ing 1 themselves for good to the clay of the brickmaking. l «ξ**η• 
By this Apostle stand the powers from above, marvelling at 
the beauty of his soul, and his understanding, and the bloom 
of that virtue by which he drew unto him Christ Himself, 
and obtained the grace of the Spirit. For he hath made 
ready his soul, as some well-fashioned and jewelled lyre 
with strings of gold, and yielded it for the utterance of 
something great and sublime to the Spirit. 

[3.] Seeing then it is no longer the fisherman the son of (2.) 
Zebedee, but He who knoweth the deep things of God i2 i°o.' 
the Holy Ghost I mean, that striketh this lyre, let us 
hearken accordingly. For he will say* nothing to us as a 
man, but what he saith, he will say from the depths of the 
Spirit, from those secret things which before they came to pass 
the very Angels knew not ; since they too have learned by 
the voice of John with us, and by us, the things which we 
know. And this hath another Apostle declared, saying, To Eph. 3, 
the intent that unto the principalities and powers might he 
known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God, If then 
principalities, and powers, and Cherubim, and Seraphim, 
learned these things by the Church, it is very clear that they 
were exceedingly earnest in listening to this teaching; and 
even in this we have been not a little honoured, that the 
Angels learned things which before they knew not with us; 
I do not at present speak of their learning by us also. Let 
us then shew much silence and orderly behaviour; not to- 
day only, nor during the day on which we are hearers, but 
during all our life, since it is at all times good to hear Him. 
For if we long to know what is going on in the palace, what, 
for instance, the king has said, what he has done, what 
counsel he is taking concerning his subjects, though in 
truth these things are for the most part nothing to us ; much 
more is it desirable to hear what God hath said, especially 

Β 2 

4 77m/ it is The Holy Spirit Who speaketh. 

HoMiL.when all concerns us. And all this will this man tell us 

τ • exactly, as being a friend of the King Himself, or rather, as 

having Him speaking within himself, and from Him hearing 

John ΐδ, all things which He heareth from the Father. I have called 

,5, you friends, He saith,/or all things that I have heard of My 

Father, I have made known unto you, 

[4.] As then we should all run together if we saw one 

ι^ ίββ ν, from above bend down on a sudden 1 from the height of 

E° mP H heaven, promising to describe exactly all things there, even 

e!v. i.'so let us be disposed now. Tt is from thence that this Man 

29 ' speaketh to us; He is not of this world, as Christ Himself 

Johnio, d ec l a veth, Ye are not of the world, and He hath speaking 

within him the Comforter, the Omnipresent, Who knoweth 

the things of God as exactly as the soul of man knoweth 

what belongs to herself, the Spirit of holiness, the righteous 

Spirit, the guiding Spirit, which leads men by the hand to 

heaven, which gives them other eyes, fitting them to see 

things to come as though present, and giving them even in 

the flesh to look into things heavenly. To Him then let us 

"-<re7,\h yield ourselves during all our life 2 in much tranquillity. 

ψταξίχω. l t none c jull, none sleepy, none sordid, enter here and 

μίν την 7 x 

ηηχΐΛ*. tarry ; but let us remove ourselves to heaven, for there He 
speaketh these things to those who are citizens there. And 
if we tarry on earth, we shall gain nothing great from thence. 
For the words of John are nothing to those who do not 
desire to be freed from this swinish life, just as the things of 
this world to him are nothing. The thunder amazes our 

3 ϋσνμο». souls, having sound without significance 3 ; but this man's 
voice troubles none of the faithful, yea, rather releases them 
from trouble and confusion ; it amazes the devils only, and 
those who are their slaves. Therefore that we may know 
how it amazes them, let us preserve deep silence, both 
external and mental, but especially the latter; for what 
advantage is it that the mouth be hushed, if the soul is 
disturbed and full of tossing ? I look for that calm which is 
of the mind, of the soul, since it is the hearing of the soul 
which I require. Let then no desire of riches trouble us, 
no lust of glory, no tyranny of anger, nor the crowd of other 
passions besides these; for it is not possible for the ear, 
except it be cleansed, to perceive as it ought the sublimity 

The necessity of preparation for hearing. 5 

of the things spoken; nor rightly to understand the awful Pref. 
and unutterable nature of these mysteries, and all other 
virtue which is in these divine oracles. If a man cannot 
learn well a melody on pipe or harp, unless he in every way 
strain his attention ; how shall one, who sits as a listener to 
sounds mystical, be able to hear with a careless soul? 

[5.] Wherefore Christ Himself exhorted, saying, Give (3.) 
not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your Matt * 7 > 
pearls before swine. He called these words pearls, though 
in truth they be much more precious than they, because 
we have no substance more precious than that. For this 
reason too He is wont often to compare their sweet- 
ness to honey, not that so much only is the measure of their 
sweetness, but because amongst us there is nothing sweeter. 
Now, to shew that they very exceedingly surpass the nature 
of precious stones, and the sweetness of any honey, hear the 
prophet speaking concerning them, and declaring this supe- 
riority; More to be desired are they, he saith, than gold and Vs. 19, 
much precious stone ; siveeter are they also titan honey and 10 ' 
the honeycomb. But to those (only) who are in health; 
wherefore he has added, For thy servant keepeth them. 
And again in another place calling them sweet he has 
added, to my throat. For he saith, How sweet are thy words Pa. i]9, 
unto my throat. And again he insisteth on the superiority, 103, 
saying, Above honey and the honeycomb to my mouth. For 
he was in very sound health. And let not us either come nigh 
to these while we are sick, but when we have healed our soul, 
so receive the food that is offered us.. 

It is for this reason that, after so long a preface, I have 
not yet attempted to fathom 1 these expressions (of St. John), ' *«<W 
in order that every one having laid aside all manner of in- 
firmity, as though he were entering into heaven itself, so 
may enter here pure, and freed from wrath and carefulness 
and anxiety of this life, of all other passions. For it is not 
otherwise possible for a man to gain from hence any thing 
great, except he have first so cleansed anew his soul, And 
let no one say that the time to the coming communion 2 is 2 eW£s*>y 
short, for it is possible, not only in five days, but in one 
moment, to change the whole course of life. Tell me what 
is worse than a robber and a murderer, is not this the ex- 

6 The need of an earnest Will. 

HoMiL.tremest kind of wickedness ? Yet such an one arrived 

— - — straight at the summit of excellence, and passed into Para- 
dise itself, not needing days, nor half a day, but one little 
moment. So that a man may change suddenly, and become 
gold instead of clay. For since what belongs to virtue and 
to vice is not by nature, the change is easy, as beiug in- 

Is. 1,19. dependent of any necessity. If ye be trilling and obedient, 
He saith, ye shall eat the good of the land. Seest thou that 
there needs the will only ? will — not the common wishing of 
the multitude — but earnest will. For I know that all are 
wishing to fly up to heaven even now; but it is neces- 
sary to shew forth the wish by works. The merchant too 
wishes to get rich ; but he doth not allow his wish to stop 
with the thought of it ; no, he fits out a ship, and gets 
together sailors, and engages a pilot, and furnishes the vessel 
with all other stores, and borrows money, and crosses the 
sea, and goes away into a strange land, and endures many 
dangers, and all the rest which they know who sail the sea. 
So too must we shew our will ; for we also sail a voyage, not 
from land to land, but from earth to heaven. Let us then so 
order our reason, that it be serviceable to steer our upward 
course, and our sailors that they be obedient to it, and let 
our vessel be stout, that it be not swamped amidst the 
reverses and despondencies of this life, nor be lifted up by 
the blasts of vainglory, but be a fast and easy vessel. If so 
Ave order our ship, and so our pilot and our crew, we shall 
sail with a fair wind, and we shall draw down to ourselves 
the Son of God, the true Pilot, Who will not leave our bark 
to be engulphed, but, though ten thousand winds may blow, 
will rebuke the winds and the sea, and instead of raging 
waves, make a great calm. 
(4•) [6.] Having therefore ordered yourselves, so come to 
our next assembly, if at least it be at all an object of desire 
to you to hear somewhat to your advantage, and lay up what 

Mat. 13, is said in your souls. But let not one of you be the way- 
' side, none the stony ground, none the full of thorns. Let 
us make ourselves fallow lands. For so shall we (the 
preachers) put in the seed with gladness, when we see the 
land clean, but if stony or rough, pardon us if we like not to 
labour in vain. For if we shall leave off sowing and begin to 

Heathen spectacles to be avoided. 7 

cut up thorns, surely to cast seed into ground unwrought were Pref. 
extreme folly. 

It is not meet that he who has the advantage of such 
hearing be partaker of the table of devils. For what* c ™• 
fellowship hath righteousness icith unrighteousness? Thou 
stanclest listening to John, and learning the things of the 
Spirit by him; and dost thou after this depart to listen to 
harlots speaking vile things, and acting viler, and to effemi- 
nates cuffing one another ? How wilt thou be able to be fairly 
cleansed, if thou wallowest in such mire ? Why need I reckon 
in detail all the indecency that is there? All there is laughter, 
all is shame, all disgrace, revilings and mockings, all 
abandonment, all destruction. See, I forewarn and charge 
you all. Let none of those who enjoy the blessings of this 
table destroy his own soul by those pernicious spectacles. 
All that is said and done there is a pageant of Satan. But 
ye who have been initiated know what manner of covenants 
ye made with us, or rather ye made with Christ when He 
guided you into His mysteries, what ye spoke to Him, what 
speech ye had with Him concerning Satan's pageant l ; how ' <rep«w 
with Satan and his angels ye renounced this also, and 
promised that you would not so much as cast a glance 2 that 2 *«e*- 
way. There is then no slight ground for fear, lest, by £ " 
becoming careless of such promises, one should render him- 
self unworthy of these mysteries. 

[7.] Seest thou not how in kings' palaces it is not those 
who have offended, but those who have been honourably 
distinguished 3 , that are called to share especial favour 4 , and 3 ««**;- 
are numbered among the king's friends. A messenger has ζ-"^. 
come to us from heaven, sent by God Himself, to speak withf« 
us on certain necessary matters, and you leave hearing His 
will, and the message He sends to you, and sit listening to 
stage-players. What thunderings, what bolts from heaven, 
does not this conduct deserve ! For as it is not meet to 
partake of the table of devils, so neither is it of the listening 
to devils ; nor to be present with filthy raiment at that 
glorious Table, loaded with so many good things, which God 
Himself hath provided. Such is its power, that it can raise 
us at once to heaven, if only we approach it with a sober 
mind. For it is not possible that he who is continually 

8 Tlie power of the word of God. 

Homil. under the influence of 1 the words of God, can remain in thio 
present low condition, but he needs must presently take 


fttnt wing, and fly away to the land which is above, and light on 
the infinite treasures of good things ; which may it be that 
we all attain to, through the grace and lovingkindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom and with Whom be glory 
to the Father and the All-holy Spirit, now and ever, and 
world without end. Amen. 


John i. 1 . 
In the bey inning teas the Word. 

Were John about to converse with us, and to say to us 
words of his own, we needs must describe his family, his 
country, and his education. But since it is not he, but God 
by him, that speaks to mankind, it seems to me superfluous 
and distracting to enquire into these matters. And yet even 
thus it is not superfluous, but even very necessary. For 
when you have learned who he was, and from whence, who 
his parents, and what his character, and then hear his voice 
and all his heavenly wisdom 2 , then you shall know right 1 $>*■*■ 
well that these (doctrines) belong not to him, but to the ***'** 
Divine power stirring his soul. 

From what country 2 then was he ? From no country ; but ~ ***ξ*- 
from a poor village, and from a land little esteemed, and 
producing no good thing. For the Scribes speak evil of 
Galilee, saying, Search and look, for out of Galilee ariseth John 7, 
no prophet. And " the Israelite indeed" speaks ill of it, 
saying, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth ? And 
being of this land, he was not even of any remarkable place in 
it, but of one not even distinguished by name. Of this he was % 
and his father a poor fisherman, so poor that he took his sons 
to the same employment. Now you all know that no workman 
will choose to bring up his son to succeed him in his trade, 
unless poverty press him very hard, especially where the 
trade is a mean one. But nothing can be poorer, meaner, 
no, nor more ignorant, than fishermen. Yet even among 
them there are some greater, some less; and even there our 
Apostle occupied the lower rank, for he did not take his prey 

a One Ms. ' not even distinguished by name had he not been of it, His, &c.' 

10 Of the marvellous nature of St. John's teaching. 

HoMiL.from the sea, but passed his time on a certain little lake. 

'■ — And as he was engaged by it with his father and his brother 

James, and they mending their broken nets, a thing which 
of itself marked extreme poverty, so Christ called him. 

As for worldly instruction, we may learn from these facts 

that he had none at all of it. Besides, Luke testifies this 

Acts 4, w hen he writes not only that he was ignorant 1 , but that he 

* haw was absolutely unlettered 2 . As was likely. For one who 

-ίγ ξ άμ• wag g0 poor, oever coming into the public assemblies, nor 

falling in with men of respectability, but as it were nailed to 

his fishing, or even if he ever did meet any one, conversing 

with fishmongers and cooks, how, I say, was he likely to be 

in a state better than that of the irrational animals ? how 

could he help imitating the very dumbness of his fishes ? 

[2.] This fisherman then, whose business was about lakes, 
and nets, and fish ; this native of Bethsaida of Galilee ; this son 
of a poor fisherman, yes, and poor to the last degree ; this 
man ignorant, and to the last degree of ignorance too, who 
never learned letters either before or after he accompanied 
Christ ; let us see what he utters, and on what matters he 
converses with us. Is it of things in the field ? Is it of 
things in rivers ? On the trade in fish ? For these things, 
perhaps, one expects to hear from a fisherman. But fear ye 
not ; we shall hear nought of these ; but we shall hear of 
things in heaven, and what no one ever learned before this 
man. For, as might be expected of one who speaks from the 
very treasures of the Spirit, he is come bringing to us sublime 
doctrines, and the best way of life and wisdom, [as though 
just arrived from the very heavens ; yea, rather such as it 
was not likely that all even there should know, as I said 
3 p. 3. before 3 .] Do these things belong to a fisherman ? Tell me. 
one Ms. ^° [ ^ e y belong to a rhetorician at all ? To a sophist 
Ben.] or philosopher ? To every one trained in the wisdom of 
the Gentiles ? By no means. The human soul is simply 
unable thus to philosophise on that pure and blessed 
nature ; on the powers that come next to it ; on immor- 
tality and endless life ; on the nature of mortal bodies 
which shall hereafter be immortal ; on punishment and 
the judgment to come; on the enquiries that shall be as 
to deeds and words, as to thoughts and imaginations. It 

The follies of the ancient philosophers. 11 

cannot tell what is man, what the world ; what is man John 
indeed, and what lie who seems to be man, but is not ; what — '~- L - 

is the nature of virtue, what of vice. 

[3.] Some of these things indeed the disciples of Plato (2.) 
and Pythagoras enquired into. Of the other philosophers 
we need make no mention at all ; they have all on this point 
been so excessively ridiculous ; and those who have been 
among them in greater esteem than the rest, and who have 
been considered the leading men in this science, are so more 
than the others ; and they have composed and written some- 
what on the subject of polity and doctrines, and in all have 
been more shamefully ridiculous than children. For they 
have spent their whole life in making women common to all, 
in overthrowing the very order of life 1 , in doing away the 1 /*'" 
honour of marriage, and in making other the like ridiculous 
laws. As for doctrines on the soul, there is nothing 
excessively shameful that they have left unsaid ; asserting 
that the souls of men become flies, and gnats, and bushes % 
and that God Himself is a soul ; with some other the like 

And not this alone in them is worthy of blame, but so is 
also their ever-shifting current of words ; for since they 
assert every thing on uncertain and fallacious arguments, 
they are like men carried hither and thither in Euripus, and 
never remain in the same place. 

Not so this fisherman ; for all he saith is infallible ; and 
standing as it were upon a rock, he never shifts his ground. 
For since he has been thought worthy to be in the most 
secret places, and has the Lord of all speaking within him, 
he is subject to nothing that is human. But they, like persons 
who are not held worthy even in a dream 2 to set foot in the'*"^ 
king's palace, but who pass their time in the forum with 
other men, guessing from their own imagination at what they 
cannot see, have erred a great error, and, like blind or 
drunken men in their wandering, have clashed against each 
other ; and not only against each other, but against them- 
selves, by continually changing their opinion, and that ever 
on the same matters. 

a Empedocles said this. Vid. Diog. θάμνο; ?' olm'ot π κ») Ιξ άλο$ ϊμζυξο$ 
Laert. viii. 2. \χ6ύί. 

"\ύη γύξτοτ ιγω ywopw χουξόί τίκ'ζνιη 

12 Of Plato and Pythagoras. 

Hohxl. [4.] But this unlettered man, the ignorant, the native of 
— — Bethsaida, the son of Zebedee, (though the Greeks mock ten 
thousand times at the rusticity of the names, I shall not the 
less speak them with the greater boldness.) For the more 
barbarous his nation seems to them, and the more he seems 
removed from Grecian discipline, so much the brighter does 
what we have with us appear. For when a barbarian and 
an untaught person utters things which no man on earth 
ever knew, and does not only utter, (though if this were 
the only thing it were a great marvel,) but besides this, 
affords another and a stronger proof that what he says is 
divinely inspired, namely, the convincing all his hearers 
through all time ; who will not wonder at the power that 
dwells in him ? Since this is, as I said, the strongest proof 
that he lays down no laws of his own. This barbarian then, 
with his writing of the Gospel, has occupied all the habitable 
world. With his body he has taken possession of the centre 
of Asia, where of old philosophised all of the Grecian party, 
1 {it - shining forth in the midst of his foes, dispersing 1 their dark- 
ing' ness, and breaking down the stronghold of devils : but in 
soul he has retired to that place which is fit for one who has 
done such things. 

[5.] And as for the writings of the Greeks, they are all 
put out and vanished, but this man's shine brighter day by 
day. For from the time that he (was) and the other fishermen, 
since then the (doctrines) of Pythagoras and of Plato, which 
seemed before to prevail, have ceased to be spoken of, and 
most men do not know them even by name. Yet Plato was, 
they say, the invited companion of kings, had many friends, 
and sailed to Sicily. And Pythagoras occupied Magna 
*νη•>μ*• Graecia 2 , and practised there ten thousand kinds of sorcery. 
*£λλΛΪ* For t0 converse with oxen, (which they say he did,) was 
nothing else but a piece of sorcery. As is most clear from 
this. He that so conversed with brutes did not in any thing 
benefit the race of men, but even did them the greatest wrong. 
Yet surely, the nature of men was better adapted for the 
reasoning of philosophy ; still he did, as they say, converse 
with eagles and oxen, using sorceries. For he did not make 
their irrational nature rational, (this was impossible to man,) 
but by his magic tricks he deceived the foolish. And 

Wfiy the doctrines of Si. John are more lasting. 13 

neglecting to teach men any thing useful, he taught that John 
they might as well eat the heads of those who begot them, as 

beans. And he persuaded those who associated with him, 
that the soul of their teacher had actually been at one time a 
bush, at another a girl, at another a fish. 

Are not these things with good cause extinct, and vanished 
utterly? With good cause, and reasonably. But not so the 
words of him who was ignorant and unlettered ; for Syrians, 
and Egyptians, and Indians, and Persians, and Ethiopians, 
and ten thousand other nations, translating into their own 
tongues the doctrines introduced by him, barbarians though 
they be, have learned to philosophise. I did not therefore (3•) 
idly say that all the world has become his theatre. For he 
did not leave those of his own kind, and waste his labour on 
the irrational creatures, (an act of excessive vainglory and 
extreme folly,) but being clear of this as well as of other 
passions, he was earnest on one point only, that all the 
world might learn somewhat of the things which might 
profit it, and be able to translate it from earth to heaven. 

For this reason too, he did not hide his teaching in mist 
and darkness, as they did who threw obscurity of speech, 
like a kind of veil, around the mischiefs laid up within. 
But this man's doctrines are clearer than the sunbeams, 
wherefore they have been unfolded 1 to all men throughout 1 *"'^ 6 '• 
the world. For he did not teach as Pythagoras did, com- 
manding those who came to him to be silent for five years, 
or to sit like senseless stones ; neither did he invent fables 
defining the universe to consist of numbers ; but casting 
away all this devilish trash and mischief, he diffused such 
simplicity through his words, that all he said was plain, not 
only to wise men, but also to women and youths. For he 
was persuaded that the words were true and profitable to all 
that should hearken to them. And all time after him is his 
witness; since he has drawn to him all the world, and has 
freed our life when we have listened to these words from all 
monstrous display of wisdom; wherefore we who hear them 
would prefer rather to give up our lives, than the doctrines 
by him delivered to us. 

[6.] From this then, and from every other circumstance, 
it is plain, that nothing of this man's is human, but divine 

init & 

14 That the old philosophy was mere vainglory. 

HoMiL.and heavenly are the lessons which come to us by this divine 

IT • soul. For we shall observe not sounding sentences, nor 

magnificent diction, nor excessive and useless order and 
arrangement of words and sentences, (these things are far 
from all true wisdoin,) but strength invincible and divine, 
and irresistible force of right doctrines, and a rich supply of 
unnumbered good things. For their over-care about expres- 
sion was so excessive, so worthy of mere sophists, or rather 
not even of sophists, but of silly striplings, that even their 
own chief philosopher introduces his own master as greatly 
ashamed of this art, and as saying to the judges, that what they 
hear from him shall be spoken plainly and without premedi- 
tation, not tricked out rhetorically nor ornamented with (fine) 
sentences and words; since, says he, it cannot surely be 
becoming, Ο men, that one at my age should come before you 
ipiat. like a lad inventing speeches *. And observe the extreme 
So P cr.' absurdity of the thing; what he has described his master 
}• in avoiding as disgraceful, unworthy of philosophy and work 
for lads, this above ail he himself has cultivated. So entirely 
were they given up to mere love of distinction. 

And as, if you uncover those sepulchres which are whitened 
without you will find them full of corruption, and stench, 
and rotten bones ; so too the doctrines of the philosopher, if 
you strip them of their flowery diction, you will see to be 
full of much abomination, especially when he philosophises 
on the soul, which he both honours and speaks ill of without 
measure. And this is the snare of the devil, never to keep 
due proportion, but by excess on either hand to lead aside 
those who are entangled by it into evil speaking. At one 
time he says, that the soul is of the substance of God ; at 
another, after having exalted it thus immoderately and im- 
piously, he exceeds again in a different way, and treats it 
with insult, making it pass into swine and asses, and other 
animals of yet less esteem than these. 

But enough of this ; or rather even this is out of measure. 
For if it were possible to learn any thing profitable from 
these things, we must have been longer occupied with them ; 
but if it be only to observe their indecency and absurdity, 
more than requisite has been said by us already. We will 
therefore leave their fables, and attach ourselves to our own 

Why it is said that the Word was in the beginning. 15 

doctrines, which have been brought to us from above by John 
the tongue of this fisherman, and which have nothing human I * 1 ' . 
in them. 

[7. ] Let us then bring forward the words, having reminded 
you now, as I exhorted you at the first, earnestly to attend 
to what is said. What then does this Evangelist say im- 
mediately on his outset ? 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with ι ver. I. 
God. Seest thou the great boldness and power of the words, 
how he speaks nothing doubting nor conjecturing, but de- 
claring all things plainly? For this is the teacher's part, not 
to waver in any thing that he says, since if he who is to be a 
guide to the rest require another person who shall be able to 
establish him with certainty, he would be rightly ranked not 
among teachers, but among disciples. 

But if any one say, " What can be the reason that he has neg- 
lected the first cause, and spoken to us at once concerning the 
second?" we shall decline to speak of first and second, for 
the Divinity is above number, and the, succession of times. 
Wherefore we decline these expressions; but we confess that 
the Father is from none, and that the Son is begotten of the 
Father. Yes, it may be said, but why then does he leave (4.) 
the Father, and speak concerning the Son? Why? because 
the former was manifest to all, if not as Father, at least as 
God; but the Only-Begotten was not known; and there- 
fore with reason did he immediately from the very beginning 
hasten to implant the knowledge of Him in those who knew 
Him not. 

Besides, he has not been silent as to the Father in his 
writings on these points. And observe, I beg of you, his 
spiritual wisdom. He knows that men most honour the 
eldest of beings Which was before all, and account this to be 
God. Wherefore from this point first he makes his begin- 
ning, and as he advances, declares that God is, and does not 
like Plato assert, sometimes that He is intellect, sometimes 
that He is soul; for these things are far removed from that 
divine and unmixed Nature which has nothing common with 
us, but is separated from any fellowship with created things, 
I mean as to substance, though not as to relation. 

And for this reason he calls Him The Word. For since 

ιό Ή ow in speaking of Tiie Word,he speaks of The Father also. 

HoMiL.he is about to teach that this Word is the only-begotten Son 
IL of God, in order that no one may imagine that His gene- 
ration is passible, by giving Him the appellation of The 
Word, he anticipates and removes beforehand the evil sus- 
picion, shewing that the Son is from the Father, and that 
without His suffering (change). 

[8.] Seest thou then that as Ϊ said, he has not been silent as 
to the Father in his words concerning the Son ? And if these 
instances are not sufficient fully to explain the whole matter, 
marvel not, for our argument is God, Whom it is impossible 
to describe, or to imagine worthily; hence this man no where 
assigns the name of His essence, (for it is not possible to say 
what God is, as to essence,) but every where he declares 
Him to us by His workings. For this Word one may see 
shortly after called Light, and the Light in turn named Life. 
Although not for this reason only did he so name Him ; 
this was the first reason, and the second was because He was 
John I5 f about to declare to us the things of the Father. For all 
lb ' things, He saith, that I have heard from My Father, I have 
made known unto you. He calls Him both Light and Life, 
for He hath freely given to us the light which proceeds from 
knowledge, and the life which follows it. In short, one 
name is not sufficient, nor two, nor three, nor more, to teach 
us what belongs to God. Bui we must be content to be 
able even by means of many to apprehend, though but 
obscurely, His attributes. 

And he has not called Him simply Word, but with the 
addition of the article, distinguishing Him from the rest in 
this way also. Seest thou then that Τ said not without cause 
that this Evangelist speaks to us from heaven ? Only see 
from the very beginning whither he has drawn up the soul, 
having given it wings, and has carried up with him the mind 
of his hearers. For having set it higher than all the things 
of sense, than earth, than sea, than heaven, he leads it by the 
hand above the very angels, above cherubim and seraphim, 
above thrones and principalities and powers; in a word, 
persuades it to journey beyond all created things. 

[9.] What then? when he has brought us to such a height 
as this, is he in sooth able to stop us there ? By no means; 
but just as one by transporting into the midst of the sea a 

Whence arises in a hearer confusion of mind. 17 

person who was standing on the beach, and looking on cities, John 
and beaches, and havens, removes him indeed from the — '—^~ 
former objects, yet does not stay his sight any where, but 
brings him to a view without bound; so this Evangelist, 
having brought us above all creation, and escorted us towards 
the eternal periods which lie beyond it, leaves the sight 
suspended 1 , not allowing it to arrive at any limit upwards, as 1 ^"- 
indeed there is none. " ξ0ν 

For the intellect, having ascended to the beginning, en- 
quires what beginning ; and then finding the ' was 1 always 
outstripping its imagination, has no point at which to 
stay its thought ; but looking intently onwards, and being 
unable to cease at any point, it becomes wearied out, 
and turns back to things below. For this, was in the 
beginning, is nothing else than expressive of ever being and 
being infinitely. 

Seest thou true philosophy and divine doctrines ? Not like 
those of the Greeks, who assign times, and say that some 
indeed of the gods are younger, some elder. There is * 
nothing of this with us. For if God Is, as certainly He 
Is, then nothing was before Him. If He is Creator of all 
things, He must be first ; if Master and Lord of all, then all, 
both creatures and ages, are after Him. 

[10.] I had desired to enter the lists yet on other difficulties, 
but perhaps our minds are wearied out ; when therefore I have 
advised you on those points which are useful 2 to us for the 2 al. ' to 
hearing, both of what has been said, and of what is yer to you 
be said, I again will hold my peace. What then are these 
points ? I know that many have become confused 3 by reason 2 ^• 
of the length of what has been spoken. Now this takes y J™ av ~ 
place when the soul is heavy laden with many burdens of 
this life. For as the eye when it is clear and transparent is 
keen-sighted also, and will not easily be tired in making out 
even the minutest bodies ; but when from some bad humour 
from the head having poured into it, or some smoke-like 
fumes having ascended to it from beneath, a kind of thick 
cloud is formed before the ball, this does not allow it clearly 
to perceive even any larger object ; so is naturally the 
case with the soul. For when it is purified, and has no 
passion to disturb it, it looks stedfastly to the fit objects of 

18 Tlie soul being one has not room for many desires. 

HoMiL.its regard; bat when, darkened by many passions, it loses 
— its proper excellence, then it is not easily able to be suf- 

ficient for any high thing, but soon is wearied, and falls 
back ; and turning aside to sleep and sloth, lets pass things 
that concern it with a view to excellence and the life thence 
arising, instead of receiving them with much readiness. 

[5.] And that you may not suffer this, (I shall not cease con- 
tinually thus to warn you,) strengthen your minds, that ye 
may not hear what the faithful among the Hebrews heard 
Heb. 5, from Paul. For to them he said that he had many things 
to say, and hard to be uttered ; not as though they were by 
nature such, but because, says he, ye are dull of hearing. 
For it is the nature of the weak and infirm man to be 
confused even by few words as by many, and what is clear 
and easy he thinks hard to be comprehended. Let not 
any here be such an one, but having chased from him all 
worldly care, so let him hear these doctrines. 

For when the desire of money possesses the hearer, the 
desire of hearing cannot possess him as well; since the 
soul, being one, cannot suffice for many desires ; but one 
of the two is injured by the other, and, from division, 
becomes weaker as its rival prevails, and expends all upon 

And this is wont to happen in the case of children. 
When a man has only one, he loves that one exceedingly. 
But when he has become father of many, then also his 
dispositions of affection being divided become weaker. 

If this happens where there is the absolute rule and power 
of nature, and the objects beloved are akin one with another, 
what can we say as to that desire and disposition which is 
according to deliberate choice ; especially where these desires 
lie directly opposed to each other ; for the love of wealth is 
a thing opposed to the love of this kind of hearing. We 
enter heaven when we enter here ; not in place, I mean, 
but in disposition ; for it is possible for one who is on earth 
to stand in heaven, and to have vision of the things that 
are there, and to hear the words from thence. 

[11.] Let none then introduce the things of earth into 
heaven ; let no one standing here be careful about what is 
at his house. For he ought to bear with him, and to pre- 

Worldly thoughts must be excluded. 19 

serve, both at home and in his business, what he gains from John 
this place, not to allow it to be loaded with the burdens of — lil- 

house and market. Our reason for entering in to the chair 
of instruction is, that thence we may cleanse ourselves from 1 ^1/ rub 
the filth of the outer world ; but if we are likely even in this 
little space to be injured by things said or done without, it 
is better for us not to enter at all. Let no one then in the 
assembly be thinking about domestic matters, but let him at 
home be stirring with what he heard in the assembly. Let 
these things be more precious to us than any. These 
concern the soul, but those the body ; or rather what is said 
here concerns both body and soul. Wherefore let these 
things be our leading business, and all others but occasional 
employments ; for these belong both to the future and the 
present life, but the rest neither to the one nor the other, 
unless they be managed according to the law laid down for 
these. Since from these it is possible to learn not only 
what we shall hereafter be, and how we shall then live, but 
how we shall rightly direct this present life also. 

For this house is 2 a spiritual surgery, that whatever wounds 2 al. ' is 
we may have received without, here 3 we may heal, not that3 a i # 
we may gather fresh ones to take with us hence. Yet if hence' 
we do not give heed to the Spirit speaking to us, we shall 
not only fail to clear ourselves of our former hurts, but shall 
get others in addition. 

Let us then with much earnestness attend to the book 
as it is being unfolded to us ; since if we learn exactly its 
first principles and fundamental doctrines 4 , we shall not 4 /*• 
afterwards require much close study, but after labouring a 
little at the beginnings shall be able, as Paul says, to instruct Rom.15, 
others also. For this Apostle is very sublime, abounding in 
many doctrines, and on these he dwells more than on other 

Let us not then be careless hearers. And this is the 
reason why we set them forth to you by little and little, so 
that all may be easily intelligible to you, and may not escape 
your memory. Let us fear then lest we come under the 
condemnation of that word which says, If I had not come John is, 

. 22 

and spoken unto them, they had not had sin. For what 
shall we be profited more than those who have not heard, 


20 The careless hearer worse than a beast. 

HoMiL.if even a fter hearing we go our way home bearing nothing 

1 — with us, but only wondering at what has been said. 

Allow us then to sow in good ground ; allow us, that you 
may draw us the more to you. If any man hath thorns, let 
him cast the fire of the Spirit amongst them. If any hath 
a hard and stubborn heart, let him by employing the same 
fire make it soft and yielding. If any by the wayside is 
trodden down by all kind of thoughts, let him enter into 
more sheltered places, and not lie exposed for those that 
will to invade for plunder : that so we may see your corn- 
fields waving with corn. Besides, if we exercise such care 
as this over ourselves, and apply ourselves industriously to 
this spiritual hearing, if not at once yet by degrees, we shall 
surely be freed from all the cares of life. 

Let us therefore take heed that it be not said of us, that 
Ps.54,8. our 1 ears are those of a deaf adder. For tell me, in what 
\ JT • > does a hearer of this kind differ from a beast ? and how 
could he be otherwise than more irrational than any ir- 
rational animal, who does not attend when God is speaking? 
2 a i. 'to Ami if to be well-pleasing 2 to God is really to be a man, 
thank- what else but a beast can he be who will not even hear 
lul ' how he may succeed in this? Consider then what a mis- 
3 al. ' to fortune it would be for us to fall down 3 of our own accord 
iange from (the nature of) men to (that of) beasts, when Christ is 
willing of men to make us equal to Angels. For to serve 
the belly, to be possessed by the desire of riches, to be 
given to anger, to bite, to kick, become not men, but beasts. 
Nay, even the beasts have each, as one may say, one single 
passion, and that by nature. But man, when he has cast 
away the dominion of reason, and torn himself from the 
commonwealth of God's devising, gives himself up to all the 
passions, is no longer merely a beast, but a kind of many- 
formed motley monster; nor has he even the excuse from 
nature, for all his wickedness proceeds from deliberate choice 
and determination. 

May we never have cause to suspect this of the Church of 
Christ. Indeed, we are concerning you persuaded of better 
things, and such as belong to salvation ; but the more we 
are so persuaded, the more careful we will be not to desist 
from words of caution. In order that having mounted to 

Better hopes for the audience. 21 

the summit of excellencies, we may obtain the promised John 
goods. Which may it come to pass that we all attain to, * 
through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory world without end. Amen. 


John i. I. 
In the beginning was the Word. 

On the subject of attention in hearkening it is superfluous 
to exhort you any more, so quickly have you shewn by your 
actions the effects of my advice. For your manner of 
running together, your attentive postures, the thrusting one 
another in your eagerness to get the inner places, where my 
voice may more clearly be heard by you, your unwillingness 
to retire from the press until this spiritual assembly be 
dissolved, the clapping of hands, the murmurs of applause ; 
in a word, all things of this kind may be considered proofs 
of the fervour of your souls, and of your desire to hear. So 
that on this point it is superfluous to exhort you. One 
thing, however, it is necessary for us to bid and entreat, that 
you continue to have the same zeal, and manifest it not here 
only, but that also when you are at home, you converse man 
with wife, and father with son, concerning these matters. 
And say somewhat of yourselves, and require somewhat in 
return from them ; and so all contribute to this excellent 
banquet \ 

For let no one tell me that our children ought not to be 

occupied with these things ; they ought not only to be 

occupied with them, but to be zealous about them only. And 

although on account of your infirmity I do not assert this, 

ι a i. nor take them away from their worldly learning 1 , just as I do 

1 stud >'' not draw you either from your civil business; yet of these 

sewn days I claim that you dedicate one to the common 

Lord of us all. For is it not a strange thing that we should 

bid our domestics slave for us all their time, and ourselves 

apportion not even a little of our leisure to God ; and this 

a 'ίξανον, a feast to which all the guests contributed. 

Children especially need spiritual instruction. 23 

too when all our service adds nothing to Him, (for the John 
Godhead is incapable of want,) but turns out to our own 

advantage ? And yet when you take your children into the 
theatres, you allege neither their mathematical lessons, nor 
any thing of the kind; but if it be required to gain or collect 
any thing spiritual, you call the matter a waste of time. 
And how shall you not anger God, if you find leisure and 
assign a season for every thing else, and yet think it a 
troublesome and unseasonable thing for your children to 
take in hand what relates to Him ? 

Do not so, brethren, do not so. It is this very age that 
most of all needs the hearing these things ; for from its 
tenderness it readily stores up what is said ; and what 
children hear is impressed as a seal on the wax of their 
minds. Besides, it is then that their life begins to incline to 
vice or virtue; and if from the very gates 1 and portals one^l. <be- 
lead them away from iniquity, and guide them by the hand to S inmn g 
the best road, he will fix them for the time to come in a sort 
of habit and nature, and they will 'not, even if they be 
willing, easily change for the worse, since this force of 
custom draws them to the performance of good actions. So 
that we shall see them become more worthy of respect than 
those who have grown old, and they will be more useful in 
civil matters, displaying in youth the qualities of the aged. 

For, as I before said, it cannot be that they who enjoy the 
hearing of such things as these, and who are in the company 
of such an Apostle, should depart without receiving some 
great and remarkable advantage, be it man, woman, or 
youth, that partakes of this table. If we train by words 
the animals which we have, and so tame them, how much 
more shall we effect this with men by this spiritual teach- 
ing, when there is a wide difference between the remedy 
in each case, and the subject healed as well. For neither 
is there so much fierceness in us as in the brutes, since 
theirs is from nature, ours from choice ; nor is the 
power of the words the same, for the power of the first 
is that of the human intellect, the power of the second is 
that of the might and grace of the Spirit. Let then the man 

b i. e. Man is more tractable than brutes, the words of the Spirit more powerful 
than words of reasoD. 

24 The word of God the safeguard of the soul. 

HoMiL.who despairs of himself consider the tame animals, and he 

— shall no longer be thus affected; let him come continually 

to this house of healing, let him hear at all times the laws of 
the Spirit, and on retiring home let him write down in his 
mind the things which he has heard ; so shall his hopes be 
good and his confidence great, as he feels his progress by 
experience. For when the devil sees the law of God written 
in the soul, and the heart become tablets to write it on, he 
will not approach any more. Since wherever the king's 
writing is, not engraved on a pillar of brass, but stamped by 
the Holy Ghost on a mind loving God, and bright with 
abundant grace, that (evil one) will not be able even to look at 
it, but from afar will turn his back upon us. For nothing is so 
terrible to him and to the thoughts which are suggested by 
him as a mind careful about Divine matters, and a soul which 
ever hangs over this fountain. Such an one can nothing 
present annoy, even though it be displeasing ; nothing puff 
up or make proud, even though it be favourable ; but amidst 
all this storm and surge it will even enjoy a great calm. 

[•2.] For confusion arises within us, not from the nature of 
circumstances, but from the infirmity of our minds; for if we 
were thus affected by reason of what befals us, then, (as we 
all sail the same sea, and it is impossible to escape waves 
and spray,) all men must needs be troubled ; but if there are 
some who stand beyond the influence of the storm and the 
raging sea, then it is clear that it is not circumstances which 
make the storm, but the condition of our own mind. If 
therefore we so order the mind thai it may bear all things 
contentedly, we shall have no storm nor even a ripple, but 
always a clear calm. 

After professing that I should say nothing on these points, 
I know not how I have been carried away into such a length 
of exhortation. Pardon my prolixity; for I fear, yes, I 
greatly fear lest this zeal of ours should ever become weaker. 
Did I feel confident respecting it, I would not now have said 
to you any thing on these matters, since it is sufficient to 
make all things easy to you. But it is time in what follows 
to proceed to the matters proposed for consideration to-day ; 
that you may not come weary to the contest. For we have con- 
tests against the enemies of the truth, against those who use 

Against those who denied the Eternity of the Word. 25 

every artifice to destroy the honour of the Son of God, or John 
rather their own. This remains for ever as it now is, nothing — '-—• 
lessened by the blaspheming tongue, but they, by seeking 
eagerly to pull down Him Whom they say they worship, fill 
their faces with shame and their souls with punishment. 

What then do they say when we assert what we have 
asserted? "That the words, In the beginning was the Word, 
do not denote eternity absolutely, for that this same expres- 
sion was used also concerning heaven and earth." What 
enormous shamelessness and irreverence ! I speak to thee 
concerning God, and dost thou bring the earth into the 
argument, and men who are of the earth ? At this rate, since 
Christ is called Son of God, and God, Man who is called 
Son of God must be God also. For, 7 have said, Ye ar£Ps.82,6. 
Gods, and all of you are children of the Most High. 
Wilt thou contend with the Only-Begotten concerning 
Sonship, and assert that in that respect He enjoys nothing 
more than thou ? " By no means," is the reply. And 
yet thou doest this even though thou say not so in words. 
" How ?" Because thou sayest that thou by grace art par- 
taker of the adoption, and He in like manner. For by 
saying that He is not Son by nature, thou only makest Him 
to be so by grace. 

However, let us see the proofs which they produce to us. 
In the beginning, it is said, God made the heaven and Gen. l, 
the earth, and the earth was invisible and unformed. And, 
There 6 ivas' a man of Ramathaim Zopliim. These are ι Sam. 
what they think strong arguments, and they are strong ; but 
it is to prove the correctness of the doctrines asserted by us, 
while they are utterly powerless to establish their blasphemy. 
For tell me, what has the word " was" in common with 
the word " made ?" What hath God in common with man ? 
Why dost thou mix what may not be mixed? Why con- 
found things which are distinct, why bring low what is above? 
In that place it is not the expression was only which 
denotes eternity, but that One was in the beginning. And 
that other, The Word was; for as the word " being," when 
used concerning man, only distinguishes present time, but 
when concerning God, denotes eternity 1 , so " was," when eve ' r and 
used respecting our nature, signifies to us past time, and tl | rou g h > 

•26 All created things have had a beginning, 

Homil. that too limited, but when respecting God it declares eternity. 
IIL it would have been enough then when one had heard the 
words " earth" and " man/' to imagine nothing more con- 
cerning them than what one may fitly think of a nature that 
came into being % for that which came to be, be it what it may, 
hath come to be either in time, or the age before time was, but 
the Son of God is above not only times, but all ages which were 
before, for He is the Creator and Maker of them, as the Apostle 
says, by Whom also He made the ages. Now the Maker 
necessarily is, before the thing made. Yet since some are so 
senseless, as even after this to have higher notions concern- 
ing creatures than is their due, by the expression He made, 
and by that other, " there was a man," he lays hold before- 
hand of the mind of his hearer, and cuts up all shameless- 
ness by the roots. For all that has been made, both heaven 
and earth, has been made in time, and has its beginning in 
time, and none of them is without beginning, as having been 
made : so that when you hear that " he made the earth," 

1 Λ and that " there was a man," you are trifling 1 to no purpose, 
ηο "' and weaving a tissue of useless folly. 

For I can mention even another thing by way of going 
further. What is it ? It is, that if it had been said of the 
earth, " In the beginning was the earth," and of man, " In 
the beginning w T as the man," we must not even then have 
imagined any greater things concerning them than what we 

2 ai. < is have now determined 1 . For the terms " earth" and " man," 
tamed*" as tne y are presupposed, whatever may be said concerning 
in them' them, do not allow the mind to imagine to itself any thing 

greater concerning them than what we know at present. 
Just as " the Word," although but little be said of It, does 
not allow us to think (respecting It) any thing low or poor. 
Since in proceeding he says of the earth, " The earth was 
invisible and unformed." For having said that " He made" 
it, and having settled its proper limit, he afterwards declares 
fearlessly what follows, as knowing that there is no one so 
silly as to suppose that it is without beginning and un- 
created, since the word " earth/' and that other " made," 

c ra, etru are opposed to τα. γενόμινα vnrn, as in the MS. Baroc. no. 210. 
in the Platonic philosophy. The in the Bodl. Library. Our Lord is 
reading heie should be yivtjri for ytv- yiwnrog άγίνητως. 

Of the Eternal and Relative Being of the Word. 27 

are enough to convince even a very simple person that it is John 
not eternal nor increate, but one of those things created in — '-~L- 

[3.] Besides, the expression " was," applied to the earth 
and to man, is not indicative of absolute existence. But in 
the case of a man (it denotes) his being of a certain place, 
in that of the earth its being in a certain way. For he has 
not said absolutely " the earth was," and then held his 
peace, but has taught how it was even after its creation, as 
that it was " invisible and unformed, 1 ' as yet covered by the 
waters and in confusion. So in the case of Elkanah he does 
not merely say that " there was a man," but adds also 
whence he was, " of Armathaim Zophim." But in the case 
of " the Word," it is not so. I am ashamed to try these 
cases, one against the other, for if we find fault with those 
who do so in the case of men, when there is a great differ- 
ence in the virtue of those who are so tried, though in truth 
their substance be one ; where the difference both of nature 
and of every thing else is so infinite, is it not the extremest 
madness to raise such questions? But may He Who is 
blasphemed by them be merciful to us. For it was not we 
who invented the necessity of such discussions, but they 
who war against their own salvation laid it on us. 

What then do I say ? That this first " was," applied to 
" the Word," is only indicative of His eternal Being, (for In 
the beginning, he saith, was the Word,) and that the second 
" was," {and the Word ivas with God,) denotes His relative 
Being. For since to be eternal and without beginning is 
most peculiar to God, this he puts first; and then, lest any 
one hearing that He was in the beginning, should assert, that 
He was " unbegotten" also, he immediately remedies this by 
saying, before he declares what He was, that He was with 
God. And he has prevented any one from supposing, that 
this " Word" is simply such a one as is either uttered ' or **ρ<ρψ• 
conceived 2 , by the addition, as I beforesaid, of the article, asT^^,. 
well as by this second expression. For he does not say,™ 
was " in God," but was with God; declaring to us His 
eternity as to person 3 . Then, as he advances, he has more 3 <$*•«- 
clearly revealed it, by adding, that this Word also was God. 

28 That if the Son were created, St. John would have declared it. 

Homil. " But yet created," it may be said. What then hindered 

—him from saying, that " In the beginning God made the 

Word ?" at least Moses speaking of the earth says, not that 
" in the beginning was the earth," but that α He made 
it," and then it was. What now hindered John from saying 
in like manner, that " In the beginning God made the 
Word ?" For if Moses feared lest any one should assert 

» ayUn- that the earth was uncreated *, much more ought John to have 
feared this respecting the Son, if He was indeed created. 
The world being visible, by this very circumstance proclaims 

Ps.i9,i.its Maker, (the heavens, says the Psalmist, declare the glory 
of God,) but the Son is invisible, and is greatly, infinitely, 
higher than all creation. If now, in the one instance, where 
we needed neither argument nor teaching to know that 

ϊγιΐίΐτΌξ. the world is created 2 , yet the Prophet sets down this fact 
clearly and before all others ; much more should John have 
declared the same concerning the Son, if He had really 

3 **We);been created 3 . 

" Yes," it may be said, " but Peter has asserted this clearly 
and openly." Where and when ? 4i When speaking to the 

Acts 2, j ews h e sa id, that God hath made Him both Lord and 


Christ. Why dost thou not add what follows, TJiat same 
Jesus Whom ye have crucified ? or dost thou not know that 
of the words, part relate to His unmixed Nature, part to His 
Incarnation H ? But if this be not the case, and thou wilt ab- 
solutely understand all as referring to the Godhead, then 
thou wilt make the Godhead capable of suffering ; but if not 
capable of suffering, then not created. For if blood had 
flowed from that divine and ineffable Nature, and if that 
Nature, and not the flesh, had been torn and cut by the nails 
upon the cross, on this supposition your quibbling would 
have had reason ; but if not even the devil himself could 
utter such a blasphemy, why dost thou feign to be 
ignorant with ignorance so unpardonable, and such as not 
the evil spirits themselves could pretend? Besides the 
expressions Lord and Christ belong not to His Essence, but 
* \\ουσία.. to II is dignity; for the one refers to His Power 4 , the other 

d olxttofiia, signifies all that Christ tion of mankind. Vide. Euseb. Hist, 
did and suffered on earth for the salva- Ecc. i. 1. Not. 11. ed. Heinichen. 



St. Peter and St. Paul taught first our Lord's Manhood. 29 

to His having been anointed. What then wouldest thou say John 
concerning the Son of God ? for if He were even, as you — — — 

assert, created, this argument could not have place. For He 
was not first created and afterwards God chose Him, nor 
does He hold a kingdom which could be thrown aside, but 
one which belongs by nature to His Essence ; since, when 
asked if He were a King, He answers, To this end was c. 18,37. 
/ born. But Peter speaks as concerning one chosen, 
because his argument wholly refers to the Dispensation. 

[4.] And why dost thou wonder if Peter says this? for 
Paul, reasoning with the Athenians, calls Him " Man" only, 
saying, By that Man whom He hath ordained, whereof He Acts 17, 
hath given assurance to all men, in that He hath raised^ 1 ' 
Him from the dead. He speaks nothing concerning " the Phil. 2, 
form of God," nor that He was " equal to Him," nor that 6 * 
He was the " brightness of His glory." And with reason. Heb. l, 
The time for words like these was not yet come ; but it * 
would have contented him that they should in the mean 
while admit that He was Man, and that He rose again from 
the dead. Christ Himself acted in the same manner, from 
Whom Paul having learned, used this reserve, (ούτω τά πράγ- 
ματα, ωχονόμζι.) For He did not at once reveal to us His 
Divinity, but was at first held to be a Prophet and a good 
Man 1 ; but afterwards His real Nature was shewn by His *ai. 'and 
works and words. On this account Peter too at first used this simply a 
method, (for this was the first sermon that he made to the Man •' 
Jews ;) and because they were not yet able clearly to under- 
stand any thing respecting His Godhead, he dwelt on the 
arguments relating to His Incarnation ; that their ears being 
exercised in these, might open a way to the rest of his 
teaching. And if any one will go through all the sermon 
from the beginning, he will find what I say very observable, 
for he (Peter) calls Him " Man," and dwells on the accounts 
of His Passion, His Resurrection, and His generation ac- 
cording to the flesh. Paul too when he says, Who was bor?iUom. i, 
of the seed of David according to the flesh, only teaches us that < * macle , 
the word £i made," is taken with a view f to His Incarnation, E • V. 
as we allow. But the son of thunder is now speaking to us 

30 That if the Son were created, He would have declared it. 

Homil. concerning His Ineffable and Eternal 1 Existence, and there- 
IIL . fore he leaves the word " marie," and puts " was ;" yet if He 

null*'' were created, this point he needs must most especially have 
determined. For if Paul feared that some foolish persons 
might suppose that He shall be greater than the Father, and 
have Him Who begat Him made subject to Him, (for this is 
the reason why the Apostle in sending to the Corinthians 
writes, But wlien He saith, All things are put under Him, 
it is manifest that He is excepted which did put all tilings 
under Him, yet who could possibly imagine that the 
Father, even in common with all things, will be subject 
to the Son ?) if, I say, he nevertheless feared these foolish 
imaginations, and says, He is excepted that did put all 
things under Him; much more if the Son of God were 
indeed created, ought John to have feared lest any one 
should suppose Him uncreated, and to have taught on this 
point before any other. 

But now, since He was Begotten, with good reason neither 
John nor any other, whether apostle or prophet, hath asserted 
that He was created. Neither had it been so would the 
Only-Begotten Himself have let it pass unmentioned. 
For He who spoke of Himself so humbly from condescen- 

2 ^vyx«- s ion 2 would certainly not have been silent on this matter. 
' And Ϊ think it not unreasonable to suppose, that He would 
be more likely to have the higher Nature, and say nothing 
of it, than not having it to pass by this omission, and fail to 
make known that He had it not. For in the first case there 
was a good excuse for silence, namely, His desire to teach 
mankind humility by being silent as to the greatness of His 
attributes; but in the second case you can find no just 
excuse for silence. For why should He who declined many 
of His real attributes have been, if He were created, silent as 
to His having been made ? He Who, in order to teach humility, 
often uttered expressions of lowliness, such as did not 
properly belong to Him, much more if He had been 
indeed created, would not have failed to speak of this. 
Do you not see Him, in order that none may imagine Him 

3 cLy'w not to have been begotten 3 , doing and saying every thing 
to shew that He was so, uttering words unworthy both 
of His dignity and His essence, and descending to the 

The Son has declared His Perfect Likeness to the Father. 81 

humble character of a Prophet ? For the expression, As John 
/ hear, I judge; and that other, He hath told Me what Ί ' lm 
I should say, and what I should speak, and the like, belong 12, 49. 
merely to a prophet. If now, from His desire to remove 
this suspicion, He did not disdain to utter words thus lowly, 
much more if He were created would He have said many 
like words, that none might suppose Him to be uncreated; as, 
" Think not that I am begotten of the Father ; I am created, 
not begotten, nor do I share His essence." But as it is, He 
does the very contrary, and utters words which compel men, 
even against their will and desire, to admit the opposite 
opinion. As, / am in the Father, and the Father in Me ; 14, 11. 
and, Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou 14, 9, 
not known Me, Philip ? he that hath seen 3Ie 7 hath seen the 
Father. And, That all men should honour the Son, even as 5, 23. 
they honour the Father. As the Father raise th up the dead 5, 21. 
and quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth whom He 
will. My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. As the δ, \7. 
Father hioweth Me, even so know I the Father. I and My 10 ' 30 * 
Father are One. And every where by putting the " as," 
and the " so," and the " being with the Father," He declares 
His undeviating likeness to Him 1 . His power in Himself Hei^»^ 
manifests by these, as well as by many other words ; as when 
He says, Peace, be still. I will, be thou clean. Thou dumb χ α % 
and deaf spirit, Γ charge thee, come out of him. And again, g 9 a 
Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou Matt. 8, 
shall not kill ; but I say unto you, That ivhosoever is angry Mark 9 
with his brother ivithout a cause, shall be in danger. And J5« 

. Matt. 5, 

all the other laws which He gave, and wonders which He 21. 22. 
worked, are sufficient to shew His power, or rather, I should 
say, a very small part of them is enough to bring over and 
convince any, except the utterly insensate. 

[5.] But vainglory 2 is a thing powerful to blind even to very 2 a i. 
evident truths the minds of those ensnared by it, and to per-^J 6 of 
suade them to dispute against what is allowed by others; nay, 
it instigates 3 some who know and are persuaded of the truth to ^dxuipu 
pretended ignorance and opposition. As took place in the 
case of the Jews, for they did not through ignorance deny 
the Son of God, but that they might obtain honour 
from the multitude; "they believed," says the Evangelist, 


'Jc /,ν. 
Mark 4, 

:j-2 The strange tyranny of vainglory. 

HoMiL.but were afraid, lest they should be put out of the synagogue. 
IIL And so they gave up ' their salvation to others g . For it can- 
i^lrw-not be that he who is so zealous a slave to the glory of this 
va " present world can obtain the glory which is from God. 
δ, 44. Wherefore He rebuked them, saying, How can ye believe, 
which receive honour of men, and seek not the honour which 
comet h from God? This passion is a sort of deep intoxi- 
cation, and makes him who is subdued by it hard to recover. 
And having detached the souls of its captives from heavenly 
things, it nails them to earth, and lets them not look up to 
the true light, but persuades them ever to wallow in the mire, 
giving them masters so powerful, that they have the rule over 
them without needing to use commands. For the man who 
is sick of this disease, does of his own accord, and without 
bidding, all that he thinks will be agreeable to his masters. 
On their account he clothes himself in rich apparel, and 
beautifies his face, taking these pains not for himself but for 
others ; and he leads about a train of followers through the 
market-place, that others may admire him, and all that he 
does he goes through, merely out of obsequiousness to the 
rest of the world. Can any state of mind be more wretched 
than this ? That others may admire him, he is ever being 
- *ατα- precipitated 2 to ruin. 

Φ?"' Would you learn what a tyrannous sway it exercises? 
Why surely, the words of Christ are sufficient to shew it all. 
3 al/ but But yet listen to these further remarks 3 . If you will ask any 
bVse^n °f tnose men wn0 mingle in state affairs and incur great 
from expenses, why they lavish so much gold, and what their so 
vast expenditure means ; you will hear from them, that it is 
for nothing else but to gratify the people. If again you ask 
what the people may be; they will say, that it is a thing full 
of confusion and turbulent, made up for the most part of 
folly, tossed blindly to and fro like the waves of the sea, and 
often composed of varying and adverse opinions. Must not 
the man who has such a master be more pitiable than any- 
one ? And yet strange though it be, it is not so strange that 
worldly men should be eager about these things ; but that 
those who say that they have started away from the world 
should be sick of this same disease, or rather of one more 

C i. e. gave up their salvation rather than offend others. 

The desire of human glory empty and unreasonable. 33 

grievous still, this is the strangest thing of all. For with the John 
first the loss extends only to money, but in the last case the — '— — 

danger reaches to the soul. For when men alter a right 
faith for reputation's sake, and dishonour God that they may 
be in high repute themselves, tell me, what excess of stupidity 
and madness must there not be in what they do ? Other 
passions, even if they are very hurtful, at least bring some 
pleasure with them, though it be but for a time and fleeting ; 
those who love money, or wine, or women, have, with their 
hurt, a pleasure, though a brief one. But those who are 
taken captives by this passion, live a life continually em- 
bittered and stripped of enjoyment, for they do not obtain 
what they earnestly desire, glory, I mean, from the many. 
They think they enjoy it, but do not really, because the 
thing they aim at is not glory at all. And therefore their 
state of mind is not called glory 1 , but a something void of 1 Hi» 
glory, vaingloriousness 2 , so have all the ancients named it,**« v «- 

i ι ββξ<β, lit. 

and with good reason ; inasmuch as it as quite empty, and < empty 
contains nothing bright or glorious within it, but as players' £ 1ο Τ•' 
masks seem to be bright and lovely, but are hollow within, 
(for which cause, though they be more beautiful than natural 
faces, yet they never draw any to love them,) even so, or 
rather yet more wretchedly, has the applause of the multitude 
tricked out for us this passion, dangerous as an antagonist, 
and cruel as a master. Its countenance alone is bright, but 
within it is no more like the mask's mere emptiness, but 
crammed with dishonour, and full of savage tyranny. Whence 
then, it may be asked, has this passion, so unreasonable, so 
devoid of pleasure, its birth ? Whence else but from a low, 
mean soul ? It cannot be that one who is captivated by love 
of applause should imagine readily anything great or noble; 
he needs must be base, mean, dishonourable, little. He 
who does nothing for virtue's sake, but to please men worthy 
of no consideration, and who ever makes account of their 
mistaken and erring opinions, how can he be worth any 
thing ? Consider ; if any one should ask him, What do you 
think of the many ? he clearly would say, " that they are 
thoughtless, and not to be regarded." Then if any one again 
should ask him, " Would you choose to be like them ?" I do 
not suppose he could possibly desire to be like them. Must 


34 The evils arising from the desire of human glory. not then be excessively ridiculous to seek the good opinion 

'— of those whom you never would choose to resemble ? 

[6.] Do you say that they are many and a sort of col- 
lective body? this is the very reason why you ought most to 
despise them. If when taken singly they are contemptible, 
still more will this be the case when they are many ; for 
when they are assembled together, their individual folly is 
increased by numbers, and becomes greater. So that a man 
might possibly take a single one of them and set him right, 
but could not do so with them when together, because then 
their folly becomes intense, and they are led like sheep, and 
follow in every direction the opinions of one another. Tell 
me, will you seek to obtain this vulgar glory? Do not, I 
beg and entreat you. It turns every thing upside down ; it is 
the mother of avarice, of slander, of false witness, of trea- 
cheries: it arms and exasperates those who have received 
no injury against those who have inflicted none. He who 
has fallen into this disease neither knows friendship nor 
remembers old companionship, and knows not how to re- 
spect any one at all; he has cast away from his soul all 
goodness, and is at war with every one, unstable, without 
natural affection. 

Again, the passion of anger, tyrannical though it be and 
hard to bear, still is not wont always to disturb, but only 
when it has persons that excite it; but that of vainglory is 
ever active, and there is no time, as one may say, when 
it can cease, since reason neither hinders nor restrains it, 
but it is always with us not only persuading us to sin, but 
snatching from our hands any thing which we may chance 
to do aright, or sometimes not allowing us to do right at 
all. If Paul calls covetousness idolatry, what ought we to 
name that which is mother, and root, and source of it, I 
mean, vainglory ? We cannot possibly find any term such 
as its wickedness deserves. Beloved, let us now return to 
our senses; let us put off this filthy garment, let us rend 
and cut it off from us, let us at some time or other become 

J 'fl™'* n ' co witn tmc freedom, and be sensible of the nobility 1 

birth.' which has been given to us by God; let us despise vulgar 

applause. For nothing is so ridiculous and disgraceful 

as this passion, nothing so full of shame and dishonour. 

Men ought to seek the honour which cometh from God. 35 

One may in many ways see, that to love honour, is dishonour; John 
and that true honour consists in neglecting honour, in making — '-^- 

no account of it, but in saying and doing every thing accord- 
ing to what seems good to God. In this way we shall be 
able to receive a reward from Him who sees exactly all our 
doings, if we are content to have Him only for a spectator. 
What need we other eyes, when He who shall confer the 
prize is ever beholding our actions ? Is it not a strange 
thing that, whatever a servant does, he should do to please 
his master, should seek nothing more than his master's 
observation, desire not to attract other eyes (though they be 
great men who are looking on) to his conduct, but aim at one 
thing only, that his master may observe him ; while we who 
have a Lord so great, seek other spectators who can nothing 
profit, but rather hurt us by their observation, and make all 
our labour vain ? Not so, I beseech you. Let us call Him 
to applaud and view our actions from whom we shall receive 
our rewards. Let us have nothing to dp with human eyes. 
For if we should even desire to attain this honour, we shall 
then attain to it, when we seek that which cometh from God 
alone. For, He saith, Them that honour Me, I will honour. l Sara • 

2 30. 

And even as we are best supplied with riches when we 
despise them, and seek only the wealth which cometh from 
God; (Seek, He saith, the kingdom of God, and all these Matt. 6, 
things shall be added to you ;) so it is in the case of honour. 
When the granting either of riches or honour is no longer 
attended with danger to us, then God gives them freely; 
and it is then unattended with danger, when they have not 
the rule or power over us, do not command us as slaves, 
but belong to us as masters and free men. For the reason 
that He wishes us not to love them is, that we may not be 
ruled by them ; and if we succeed in this respect, He gives 
us them with great liberality. Tell me, what is brighter than 
Paul, when he says, We seek not honour of men, neither iThess. 
of you, nor yet of others. What then is richer than him ' 
who hath nothing, and yet possesseth all things ? for as I 
said, when we are not mastered by them, then we shall 
master them, then we shall receive them. If then we desire 
to obtain honour, let us shun honour, so shall we be enabled 



fioMiL. after accomplishing the laws of God to obtain both the good 
. m • things which are here, and those which are promised, by the 

grace of Christ, with Whom, to the Father and the Holy 

Ghost, be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


John i. 1. 
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, 

When children are just brought to iheir learning, their 
teachers do not give them many tasks in succession, nor do 
they set them once for all, but they often repeat to them the 
same short ones, so that what is said may be easily implanted 
in their minds, and they may not be vexed at the first onset 
with the quantity, and with finding it hard to remember, and 
become less active in picking up what is given them, a kind 
of sluggishness arising from the difficulty. And I, who wish 
to effect the same with you, and to render your labour easy, 
take by little and little the food which lies on this Divine 
table, and instil it into your souls. On this account I shall 
handle again the same words, not so as to say again the 
same things, but to set before you only what yet remains. 
Come, then, let us again apply our discourse to the intro- 

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was ivith 
God. Why, when all the other Evangelists had begun with 
the Dispensation ■ ; (for Matthew says, The Book of the ] •»•»- 
generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of Ό avid ; and Luke '"'"*' 
too relates to us in the beginning of his Gospel the events 
relating to Mary ; and in like manner Mark dwells on the 
same narratives, from that point detailing to us the history 
of the Baptist ;) why, when they began with these matters, 

38 Why St. John speaks immediately of the Eternal Subsistence. 

Homil. did John briefly and in a later place hint at them, saying, the 
■ IV • Word teas made Flesh ; and, passing by every thing else, 
' His conception, His birth, His bringing up, His growth, 
at once discourse to us concerning His Eternal Generation ? 
I will now tell you what the reason of this is. Because 
the other Evangelists had dwelt most on the accounts of His 
coming in the Flesh, there was fear lest some, being of 
grovelling minds, might for this reason rest in these doc- 
trines alone, as indeed was the case with Paul of Samosata. 
In order, therefore, to lead away from this fondness for earth 
those who were like to fall into it, and to draw them up 
towards heaven, with good reason he commences his nar- 
rative from above, and from the eternal subsistence. For 
while Matthew enters upon his relation from Herod the 
king, Luke from Tiberius Caesar, Mark from the Baptism of 
John, this Apostle, leaving alone all these things, ascends 
1 alZyoi beyond all time or age l . Thither darting forward the 
imagination of his hearers to the " was in the beginning,' 
not allowing it to stay at any point, nor setting any limit, as 
they did in Herod, and Tiberius, and John. 

And what we may mention besides as especially deserving 
our admiration is, that John, though he gave himself up to 
">■ xiyov the higher doctrine 2 , yet did not neglect the Dispensation ; 
nor were the others, though intent upon the relation of this, 
silent as to the subsistence before the ages. With good cause; 
for One Spirit It was that moved the souls of all; and there- 
fore they have shewn great unanimity in their narrative. But 
thou, beloved, when thou hast heard of The Word, do n( 
endure those who say, that He is a work ; nor those ever 
who think, that He is simply a word. For many are the 
words of God which angels execute, but of those words none 
is God ; they all are prophecies or commands, (for in Scrip- 
ture it is usual to call the laws of God His commands, anc 
prophecies, words; wherefore in speaking of the angels, he 
Ph. 103, says, Mighty in strength, fulfilling His word,) but this 
3#ir« Word is a Being with subsistence 3 , proceeding 4 without 
tor»- affection 5 from the Father Himself. For this, as I before 
4 <τ£*ιλ- sai A he has shewn by the term Word. As therefore the 
?T" expression, In the beginning was the Word, shews His 
Eternity, so teas m the beginning with God, has declared to 

The Word Co-eternal ivith the Father. 39 

us His Co-eternity. For that yon may not, when yon hear John 
In the beginning was the Word, suppose Him to be Eternal, — '— L - 

and yet imagine the life of the Father to differ from His by 
some interval and longer duration, and so assign a beginning 
to the Only-Begotten, he adds, ivas in the beginning with 
God; so eternally even as the Father Himself, for the Father 
was never without the Word, but He was always God with 
God, yet Each in His proper Person 1 . >»««■«- 

How then, one says, does John assert, that He was in the 
world, if He was with God? Because He was both 2 with 2al - <God 
God and in the world also. For neither Father nor Son are God' 
limited in any way. Since, if there is no end of His great- Ps. 145, 
ness, and if of His wisdom there is no number, it is clear ρ ς 14 * 
that there cannot be any beginning in time 3 to His Essence. 5 • 
Thou hast heard, that In the beginning God made the &*"'** 
heaven and the earth; what dost thou understand from this 1 • 
beginning ? clearly, that they were created before all visible 
things. So, respecting the Only-Begotten, when you hear 
that He was in the beginning, conceive of Him as before 
all intelligible things 4 , and before the ages. 4 vo»™» 

But if any one say, " How can it be that He is a Son, and 
yet not younger than the Father ? since that which proceeds 
from something else needs must be later than that from 
which it proceeds ;" we will say that, properly speaking, 
these are human reasonings ; that he who questions on this 
matter will question on others yet more improper 5 ; and that 5 **™• 
to such we ought not even to give ear. For our speech is 
now concerning God, not concerning the nature of men, 
which is subject to the sequence and necessary conclusions 
of these reasonings. Still, for the assurance of the weaker 
sort, we will speak even to these points. 

[2.] Tell me, then, does the radiance of the sun proceed 
from the substance 6 itself of the sun, or from some other 6 φύ<ηω$ 
source ? Any one not deprived of his very senses needs must 
confess, that it proceeds from the substance itself. Yet, 
although the radiance proceeds from the sun itself, we 
cannot say that it is later in point of time than the substance 
of that body, since the sun has never appeared without its 
rays. Now if in the case of these visible and sensible bodies 
there has been shewn to be something which proceeds from 


40 If the Son be not without a beginning, neither is the Father, 

Homil. something else, and yet is not after that from whence it 

IV • proceeds ; why are you incredulous in the case of the 

invisible and ineffable Nature ? This same thing there takes 

place, but in a manner suitable to That Substance a . For it 

Heb. l, i s for this reason that Paul too calls Him Brightness ; setting 

forth thereby His being from Him and His Co-eternity. 

ι ^i. Again, tell me, were not all the ages, and every interval 1 

ernpx cre ated by Him ? Any man not deprived of his senses must 

necessarily confess this. There is no interval 2 therefore 

between the Son and the Father ; and if there be none, then 

He is not after, but Co-eternal with Him. For " before" 

and " after" are notions implying time, since, without age or 

time, no man could possibly imagine these words ; but God 

is above times and ages. 

But if in any case you say that you have found a begin- 
ning to the Son, see whether by the same reason and argu- 
ment you are not compelled to reduce the Father also to 
a beginning, earlier indeed, but still a beginning. For when 
you have assigned to the Son a limit and beginning of 
existence, do you not proceed upwards from that point, and 
say, that the Father was before it? Clearly you do. Tell me 
then, what is the extent of the Father's prior subsistence ? 
For whether you say that the interval is little, or whether 
you say it is great, you equally have brought the Father to 
a beginning. For it is clear, that it is by measuring the 
space that you say whether it is little or great; yet it would 
not be possible to measure it, unless there were a beginning 
on either side ; so that as far as you are concerned you have 
given the Father a beginning, and henceforth, according to 
your argument, not even the Father will be without begin- 
ning. See you that the word spoken by the Saviour is true, 
and the saying every where discovers its force ? And what 
John 5, is that word? It is, He that honour eth not the Son, honoareth 
23 ' not the Father. 

And I know indeed that what now has been said cannot 

by many be comprehended, and therefore it is that in many 

>Am- places we avoid 3 agitating questions of human reasonings, 

/Mia, ' because the rest of the people cannot follow such arguments, 

'put off' an( l if they could, still they have nothing firm or sure in 

8 T0 ui/ro $« τούτο ϊστιν βντωί ω{ ixitty τη cvfflq, *A<xov r?v. 

The Son Co-eternal and of one Essence with the Father. 41 

them. For the thoughts of mortal men are miserable ', and John 
our devices are but uncertain. Still I should like to ask our ' . * 


objectors, what means that which is said by the Prophet, 9, 14. 
Before Me there was no God formed, nor is there any after Is. 43, 
Me. For if the Son is younger than the Father, how, says 
He, Nor is there 1 any after Me? Will you take away the l LXX 
being of the Only-Begotten Himself? You either must dare* . 
this, or admit One Godhead with distinct Persons of the 
Father and the Son. 

Finally, how could the expression, All things were made 
by Him, be true ? For if there is an age older than He, how 
can that 2 which was before Him have been made by Him?a r j,al.e 
See ye to what daring the argument has carried them, when 
once the truth . has been unsettled ? Why did not the 
Evangelist say, that He was made from things that were not, 
as Paul declares of all things, when he says, Who calleth Rom. 4, 
those things which be not as though they were; but says, Was 
in the beginning? This is contrary to that; and with good 
reason. For God neither is made 3 , nor has any thing older ; 3 yinreu 
these are words of the Greeks 4 . Tell me this too: Would 4 Hea- 
you not say, that the Creator beyond all comparison excels 
His works ? Yet since that which is from things that were 
not is similar to them, where is the superiority not admitting 
of comparison? And what mean the expressions, I am theJsA4,6. 
first and I am the last; and, before Me was no other Godls.43, 
formed? For if the Son be not of the same Essence, there is 
another God ; and if He be not Co-eternal, He is after Him ; 
and if He did not proceed from His Essence, clear it is that 
He was made. But if they assert, that these things were 
said to distinguish Him from idols, why do they not allow 
that it is to distinguish Him from idols that he says, the Johni7, 
Only True God? Besides, if this was said to distinguish Him * 
from idols, how would you interpret the whole sentence? 
After Me, He says, is no other God. In saying this, He 
does not exclude the Son, but that " After Me there is no 
idol God," not that " there is no Son." Allowed, says he ; 
what then ? and the expression, Before Me was no other 
God formed, will you so understand, as that no idol God 
indeed was formed before Him, but yet a Son was formed 

4-2 The Son Infinite and Eternal. 

Homil. before Him? What evil spirit would assert this? I do not 
IV * suppose that even Satan himself would do so. 

Moreover, if He be not Co-eternal with the Father, how 

can you say that His Life is infinite ? For if it have a 

• £»«*», beginning from before 1 , although it be endless, yet it is not 

Lite?* 6 infinite; for the infinite must be infinite in both directions. 

Heb. 7, As Paul also declared, when he said, Having neither begin- 

3 • ning of dags, nor end of life; by this expression shewing 

that He is both without beginning and without end. For 

as the one has no limit, so neither has the other. In one 

direction there is no end, in the other no beginning. 

[3.] And how again, since He is Life, was there ever 
when He was not? For all must allow, that Life both 
is always, and is without beginning and without end, if 
It be indeed Life, as indeed It is. For if there be when 
It is not, how can It be the life of others, when It even 
Itself is not ? 

6 How then,' says one, ' does John lay down a beginning 

by saying, Γη the beginning was? Tell me, have you 

attended to the In the beginning, and to the was, and do 

you not understand the expression, the Word was f What ! 

Ps.90 2. w hen the Prophet says, From everlasting* and to everlasting 

2 ff" roZ Tliou art, does he say this to assign Him limits ? No, but to 

declare His Eternity. Consider now that the case is the 

same in this place. He did not use the expression as 

assigning limits, since he did not say, " had a beginning," 

but, was in the beginning ; by the word was carrying thee 

forward to the idea that the Son is without beginning. c Yet 

observe,' says he, ' the Father is named with the addition of 

the article, but the Son without it.' What then, when the 

Tit. 2, Apostle says, The Great God, and our Saviour Jesus Christ; 

Rom. 9 an d again, Who is above all, God? It is true that here he 

δ • has mentioned the Son, without the article; but he does the 

same with the Father also, at least in his Epistle to the 

c. 2, 6. Philippians, he says, Who being in the form of God, thought 

it not robbery to be equal with God; and again to the 

Uom. i, Romans, Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father, 

7 • and the Lord Jesus Christ. Besides, it was superfluous for 

*<rvnx,Zs\t to be attached in that place, when close 3 above it was 

Attributes of the Godhead ascribed to the Son. 43 

continually attached to " the Word." For as in speaking John 
concerning the Father, he says, God is a Spirit, and we do h h 
not, because the article is not joined to Spirit, yet deny the 24. ' 
Spiritual Nature of God; so here, although the article is not 
annexed to the Son, the Son is not on that account a less 
God. Why so? Because in saying God, and again God, he 
does not reveal to us any difference in this Godhead, but the 
contrary; for having before said, and the Word was God; 
that no one might suppose the Godhead of the Son to be 
inferior, he immediately adds the characteristics of genuine 
Godhead, including Eternity, (for He teas, says he, in the 
beginning with God,) and attributing to Him the office of 
Creator. For by Him were all things made, and without 
Him was not any thing made that was made; which His 
Father also every where by the Prophets declares to be 
especially characteristic of His own Essence. And the 
Prophets are continually busy on this kind of demonstration, 
not only of itself, but when they contend against the honour 
shewn to idols ; Let the gods perish, says one, who have not Jer. io, 
made heaven and earth : and again, / have stretched out the t s ' 4 4 
heaven with My hand; and it is as declaring it to be indi- 24 • 
cative of Divinity, that He every where puts it. And the 
Evangelist himself was not satisfied with these words, but 
calls Him Life too and Light. If now He was ever with 
the Father, if He Himself created all things, if He brought 
all things into existence, and keeps together all things, (for 1 σνγχξο- 
this he meant by Life,) if He enlightens all things, who so J*» ^ 
senseless as to say, that the Evangelist desired to teach an™? 
inferiority of Divinity by those very expressions, by which, 
rather than by any others, it is possible to express its equality 
and not differing? Let us not then confound the creation 
with the Creator, lest we too hear it said of us, that they \om.i, 
served the creature rather than the Creator; for although it 
be asserted that this is said of the heavens, still in speaking 
of the heavens he positively says, that we must not serve 2 the 2 λκτ^ιύ- 
creature, for it is a heathenish 3 thing. 3ϊ ελα». 

[4.] Let us therefore not lay ourselves under this curse. ««•» 
For this the Son of God came, that He might rid us from 
this service ; for this He took the form of a slave, that He 
might free us from this slavery; for this He was spit upon, 

44 Anger to be quenched betimes. 

HoMiL.for this He was buffeted, for this He endured the shameful 
IY • death. Let us not, I entreat you, make all these things of 
none effect, let us not go back to our former unrighteousness, 
or rather to unrighteousness much more grievous ; for to 
serve the creature is not the same thing as to bring down the 
Creator, as far at least as in us lies, to the meanness of the 
creature. For He continues being such as He is ; as says 

p 9 . 102, the Psalmist, Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not 
fail. Let us then glorify Him as we have received from our 
fathers, let us glorify Him both by our faith and by our 
works; for sound doctrines avail us nothing to salvation, if 
our life is corrupt. Let us then order it according to what 
is well-pleasing to God, setting ourselves far from all filthi- 
ness, unrighteousness, and covetousness, as strangers and 
foreigners and aliens to the things here on earth. If any 
have much wealth and possessions, let him so use them as 
one who is a sojourner, and who, whether he will or not, 
shall shortly pass from them. If one be injured by another, 
let him not be angry for ever, nay rather not even for a time. 
For the Apostle has not allowed us more than a single day 
for the venting of anger. 

Eph. 4, Let not, says he, the sun go down upon your wrath ; and 
with reason ; for it is matter for contentment that even in 
so short a time nothing unpleasant take place; but if night 
also overtake us, what has happened becomes more grievous, 
because the fire of our wrath is increased ten thousand times 
by memory, and we at our leisure enquire into it more 
bitterly. Before therefore we obtain this pernicious leisure 
and kindle a hotter fire, he bids us arrest beforehand and 
quench the mischief. For the passion of wrath is fierce, 
fiercer than any flame; and so we need much haste to pre- 
vent the flame, and not allow it to blaze up high, for so this 
disease becomes a cause of many evils. It has overturned 
whole houses, it has dissolved old companionships, and has 
worked tragedies not to be remedied in a short moment of 

Ecclus. time. For, saith one, the sway of his fury shall he his 
1 ' destruction. Let us not then leave such a wild beast un- 
bridled, but put upon him a muzzle in all ways strong, the 
fear of the judgment to come. Whenever a friend grieves 
thee, or one of thine own family exasperates thee, think of 

The victory over self, 45 

the sins thou hast committed against God, and that by kind- John 
ness towards him thou makest that judgment more lenient to ■ L l ' ■ 
thyself, {Forgive, saith He, and ye shall he forgiven,) and ^ uk e 6, 
thy passion shall quickly skulk away 1 . ι $' . 

And besides, consider this, whether there has been a time rto<rt ' 
when thou wert being carried away into ferocity, and didst 
control thyself, and another time when thou hast been 
dragged along by the passion. Compare the two seasons, 
and thou shalt gain thence great improvement, For tell me, 
when didst thou praise thyself? Was it when thou wast 
worsted, or when thou hadst the mastery? Do we not in 
the first case vehemently blame ourselves, and feel ashamed 
even when none reproves us, and do not many feelings of 
repentance come over us, both for what we have said and 
done ; but when we gain the mastery, then are we not proud, 
and exult as conquerors? For victory in the case of anger 
is, not the requiting evil with the like, (that is utter defeat,) 
but the bearing meekly to be ill treated and ill spoken of. 
To get the better is not to inflict but to suffer evil. There- 
fore when angry do not say, " certainly I will retaliate," 
* certainly I will be revenged;" do not persist in saying to 
those who exhort you to gain a victory, " I will not endure 
that the man mock me, and escape clear." He will never 
mock thee except when thou avengest thyself; or if he even 
should mock thee, he will do so as a fool. Seek not when 
thou conquerest honour from fools, but consider that suffi- 
cient which comes from men of understanding. Nay, why do 
I set before thee a small and mean body of spectators, when 
I make it up of men ? Look up straight to God : He will 
praise thee, and the man who is approved by Him must not 
seek honour from mortals. Mortal honour often arises from 
flattery or hatred of others, and brings no profit; but the 
decision of God is free from this inequality, and brings great 
advantage to the man whom He approves. This praise then 
let us follow after. 

Will you learn what an evil is anger? Stand by while 
others are quarrelling in the forum. In yourself you cannot 
easily see the disgrace of the thing, because your reason is 
darkened and drunken; but when you are clear from the 
passion, and while your judgment is sound, view your own 

46 Anger ridiculous, and followed by remorse. in others. Observe, I pray you, the crowds collecting 


—round, and the angry men like maniacs acting shamefully in 

the midst. For when the passion boils up within the breast, 
and becomes excited and savage, the mouth breathes fire, 
the eyes emit fire, all the face becomes swollen, the hands 
are extended disorderly, the feet dance ridiculously, and 
they spring at those who restrain them, and differ nothing 
from madmen in their insensibility to all these things; nay, 
differ not from wild asses, kicking and biting. Truly a 
passionate man is not a graceful one. 

And then, when after this exceedingly ridiculous conduct, 
they return home and come to themselves, they have the 
greater pain, and much fear, thinking who were present when 
they were angry. For like raving men, they did not then 
know the standers by, but when they have returned to their 
right mind, then they consider, were they friends ? were they 
foes and enemies that looked on? And they fear alike about 
both; the first because they will condemn them and give them 
more shame; the others because they will rejoice at it. And 
if they have even exchanged blows, then their fear is the 
more pressing; for instance, lest any thing very grievous 
happen to the sufferer; a fever follow and bring on death, 
or a troublesome swelling rise and place him in danger of 
the worst. And, " what need" (say they) " had I of fight- 
ing, and violence, and quarrelling ? Perish such things." 
And then they curse the ill-fated business which caused 
them to begin, and the more foolish lay on "wicked spirits," 
and " an evil hour," the blame of what has been done ; but 
these things are not from an evil hour, (for there is no such 
thing as an evil hour,) nor from a wicked spirit, but from the 
wickedness of those captured by the passion ; they draw the 
spirits to them, and bring upon themselves all things terri- 
ble. " But the heart swells," says one, " and is stung by 
insults." 1 know it ; and that is the reason why I admire 
those who master this dreadful wild beast; yet it is possible 
if we will, to beat off the passion. For why when our rulers 
insult us do we not feel it ? It is because fear counter- 
balances the passion, and frightens us from it, and does not 
allow it to spring up at all. And why too do our servants, 
though insulted by us in ten thousand ways, bear all in 

Patient enduring for GooVs sake. 47 

silence ? Because they too have the same restraint laid upon John 
them. And think thou not merely of the fear of God, but — '— — 
that it is even God Himself Who then insults thee, Who 
bids thee be silent, and then thou wilt bear all things meekly, 
and say to the aggressor, How can I be angry with thee ? 
there is another that restrains both my hand and my tongue; 
and the saying will be a suggestion of sound wisdom, both 
to thyself and to him. Even now we bear unbearable things 
on account of men, and often say to those who have insulted 
us, " Such an one insulted me, not you." Shall we not use 
the same caution in the case of God? How else can we 
hope for pardon? Let us say to our soul, "It is God Who 
holds our hands, Who now insults us; let us not be restive, 
let not God be less honoured by us than men." Did ye 
shudder at the word ? I wish you would shudder not at the word 
only, but at the deed. For God bath commanded us when 
buffeted not only to endure it, but even to offer ourselves to 
suffer something worse; and we withstand Him with such 
vehemence, that we not only refuse to offer ourselves to 
suffer evil, but even avenge ourselves, nay often are the first 
to act on the offensive ', and think we are disgraced if we do > fy X w 
not the same in return. Yes, and the mischief is, that when Q'A"* 
utterly worsted we think ourselves conquerors, and when 
lying undermost and receiving ten thousand blows from the 
devil, then we imagine that we are mastering him. Let us 
then, I exhort you, understand what is the nature 2 of this 3 t&«h 
victory, and this kind of nature 3 let us follow after. To 3 ^**» 
suffer evil is to get the crown. If then we wish to be pro- 
claimed victors by God, let us not in these contests observe 
the laws of heathen games, but those of God, and learn to 
bear all things with longsuffering; for so we may get the better 
of our antagonists, and obtain both present and promised 
goods, through the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, through Whom and with Whom to the Father 
and the Holy Spirit be glory, power, and honour, now and 
ever, and world without end. Amen. 


John i. 3. 

All things were made by Him; and without Him was not 
any thing made that was made. 

Moses in the beginning of the history and writings of the 
Old Testament speaks to ns of the objects of sense, and 
enumerates them to us at length. For, In the beginning, he 
says, God made the heaven and the earth, and then he adds, 
that light was created, and a second heaven and the stars, 
the various kinds of living creatures, and, that we may not 
delay by going through particulars, every thing else. JBut 
this Evangelist, cutting all short, includes both these things 
and the things which are above these in a single sentence ; 
with reason, because they were known to his hearers, and 
because he is hastening to a greater subject, and has in- 
stituted all his treatise, that he might speak not of the works 
but of the Creator, and Him Who produced them all. And 
therefore Moses, though he has selected the smaller portion 
of the creation, (for he has spoken nothing to us concerning 
1 i.e. the the invisible powers,) dwells on these things 1 ; while John, as 
creation hastening to ascend to the Creator Himself, runs by both 
these things, and those on which Moses was silent, having 
comprised them in one little saying, All things were made by 
Him. And that you may not think that he merely speaks of 
all the things mentioned by Moses, he adds, that without 
Him was not any thing made that was made. That is to 
2^«τβν say, that of created things, not one, whether it be visible 2 or 
a V on™ intelligible 3 was brought into being without the power of the 

For we will not put the full stop after not any thing, as 
the heretics do. They, because they wish to make the Spirit 

Absurdities arising from the heretical reading. 49 

created, say, "Wha t was made, in Him was Life;" yet so what John 
is said becomes unintelligible. First, it was not the time here — — — 
to make mention of the Spirit, and if he desired to do so, why 
did he state it so indistinctly? For how is it clear that this 
saying relates to the Spirit ? Besides, we shall find by this 
argument, not that the Spirit, but that the Son Himself, is 
created by Himself. But rouse yourselves, that what is said 
may not escape you; and come, let us read for a while after 
their fashion, for so its absurdity will be clearer to us. 
" What was made, in Him was Life." They say that the Spirit 
is called " Life." But this " Life" is found to be also " Light," 
for he adds, And the Life was the Light of men. Therefore, v. 4. 
according to them the Light of men here means the Spirit. 
Well, but when he goes on to say, that " There was a man v. 6, 7. 
sent from God, to bear witness of that Light," they needs 
must assert, that this too is spoken of the Spirit; for Whom he 
above called Word, Him as he proceeds he calls God, and 
Life, and Light. This IVord he says was Life, and this Life 
was Light. If now this Word was Life, and if this Word 
and this Life became flesh, then the Life, that is to say, the 
Word, was made flesh, and we beheld Its glory, the glory as 
of the Only-Begotten of the Father. If then they say that 
the Spirit is here called Life, consider what strange con- 
sequences will follow. It will be the Spirit, not the Son, that 
was made flesh; the Spirit will be the Only-Begotten Son. 

And those who read the passage so will fall, if not into this, 
yet in avoiding this into another most strange conclusion. 
If they allow that the words are spoken of the Son, and yet 
do not stop or read as we do, then they will assert that the 
Son is created by Himself. Since, if " the Word was Life," 
and "what was made in Him was Life ;" according to this 
reading He is created in Himself and through Himself. 
Then after some words beUveen, he has added, And we beheld v. 14. 
His glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the Father. 
See, the Holy Spirit is found, according to the reading of 
those who assert these things, to be also an only- begotten 
Son, for it is concerning Him that all this declaration is 
uttered by him. See when the word has swerved 1 from the ***.^" 

* # t σΐη. lit. 

truth, whither it is perverted, and what strange consequences { been 
it produces ! 


50 The Son the true Life. 

Howl. What then, says one, is not the Spirit Light? it is Light : 
v • but in this place there is no mention of the Spirit. Since 
even God (the Father) is called " Spirit," that is to say, in- 
corporeal, yet God (the Father) is not absolutely meant 
wherever " Spirit" is mentioned. And why do you wonder 
if we say this of the Father? We could not even say of the 
Comforter, that wherever " Spirit" (is mentioned), the Com- 
forter is absolutely meant, and yet this is His most distinctive 
name; still not always where Spirit (is mentioned is) the 
ι Cor. Comforter (meant). Thus Christ is called the power of God, 
] ' 24 ' and the wisdom of God; yet not always where the power 
and the wisdom of God are mentioned is Christ meant; so in 
this passage, although the Spirit does give Light, yet the 
Evangelist is not now speaking of the Spirit. 

When we have shut them out from these strange opinions, 
they who take all manner of pains to withstand the truth, 
say, (still clinging to the same reading,) " Whatever came 

1 yiyon into existence l 9 by him was life, because," says one, " what- 

ever came into existence was life." What then do you say 
of the punishment of the men of Sodom, and the flood, and 
hell fire, and ten thousand like things? "But," says one, 

2 ^μ,- " we are speaking of the material creation 2 ." Well, these too 
ονξγιαί kgjQjjg en tirely to the material creation. But that we may 
S U«- out of our abundance 3 refute their argument, we will ask 
vovrUt tnem , " Is wood, life," tell me? "Is stone, life?" these things 

that are lifeless and motionless? Nay, is man absolutely 
■w«g*tf ijf e ? Who would say so? he is not pure life 4 , but is capable 
of receiving life. 

[2.] See here again, an absurdity; by the same succession 
of consequences we w T ill bring the argument to such a point, 
that even hence you may learn their folly. In this way they 
assert things by no means befitting of the Spirit. Being 
driven from their other ground, they apply those things to men, 
which they before thought to be spoken worthily of the Spirit. 
However, let us examine the reading itself this way also. The 
creature is now called " life," therefore, the same is " light," 
and John came to witness concerning it. Why then is not 

v. 8. he also " light?" He says that he was not that light, and 
yet he belonged to created things? How then is he not 

v. io. "light?" How was he in the world, and the world was 

All created things made by the Son. 5 1 

made by him? Was the creature in the creature, and was John 
the creature made by the creatine? Bat how did the world I ' 3 ' 
know him not? How did the creature not know the crea- 
ture ? But as many as received him, to them gave he potter v. 12. 
to become the sons of God. But enough of laughter. For 
the rest I leave it to you to attack these monstrous reasonings, 
that we may not seem to have chosen ' to raise a laugh for its l Sav. 
own sake, and waste the time without cause. For if these g n ^| Ms ' 
things are neither said of the Spirit, (and it has been shewn *zw&<r- 
that they are not,) nor of any thing created, and yet they 
still hold to the same reading, that stranger conclusion than 
any which we before mentioned, will follow, that the Son was 
made by Himself. For if the Son is the true Light, and this 
Light was Life, and this Life was made in Him, this must 
needs be the result according to their own reading. Let us 
then relinquish this reading, and come to the recognised 
reading and explanation 2 . 2 I|»yw«i» 

And what is that? It is to make the «sentence end at was 
made, and to begin the next sentence with, In Him ivas Life. 
What (the Evangelist) says is this, Without Him teas not 
any thing made that was made ; whatever created thing was 
made, says he, was not made without Him. See you how by 
this short addition he has rectified all the besetting 3 difficul- 3 ^- 
ties; for the saying, that without Him was not any thing \?™ 9 * 1 
made, and then the adding, which ivas made, includes things ' block- 
cognizable by the intellect a , but excludes the Spirit. For 
after he had said that all things were made by Him, and 
without Him was not any thing made, he needed this addi- 
tion, lest some one should say, "If all things were made by 
I Him, then the Spirit also was made." " I," he replies, " as- 
serted that whatever was made was made by Him, even though 
it be invisible, or incorporeal, or in the heavens. For this 
reason, I did not say absolutely, \ all things,' but ' whatever 
was made,' that is, e created things,' but the Spirit is un- 
created.' " 

Do you see the precision of his teaching? He has alluded 
to the creation of material things, (for concerning these 
Moses had taught before him,) and after bringing us to 
advance from thence to higher things, I mean the immaterial 

a i. e. the things of the invisible world, opposed to όζχτα.. 
Ε 2 

5*2 The Son as Creator not inferior to the Father. 

Homil. and the invisible, he excepts the Holy Spirit from all creation. 
c And so Paul, inspired by the same grace, said, For by Him 

16. ' were all things created. Observe too here again the same 
exactness. For the same Spirit moved this soul also. That 
no one should except any created things from the works of 
God because of their being invisible, nor yet should confound 
the Comforter with them, after running through the objects 
of sense which are known to all, he enumerates also things 
in the heavens, saying, Whether they be thrones, or do- 
minions, or principalities, or powers ; for the expression 
" whether 1 ' subjoined to each, shews to us nothing else 
but this, that by Him all things were made, and without 
Him teas not any thing made that was made. 
1 or, But if you think that the expression " by l " is a mark 

$,ά Ug of inferiority, (as making Christ an instrument,) hear him 
Ps. 102, say, Thou, Lord, in the beginning, hast laid the foundation 
of the earth, and the heavens are the ivork of Thy hands. 
He says of the Son what is said of the Father in His 
character of Creator; which he would not have said, unless 
he had deemed of Him as of a Creator, and yet not sub- 
servient to any. And if the expression " by Him" is here 
used, it is put for no other reason but to prevent any one 
from supposing the Son to be Unbegotten. For that in 
respect of the title of Creator He is nothing inferior to the 
e. 5, 21. Father ; hear from Himself, where He saith, As the Father 
raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son 
quickeneth whom He will. If now in the Old Testament it 
is said of the Son, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the 
foundation of the earth, His title of Creator is plain. But 
if you say that the Prophet spoke this of the Father, and 
that Paul attributed to the Son what was said of the Father, 
even so the conclusion is the same. For Paul would not 
have decided that the same expression suited the Son, unless 
he had been very confident that between Father and Son 
there was an equality of honour; since it would have been 
an act of extremest rashness to refer what suited an in- 
comparable Nature to a nature inferior to, and falling short 
(3.) of it. But the Son is not inferior to, nor falls short of, 
the Essence of the Father ; and therefore Paul has not only 
dared to use these expressions concerning Him, but also 

The same expressions used of the Father, the Son, and the Spirit. 53 

others like thern. For the expression " from Whom," which John 
you decide to belong properly to the Father alone, he uses 

also concerning the Son, when he says, from which all the Col. 2, 
body by joints and bands having nourishment ministered, ' 
and knit together, increaseih with the increase of God. 

And he is not content with this only, he stops your mouths 
in another way also, by applying to the Father the expres- 
sion " by Whom," which you say is a mark of inferiority. 
For he says, God is faithful, by Whom ye were called unto ι Cor. 
the fellowship of His Son: and again, " By His will:" and ι 'cor. 
in another place, For of Him, and through Him, and foi.i.&c. 
Him, are all tilings. Neither is the expression "from 1 11,2k 
Whom," assigned to the Son only, but also to the Spirit ; for ' ' t!i 
the angel said to Joseph, Fear not to take unto thee Mary 'Matt. 1, 
thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy" 
Ghost. As also the Prophet does not deem it improper to 
apply to the Father the expression " in Whom 2 ," which be- 2 i>f 
longs to the Spirit, when he says, In z God we shall do ,^' b ' 
valiantly. And Paul, βία king request*, if by any means now z " 
at length I might have a prosperous journey, in the will of 10t 
God, to come unto you. i^nd again he uses it of Christ, 
saying, In Christ Jesus. In short, we may often and Rom. 6, 
continually find these expressions interchanged b ; now this J ^ 2c 
would not have taken place, had not the same Essence been 
in every instance their subject. And that you may not 
imagine that the words, All things were made by Him, are 
in this case used concerning His miracles, (for the other 
Evangelists have discoursed concerning these;) he farther 
goes on to say, He was in the world, and the world was 
made by Him; (but not the Spirit, for This is not of the 
number of created things, but of those above all creation.) 

Let us now attend to what follows. John having spoken 
of the work of creation, that All things were made by Him, 
and without Him was not any thing made that teas 
made, goes on to speak concerning His Providence, where 
he saith, In Hun was Life. That no one may doubt 
how so many and so great things were made by Him, he 
adds, that In Him was Life. For as with the fountain which 
is the mother of the great deeps, however much you take 
away you nothing lessen the fountain ; so with the energy of 

b i, e. applied alike to the different Fersons in the Holy Trinity. 

54 The Life implies God's Providence and the Resurrection. 

Homil. the Only-Begotten, however much you believe has been pro- 

'- — duced and made by it, it has become no whit the less. Or, 

to use a more familiar example, I will instance that of light, 
which the Apostle himself added immediately, saying, And 
the Life teas the Light. As then light, however many my- 
riads it may enlighten, suffers no diminution of its own bright- 
ness ; so also God, before commencing His work and after 
completing it, remains alike indefectible, nothing diminished, 
nor wearied by the greatness of the creation. Nay, if need 
were that ten thousand, or even an infinite number of such 
worlds be created, He remains the same, sufficient for them 
all not merely to produce, but also to control them after 
their creation. For the word Life here refers not merely to 
the act of creation, but also to the providence (engaged) 
about the permanence of the things created; it also lays 
down beforehand the doctrine of the resurrection, and is the 
1 &ξζ*- beginning 1 of these marvellous good tidings 2 . Since when 
iTr'Gos-" Ι^" nas come to be with us, the power of death is dissolved; 
pels' and when " light" has shone upon us, there is no longer 
28. ' darkness, but life ever abides within us, and death cannot 
overcome it. So that what is asserted of the Father might 
Col. ι, De asserted absolutely of Him (Christ) also, that In Him we 
live and move and have our being. As Paul has shewn when 
he says, By Him were all things created, and by Him all 
tilings consist; for which reason He has been called also 

3 Is. li, r 00 i 3 an j Foundation*. 

10. as 

quoted But when you hear that In Him was Life, do not imagine 
I5°™' 2t Hi m a compound Being, since farther on he says of the 
Rev. 22, Father also, As the Father hath Life in Himself , so hath 

4 [ Cor He given to the Son also to have Life; now as you would 
3, 11. not on account of this expression say that the Father is 

compounded, so neither can you say so of the Son. Thus 
l John j n ail0 ther place he says, that God is Light, and elsewhere 
ι 'Tim. (it is said), that He duelleth in light unapproachable ; yet 
e> 16, these expressions are used not that we may suppose a com- 
* rail*» pounded nature 5 , but that by little and little we may be led 
up to the highest doctrines. For since one of the multitude 
could not easily have understood how His life was Life 
Impersonate 6 , he first used that humbler expression, and 
afterwards leads them (thus) trained to the higher doctrine. 
5 > 26 For He Who had said that He hath given Him (the Son) to 



Death and error overcome by the preaching of Ghrist. 65 

have life; the Same saith in another place, ΐ am the Life; John 
and in another, I am the Light. And what, tell me, is the 

c. ]4 6 

nature of this " light ?" This kind (of light) is the object c! 8, 12! 
not of the senses, but of the intellect, enlightening the soul 
herself. And since Christ should hereafter say, that None °« 6, 44. 
can come unto Me except the Father draw him; the Apostle 
has in this place anticipated an objection, and declared that 
it is He (the Son) Who giveth light; that although you hear a v. 9. 
saying like this concerning the Father, you may not say that 
it belongs to the Father only, but also to the Son. For, Allc.16,15. 
things, He saith, which the Father hath are Mine. 

First then, the Evangelist hath instructed us respecting 
the creation, after that he tells us of the goods relating to the 
soul which He supplied to us by His coming; and these he 
has darkly described in one sentence, when he says, And the v. 4. 
Life was the Light of men. He does not say, " was the 
light of the Jews," but universally of men: nor did the Jews 
only, but the Greeks also, come to this knowledge, and this 
light was a common proffer made 1 to ali. " Why did he not ' *«»*» 
add ' Angels,' but said, of men V Because at present his^f"*"" 
discourse is of the nature of men, and to them he came 
bearing glad tidings of good things, 

And the Light shineth in darkness. He calls death and v. 5. 
error, darkness. For the light which is the object of our 
senses does not shine in darkness, but apart from it; but the 
preaching of Christ hath shone forth in the midst of prevail- 
ing error, and made it to disappear. And He by enduring 
death 2 hath so overcome death, that He hath recovered those 2 lit. 
already held by it. Since then neither death overcame it, beenm 
nor error, since it is bright every where, and shines by its death ' 
proper strength, therefore he says, 

And the darkness comprehended it not. For it cannot be 
overcome, and will not dwell in souls which wish not to be 

[4.] But let it not trouble thee that It took not all, 
for not by necessity and force, but by will and consent 3 3 9>ου\ή• 
does God bring us to Himself. Therefore do not thou shut ",'<£"' 
thy doors against this light, and thou shalt enjoy great* v ^m 
happiness 4 . But this light cometh by faith, and when it is^, 1 "^. 
come, it lighteth abundantly him that has received it; and ifjoy- 


56 Sin is darkness. 

HoMiL.thou display est a pure life (meet) for it, remains indwelling 

v • — within continually. For, He saith, he that loveth 3fe, will 

2H. 'keep My commandments; and I and My Father will come 

(slightly f j )/m an £ ma k e Q ur abode with him. As then one 


cannot rightly enjoy the sun-light, unless he open his eyes ; 
so neither can one largely share this splendour, unless he 
have expanded the eye of the soul, and rendered it in every 
way keen of sight. 

But how is this effected ? Then, when we have cleansed 
the soul from all the passions. For sin is darkness, and 
a deep darkness; as is clear, because men do it uncon- 
c. 3, 20. sciously and secretly. For, every one thai doeth evil hateth 
E P h. 5, the light, neither cometh to the light. And, It is a shame 
even to speak of those tilings ivhicli are done of them in 
secret. For, as in darkness a man knows neither friend 
nor foe, but cannot perceive any of the properties of 
objects; so too is it in sin. For he who desires to get more 
gain, makes no difference between friend and enemy ; and 
the envious regards with hostile eyes the man with whom he 
is very intimate ; and the plotter is at mortal quarrel with all 
alike. In short, as to distinguishing the nature of objects, 
he who commits sin is no better than men who are drunk or 
mad. And as in the night, wood, lead, iron, silver, gold, 
precious stones, seem to us all alike on account of the 
absence of the light which shews their distinctions ; so he 
who leads an impure life knows neither the excellence of 
temperance nor the beauty of philosophy. For in darkness, 
as I said before, even precious stones if they be displayed do 
not shew their lustre, not by reason of their own nature, but 
because of the want of discernment in the beholders. Nor 
is this the only evil which happens to us who are in sin, but 
this also, that we live in constant fear : and as men walking 
in a moonless night tremble, though none be by to frighten 
them ; so those who work iniquity cannot have confidence, 
though there be none to accuse them ; but they are afraid of 
every thing, and are suspicious, being pricked by their 
J ay*»/'«f conscience : all to them is full of fear and distress 1 , they 
look about them at every thing, are terrified at every thing. 
Let us then flee a life so painful, especially since after this 
painfulness shall follow death ; a deathless death, for of the 

Indecency of sin not perceived from habit. 57 

punishment in that place there will be no end ; and in this John 
life they (who sin) are no better than madmen, in that they — '—^- 

are dreaming of things that have no existence. They think 
they are rich when they are not rich, that they enjoy when 
they are not enjoying, nor do they properly perceive the 
cheat until they are freed from the madness and have shaken 
off the sleep. Wherefore Paul exhorts all to be sober, and 
to watch ; and Christ also commands the same. For he who 
is sober and awake, although he be captured by sin, quickly 
beats it off; while he who sleeps and is beside himself, 
perceives not how he is held prisoner of it. 

Let us then not sleep. This is not the season of night, 
but of day. Let us therefore walk honestly' 1 as in the day; Eom. 
and nothing is more indecent than sin. In point of indecency \ 3 \^ * 
it is not so bad to go about naked, as in sin and wrong /»«»«*» 
doing. That is not so great matter of blame, since it might] > 
even be caused by poverty; but nothing has more shame and 
less honour than the sinner. Let us think of those who come 
to the justice-hall on some account of extortion, or overreach- 
ing 2 ; how base and ridiculous they appear to all by their utter 9 ^ λ6ΰη . 
shamelessness, their lies, and audacity 3 . But we are such f'f ff 
pitiable and wretched beings, that we cannot bear ourselves όμ^οι 
to put on a garment awkwardly or awry ; nay, if we see 
another person in this state, we set him right; and yet 
though we and all our neighbours are walking on our heads, 
we do not even perceive it. For what, say, can be more 
shameful than a man who goes in to a harlot ? what more 
contemptible than an insolent, a foul-tongued, or an envious 
man ? Whence then is it that these things do not seem so 
disgraceful as to walk naked ? Merely from habit. To go 
naked no one has ever willingly endured; but all men are 
continually venturing on the others without any fear. Yet if 
one came into an assembly of angels, among whom nothing 
of the sort has ever taken place, there he would clearly see 
the great ridicule (of such conduct). And why do I say an 
assembly of angels ? Even in the very palaces among us, 
should one introduce a harlot and enjoy her, or be oppressed 
by excess of wine, or commit any other like indecency, he 
would suffer extreme punishment. But if it be intolerable 
that men should dare such things in palaces, much more 

58 God Omnipresent, and Allseeing. 

Homil. when the King is every where present, and observes what is 
■ : — done, shall we if we dare them undergo severest chastise- 
ment. Wherefore let us, I exhort you, shew forth in our 
life much gentleness, much purity, for we have a King Who 
beholds all our actions continually. In order then that this 
U*;<rcr«- light may ever richly enlighten us, let us gladly accept 1 these 
«Xriv* bright beams 2 , for so shall we enjoy both the good things 
present and those to come, through the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom, and with 
Whom, to the Father, and the Holy Spirit, be glory for ever 
and ever. Amen. 




John i. 6. 
There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. 

Having in the introduction spoken to us things of urgent 
importance 1 concerning God the Word, (the Evangelist) « τα »»- 
proceeding on his road, and in order, afterwards comes to 
the herald of the Word, his namesake John. And now that 
thou nearest that he was sent from God, do not for the 
future imagine that any of the words spoken by him are 
mere man's words ; for all that he utters is not his own, but 
is of Him Who sent him. Wherefore he is called messenger, Mai. 3, 
for the excellence of a messenger is 9 that he say nothing of ' 
his own. But the expression was, in this place is not 
significative of his coming into existence, but refers to his 
office of messenger; for " there was" a man sent from God, 
is used instead of a man " was sent" ./row God. 

How then do some say b , that the expression, being in the™!* 2, 
form of God, is not used of His invariable likeness to the 
Father, because no article is added 2 ? For observe, that the 2 i. e. to 
article is no where added here. Are these words then not®""' 
spoken of the Father ? What then shall we say to the 
prophet who says, that, Behold, I send My messenger before Mai. 3, 
Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way ? for the expressions fo ' u * s d in 
My and Thy declare two Persons. Mark h 

Ver. 7. The same came for a witness, to bear witness of ' 
that Light. 

a al. *ξο»γίξΐυται, ' is foretold.' c ά*αζ«λλίί|ί«, vid. supra, Horn. iii. 

b Vid. supra, Horn. iv. 3. p. 42. 4. ad fin. 

60 Why our Lord had the witness of the Baptist : 

Homil. What is this, perhaps one may say, the servant bear 

— witness to his Master ? When then you see Him not only 

witnessed to by His servant, but even coming to him, and 
with Jews baptized by him, will you not be still more 
astonished and perplexed ? Yet you ought not to be 
troubled nor confused, but amazed at such unspeakable 

1 ιλιγ- goodness. Though if any still continue bewildered 1 and 
*d5zj' con f use d> He will say to such an one what He said to 
Matt. 3, John, Suffer it to be so now, for thus it become th us to fulfil 

all righteousness ; and, if any be still further troubled, again 
c. 5, 34. He will say to him too d what He said to the Jews, But I receive 
not testimony from man. If now he needs not this witness, 
why was John sent from God ? Not as though He required 
his testimony — this were extremest blasphemy. Why then ? 
John himself informs us, when he says, 
That all men through him might believe. 
ibid. A na * Christ also, after having said that / receive not testi- 

mony from man, in order that He may not seem to the foolish 

2 «ψ- to clash with 2 Himself, by declaring at one time, There is 
V. 5, 32. another that beareth witness of 3Ie, and I know that his e 

witness is true, (for He pointed to John ;) and at another, 
c. 5, 34. / receive not testimony from man ; He immediately adds 
the solution of the doubt, But these things I say for your 
sake f , that ye might be saved. As though He had said, that 
" I am God, and the really-Begotten g Son of God, and am 
of that Simple and Blessed Essence, I need none to witness 
to Me ; and even though none would do so, yet am not I by 
this any thing diminished in My Essence ; but because I 
care for the salvation of the many 3 , I have descended to such 
humility as to commit the witness of Me to a man." For 
by reason of the grovelling nature and infirmity of the Jews, 
the faith in Him would in this way be more easily received, 
4iix#x«and more palatable 4 . As then He clothed Himself with 
τίζ " flesh, that He might not, by encountering men with the 
unveiled Godhead, destroy them all ; so He sent forth a man 
for His herald, that those who heard might at the hearing 
of a kindred voice approach more readily. For (to prove) 

d [και πξος ul/rov,] perhaps l and with e αυτού. $v μοίζτυ^ιΊ m(i ψου. G. T. 

reference to ^him (the Baptist)/ Sav. f h' νμας, (not in G. T.) 
al. xui χξο$ rt. s yuppie;, ' genuine.' 

3 των 


to whom He teas incomparably superior. 61 

that He had no need of that (herald's) testimony, it would John 
have sufficed that He should only have shewn Himself Who — '— : — 
He was in His unveiled Essence, and have confounded them 
all. But this He did not for the reason I have before men- 
tioned. He would have annihilated 1 all, since none could 1 "?**" 1 
have endured the encounter of that unapproachable light h . 
Wherefore, as 1 said He put on flesh, and entrusted the 
witness (of Himself) to one of our fellow- servants, since He 
arranged 2 all for the salvation of men, looking not only to 2 l*s*y 
His own honour, but also to what might be readily received σατο 
by, and be profitable to, His hearers. Which He glanced at 
when He said, These things I say for your sake, that ye c. 5, 34. 
might he saved. And the Evangelist using the same language 
as his Master, after saying, to hear witness of that Light, 

That all men through Him might believe. All but saying, 
Think not that the reason why John the Baptist came to 
bear witness, was that he might add aught to the trustworthi- 
ness of his Master. No ; (He came,) that by his means beings 
of his own class 4 might believe. For it is clear from what 4 «««?»- 
follows, that he used this expression in his anxiety to re- 
move this suspicion beforehand, since he adds, 
Ver. 8. He was not that Light. 

Now if he did not introduce this as setting himself against 
this suspicion, then the expression is absolutely superfluous, 
and tautology rather than elucidation of his teaching. For 
why, after having said that he was sent to hear witness of 
that Light, does he again say, He was not that Light? (He 
says it,) not loosely or without reason; but, because, for the 
most part, among ourselves, the person witnessing is held to 
be greater, and generally more trustworthy than the person 
witnessed of; therefore, that none might suspect this in the 
case of John, at once from the very beginning he removes 
this evil suspicion, and having torn it up by the roots, shews 
who this is that bears witness, and Who is He who is 
witnessed of, and what an interval there is between the 
witnessed of, and the bearer of witness. And after having 
done this, and shewn His incomparable superiority, he after- 
wards proceeds fearlessly to the narrative which remains; 

h Lit. * unapproachable encounter of that light.' 

62 A right faith unprofitable without a holy life, 

HoMiL.and after carefully removing whatever strange (ideas) might 

. νι •„ secretly harbour 1 in the minds of the simpler sort, so instils 

«al.'goe» into all 2 easily and without impediment the word of doctrine 

taSw in its P r °P er order • 

Let us pray then, that henceforth with the revelation of 
these thoughts and rightness of doctrine, we may have also 
: V«x.T./*a pure life and bright conversation 3 , since these things profit 
nothing unless good works be present with us. For though 
we have all faith and all knowledge of the Scriptures, yet if 
we be naked and destitute of the protection derived from 
(holy) living, there is nothing to hinder us from being hurried 
into the fire of hell, and burning for ever in the unquench- 
able flame. For as they who have done good shall rise to 
life everlasting, so they who have dared the contrary shall 
rise to everlasting punishment, which never has an end. 
Let us then manifest all eagerness not to mar the gain which 
accrues to us from a right faith by the vileness of our actions, 
but becoming well-pleasing to Him by these also, boldly to 
look on Christ. No happiness can be equal to this. And 
4 al. may it come to pass, that we all having obtained 4 what has 
worthily been mentioned, may do all to the glory of God ; to Whom, 
of ' with the Only -Begotten Son and the Holy Ghost, be glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 


John i. 9. 

That was the true Light, which lighleth every man that 
cometh into the world. 

The reason, Ο children greatly beloved, why we enter- 
tain you portion by portion with the thoughts taken from 
the Scriptures, and do not at once pour all forth to you, is, 
that the retainiug what is successively set before you may 
be easy. For even in building, one who before the first 
stones are settled lays on others, constructs ' a rotten wall ' fye/w 
altogether, and easily thrown down : while one who waits 
that the mortar may first get hard, and so adds what remains 
little by little, finishes the whole house firmly, and makes it 
strong, not one to last for a short time, or easily to fall to 
pieces. These builders we imitate 2 , and in like manner 2 al. < let 
build up your souls. For we fear lest, while the first tate .» " 
foundation is but newly laid, the addition of the succeeding 
speculations 3 may do harm to the former, through the in- 3 ^«- 
sufficiency of the intellect to contain them all at once. 

What now is it that has been read to us to-day ? 

That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world. For since above in speaking of 
John he said, that he came to hear witness of that Light ; 
and that he was sent in these our days 4 ; lest any one at 4 v?v 
hearing this should, on account of the recent coming of the 
witness, conceive some like suspicion concerning Him, Who 
is witnessed of, he has carried up the imagination, and 

64 Danger of presumptuous enquiry, 

Homil. transported it to that existence which is before all beginning, 
ΛΠ • which has neither end nor commencement. 

" And how is it possible," says one, " that being a Son, 
He should possess this (nature) ?" We are speaking of God, 
and do you ask how ? And do you not fear nor shudder ? 
Yet should any one ask you, " How should our souls and 

1 H-t™ bodies have endless life in the world to come 1 , you will laugh 
at the question, on the ground that it does not belong to the 
intellect of man to search into such questions, but that he 
ought only to believe, and not to be over curious on the 
subject mentioned, since he has a sufficient proof of the 
saying, in the power of Him who spake it. And if we say, 
that He, Who created our souls and bodies, and Who 
incomparably excels all created things, is without beginning, 
will you require us to say ς: How P 1 ' Who could assert this 
to be the act of a well-ordered soul, or of sound reason ? 
you have heard that That was the true Light : why are you 

2£ti*«- vainly and rashly striving to overshoot 2 by force of reasoning 

xnrirai ^ Li f e which is unlimited ? You cannot do it. Why seek 
what may not be sought? Why be curious about what is 
incomprehensible? Why search what is unsearchable? Gaze 
upon the very source of the sun-beams. You cannot; yet 
you are neither vexed nor impatient at your weakness ; how 
then have you become so daring and headlong in greater 

3 al. matters? The son of thunder, John who sounds 3 the spiritual 
trumpet, when he had heard from the Spirit the was, 
enquired no farther. And are you, who share not in his 
grace, but speak from your own wretched reasonings, ambi- 
tious to exceed the measure of his knowledge? Then for 
this very reason you will never be able even to reach to the 
measure of his knowledge. For this is the craft of the devil: 
he leads away those who obey him from the limits assigned by 
God, as though to things much greater; but when, having 
enticed us by these hopes, he has cast us out of the grace of 
God, he not only gives nothing more, (how can he, devil as he 
is ?) but does not even allow us to return again to our former 
situation, where we dwelt safely and surely, but leads us 
about in all directions wandering and not having any stand- 
ing ground. So he caused the first created man to be 
banished from the abode of Paradise. Having puffed him 

Presumption the cause of Adam 's fall. 65 

up with the expectation of greater knowledge and honour, John 
he expelled him from what he already possessed in security. 

For he not only did not become like a god as (the devil) 
promised him, but even fell beneath the dominion of death ; . 
having not only gained no further advantage by eating of the 
tree, but having lost no small portion of the knowledge 
which he possessed, through hope of greater knowledge. 
For the sense of shame, and the desire to hide himself 
because of his nakedness, then came upon him, who before 
the cheat was superior to all such shame; and this very 
seeing himself to be naked, and the need for the future of 
the covering of garments, and many other infirmities 1 , 1 ^^'» 
became thenceforth natural to him. That this be not our 
case, let us obey God, continue in His commandments, 
and not be busy about any thing beyond them, that we may 
not be cast out from the good things already given us. 
Thus they have fared (of whom we speak). For seeking to 
find a beginning of the Life which has no beginning, they 
lost what they might have retained. They found not what 
they sought, (this is impossible,) and they fell away from the 
true faith concerning the Only-Begotten. 

Let us not then remove the eternal bounds which our 
fathers set, but let us ever yield to the laws of the Spirit; 
and when we hear that That was the true Light, let us seek 
to discover nothing more. For it is not possible to pass 
beyond this saying. Had His generation been like that of 
a man, needs must there have been an interval between the 
begetter and the begotten ; but since it is in a manner 
ineffable and becoming God, give up the " before" and the 
" after," for these are the names of points in time, but the 
Son is the Creator even of all ages 2 . - ««** 

[2.] " Then," says one, " He is not Father, but brother." 
What need, pray ? Tf we had asserted that the Father and 
the Son were from a different root, you might have then 
spoken this well. But, if we flee this impiety, and say that 
the Father, besides being without beginning, is Unbegotten 
also, while the Son, though without beginning, is Begotten of 
the Father, what kind of need that as a consequence of this 
idea, that unholy assertion should be introduced ? None at 
all. For He is an Effulgence : but an effulgence is included 


" απαύ- 

QG The evils attending curiosity. the idea of the nature whose effulgence it is. For this 

VII . 

H b reason Paul has called Him so, that you may imagine no 

3. ' interval between the Father and the Son. This expression 1 

therefore is declaratory of the point ; but the following part 

of the proof quoted, corrects an erroneous opinion which 

might beset simple men. For, says the Apostle, do not, 

because you have heard that He is an Effulgence, suppose 

that He is deprived of His proper person ; this is impious, 

and belongs to the madness of the Sabellians, and of Mar- 

cellus' followers. We say not so, but that He is also in 

His proper Person. And for this reason, after having called 

Heb. l, Him " Effulgence," Paul has added that He is the express 
image of His Person, in order to make evident His proper 
Personality, and that He belongs to the same Essence of which 

2 Horn. He is also the express image. For, as I before 2 said, it is not 
sufficient by a single expression to set before men the 
doctrines concerning God, but it is desirable that we bring 
many together, and choose from each what is suitable. So 
shall we be able to attain to a worthy telling of His glory, 
worthy, 1 mean, as regards our power; for if any should 
deem himself able to speak words suitable to His essential 
worthiness, and be ambitious to do so, saying, that he knows 
God as God knows Himself, he it is who is most ignorant of 

Knowing therefore this, let us continue stedfastly to hold 

Luke l, what they have delivered unto us, which from the beginning 
were eye-icitnesses, and ministers of the word. And let us 
not be curious beyond : for two evils will attend those who 
are sick of this disease, (curiosity) the wearying themselves 
in vain by seeking what it is impossible to find, and the 
provoking God by their endeavours to overturn the bounds 
set by Him. Now what anger this excites, it needs not that 
you who know should learn from us. Abstaining therefore 
from their madness, let us tremble at His words, that He,2. may continually build us up. For, upon whom shall I look, 
saith He, but upon the lowly, and quiet, and who feareth my 
words f Let us then leave this pernicious curiosity, and 
bruise our hearts, let us mourn for our sins as Christ com- 

3 *«*■«- manded, let us be pricked at heart 3 for our transgressions, let 

wy»/*t, ug reckon up exact ]y a u tne w i c k ec i deeds, which in time 

Ways appointed of God for the loiping away of sins. 67 

past we have dared, and let as earnestly strive to wipe them John 
off in all kinds of ways. — — — 

Now to this end God hath opened to us many ways. For, 
Tell thou first, saith He, thy sins, that thou mayest be Is. 43, 
justified; and again, / said, I have declared mine iniquity s ijghtly 
unto Thee, and Thou hast taken 1 away the unrighteousness™'™^ 

, ' . . . * from 

of my heart ; since a continual accusation and remembrance lxx. 
of sins contributes not a little to lessen their magnitude. ^χ 3 ^' 5. 
But there is another more prevailing way than this ; to bear 1 al. £ for- 
malice against none of those who have offended against us, glven 
to forgive their trespasses to all those who have trespassed 
against us. Will you learn a third ? Hear Daniel, saying, 
Redeem thy sins by almsdeeds, and thine iniquities by shew- Dan. 4, 
ing mercy to the poor. And there is another besides this; L ^ x 
constancy in prayer, and persevering attendance on the inter- 
cessions 2 made with God. In like manner fasting brings to2 e v T eu- 
us some, and that not small comfort and release from sins^ij^ 
committed 3 , provided it be attended with kindness to others, 2, 1. 
and quenches the vehemence of the wrath of God. For T -^ 
water will quench a blazing fire, and by almsdeeds sins are μαρτη- 


purged away. Ecclus. 

Let us then travel along all these ways ; for if we give J» JO. 
ourselves wholly to these employments, if on them we spend 
our time, not only shall we wash off our bygone transgres- 
sions, but shall gain very great profit for the future. For we 
shall not allow the devil to assault us with leisure either for 
slothful living, or for pernicious curiosity, since by these 
among other means, and in consequence of these, he leads 
us to foolish questions and hurtful disputations, from seeing 
us at leisure, and idle, and taking no forethought for excel- 
lency of living. But let us block up this approach against 
him, let us watch, let us be sober, that having in this short 
time toiled a little, we may obtain eternal goods in endless 
ages, by the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ ; by Whom and with Whom to the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 



John i. 9. 

That was the true Liglit, which lighteth every man that 
cometh into the world. 

Nothing hinders us from handling to-day also the same 
words, since before we were prevented by the setting forth of 
doctrines, from considering all that was read. Where now 
are those who deny that He is true God ? for here He is 
c. 14, 6. called the true Light, and elsewhere very Truth and very 
Life. That saying we will discuss more clearly when we 
come to the place ; but at present we must for a while be 
speaking to your Charity of that other matter. 

If He lighteth every man that cometh into the world, how 
is it that so many continue unenlightened ? for not all have 
known the majesty of Christ. How then doth He light every 
man ? He lighteth all as far as in Him lies. But if some, 
wilfully closing the eyes of their mind, would not receive the 
rays of that Light, their darkness arises not from the nature 
of the Light, but from their own wickedness, who wilfully 
deprive themselves of the gift. For the grace is shed forth 
upon all, turning itself back neither from Jew, nor Greek, 
nor Barbarian, nor Scythian, nor free, nor bond, nor male, 
nor female, nor old, nor young, but admitting all alike, and 
inviting with an equal regard. And those who are not 
willing to enjoy this gift, ought in justice to impute their 
j blindness to themselves ; for if when the gate is opened to 

κακουν- all, and there is none to hinder, any being wilfully evil 1 


Wilful madness of Paul of Samosata. 69 

remain without, they perish through none other, but only John 
through their own wickedness. — — - 

Ver. 10. He was in the world. 

But not as of equal duration with the world. Away with 
the thought. Wherefore he adds, And the world was made 
by Him; thus leading thee up again to the eternal 1 existence 1 προαι- 
of the Only-Begotten. For he who has heard that this um- (tiUioy 
verse is His work, though he be very dull, though he be a 
hater, though he be an enemy of the glory of God, will 
certainly, willing or unwilling, be forced to confess that the 
maker is before his works. Whence wonder always comes 
over me at the madness of Paul of Samosata, who dared to 
look in the face so manifest a truth, and voluntarily threw 
himself down the precipice \ For he erred not ignorantly 
but with full knowledge, being in the same case as the Jews. 
For as they, looking to men, gave up sound faith, knowing 
that He was the only-begotten Son of God, but not con- 
fessing Him, because of their rulers, lest they should be cast 
out of the synagogue ; so it is said that he, to gratify a 
certain woman c , sold his own salvation. A powerful thing, 
powerful indeed, is the tyranny of vainglory ; it is able to 
make blind the eyes even of the wise, except they be sober ; 
for if the taking of gifts can effect this, much more will the 
yet more violent feeling of this passion. Wherefore Jesus 
said to the Jews, How can ye believe, which receive honoured, 44. 
one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from 
God only? 

And the world knew Him not. By the world he here 
means the multitude, which is corrupt, and closely attached 2 -π Ρ ο<ττ€- 
to earthly things, the common 3 , turbulent, silly people. Forfeited 
the friends and favourites 4 of God all knew Him, even before to ' 
His coming in the flesh. Concerning the Patriarch Christ * υ ' 
Himself speaks by name, that your father Abraham rejoiced 4 θαυ ~ 
to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad. And con- c . s, 56. 
cerning David, confuting the Jews He said, How then dolh^ &t ' 22t 
David in spirit call Him Lord, saying, The Lord said unto Mark 

12, 36. 

b Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Council of Antioch, A.D. 270. ί^ 20 ' 

Antioch, denied the Personality of our c Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, who 

Lord before His Birth of the Virgin supported Paul against the Catholics 

Mary. His opinions were condemned, after his deposition, 
and himself deposed, at the second 

70 Christ seen and heard by the Patriarchs, but not in the Flesh. 

Homil. my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand. And in many places, 

VIIT> disputing with them, He mentions Moses ; and the Apostle 

(mentions) the rest of the prophets ; for Peter declares, that 

all the prophets from Samuel knew Him, and proclaimed 

Acts 3, beforehand His coming afar off, when he says, All the 

24, prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many 

as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. But 

Jacob and his father, as well as his grandfather, He both 

appeared to and talked with, and promised that He would 

give them many and great blessings, which also He brought 

to pass. 

Lute « How then," says one, " did He say Himself, Many 

prophets have desired to see those things which ye see, and 

have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, 

and have not heard them? Did they then not share in the 

knowledge of Him?" Surely they did; and I will endeavour 

to make this plain from this very saying, by which some 

think that they are deprived of it. For many, He saith, 

have desired to see the things which ye see. So that 

they knew that He would come [to men] from heaven, and 

1 olnovo- would live and teach 1 as He lived and taught; for had they 

μησοντα not k nown> tnev cou id have not desired, since no one can 

ild conceive desire for things of which he has no idea; therefore 


a g S He they knew the Son of Man, and that He would come among 
did dis- men# What then are the things which they did not hear? 

peuse ^ 

What those which they did not know ? The things which ye 
now see and hear. For if they did hear His voice and did 
see Him, it was not in the Flesh, not among men; nor when 
He was living so familiarly, and conversing so frankly with 
*/*€*■ them 2 . And indeed He to shew this said not simply, to 
aSetas gee a ^/[^ ." b ut w hat? the things which ye see ; nor to hear 
" Me:" but what? the things which ye hear d . So that if 
they did not behold His coming in the Flesh, still they 
knew that it would be, and they desired it, and believed on 
Him without having seen Him in the Flesh. 

When therefore the Greeks bring charges such as these 
against us, and say; " What then did Christ in former time, 
that He did not look upon the race of men ? And for what 

(l al. for they had both heard His voice, and seen Him, but not in the Flesh. 

All men know not the Father. 71 

possible reason did He come at last to assist in our salvation, John 
after neglecting us so long ?" we will reply, that before this — '- — '- 
He was in the world, and took thought for His works, and 
was known to all who were worthy. But if ye should say, 
that, because all did not then know Him, because He was 
only known by those noble and excellent persons, therefore 
He was not acknowledged ; at this rate you will not allow 
that He is worshipped even now, since even now all men do 
not know Him. But as at present no one, because of those 
who do not know Him, would refuse credit to those who do, 
so as regards former times, we must not doubt that He was 
known to many, or rather to all of those noble and admirable 

[•2.] And if any one say, " Why did not all men give heed to 
Him? nor all worship Him, but the just only ?" I also will 
ask, why even now do not all men know Him ? But why do 
I speak of Christ, when not all men knew His Father then, 
or know Him now? For some say, that all things are borne 
along by chance, while others commit the providence of the 
universe to devils. Others invent another God besides Him, 
and some blasphemously assert, that His is an opposing 
power 6 , and think that His laws are the laws of a wicked 
damion. What then? Shall we say that He is not God because 
there are some who say so ? And shall we confess Him to be 
evil ? for there are some who even so blaspheme Him. Away 
with such mental wandering, such utter insanity. If we 
should delineate 1 doctrines according to the judgment of 1 ^»^*- 
madmen, there is nothing to hinder us from being mad rr >Z l * uv 
ourselves with most grievous madness. No one will assert, 
looking to those who have weak vision, that the sun is 
injurious to the eyes, but he will say that it is fitted to give 
light, drawing his judgments from persons in health. And 
no one will call honey bitter, because it seems so to the 
sense of the sick. And will any, from the imaginations of 
men diseased (in mind), decide that God either is not, or is 
evil ; or that He sometimes indeed exerts His Providence, 

e i.e. that the power which maintains huted the creation and support of the 

the universe is a power opposed to the material world. The opinions here 

True God. The Gnostics accounted spoken of were maintained by Basilides, 

for the existence of evil, by supposing Valentinus, Marcion, J\] anes, and other 

an evil Principle, to which they attri- supporters of that heresy. 

72 Men cannot serve two masters, 

Homil. sometimes doth not so at all ? Who can say that such men 
are of sound mind, or deny that they are beside themselves, 
delirious, utterly mad? 

Tlie worlds he says, knew Him not; but they of whom the 

world was not worthy knew Him. And having spoken of 

those who knew Him not, he in a short time puts the cause 

of their ignorance ; for he does not absolutely say, that no 

one knew Him, but that the world knew Him not ; that is, 

those persons who are as it were nailed to the world alone, 

and who mind the things of the world. For so Christ was 

c 17,25. wont to call them; as when He says, Ο Holy 1 Father, the 

(iixM wor ld hath not known Thee. The world then was ignorant, 

G-• T.) not only of Him, but also of His Father, as we have said ; 

2 «rgOTi• for nothing so darkens f the mind as to be closely attached 2 

rnxivat j. Q present things. 

Knowing therefore this, remove yourselves from the world, 
and tear yourselves as much as possible from carnal things, 
for the loss which comes to you from these lies not in 
common matters, but in what is the chief of goods. For it 
is not possible for the man who clings strongly to the things 
of the present life really 8 to lay hold on those in heaven, but 
he who is earnest about the one must needs lose the other. 
Matt. 6, Ye cannot, He says, serve God and Mammon, for you must 
hold to the one and hate the other. And this too the very 
experience of the things proclaims aloud. Those, for instance, 
who deride the lust of money, are especially the persons who 
love God as they ought, just as those who respect that 
sovereignty (of Mammon), are the men who above all others 
•jaLfy*. nave the slackest love for Him. For the soul when made 
' duller.' captive once for all 4 by covetousness, will not easily or 
^™* & " readily refuse doing or saying any of the things which anger 
God, as being the slave of another master, and one who 
gives all his commands in direct opposition to God. Return 
then at length to your sober senses, and rouse yourselves, 
and calling to mind whoso servants we are, let us love His 
kingdom only ; let us weep, let us wail for the times past in 
which we were servants of Mammon; let us cast off once for 
all his yoke so intolerable, so heavy, and continue to bear 

f 6o\o7 from foxif, ' the ink of the ε ytnrias. perhaps ' as befits a rieht- 
cuttle fish.' fol heir.' 

The service of Mammon hard and thankless. 73 

the light and easy yoke of Christ. For He lays no such John 
commands upon us as Mammon does. Mammon bids us be — — — 
enemies to all men, but Christ, on the coutrary, to embrace 
and to love all. The one having nailed us 1 to the clay and 1 τ^ση- 
the brickmaking, (for gold is this,) "allows us not even at **" 
night to take breath a little ; the other releases us from this 
excessive and insensate care, and bids us gather treasures in 
heaven, not by injustice towards others, but by our own 
righteousness. The one after our many toils and sufferings 
is not able to assist us when we are punished in that placets*" 
and suffer because of his laws, nay, he increases the flame; 
the other, though He command us to give but a cup of cold 
water, never allows us to lose our reward and recompense 
even for this, but repays us with great abundance. How 
then is it not extremest folly to slight a rule so mild, so full 
of all good things, and to serve a thankless ungrateful tyrant, 
and one who neither in this world nor in the world to come 
is able to help those who obey and give heed to him. Nor 
is this the only dreadful thing, nor is this only the penalty, 
that he does not defend them when they are being punished; 
but that besides this, he, as I before said, surrounds those 
who obey him with ten thousand evils. For of those who 
are punished in that place, one may see that the greater part 
are punished for this cause, that they were slaves to money, 
that they loved gold, and would not assist those who needed. 
That we be not in this case, let us scatter, let us give to the 
poor, let us deliver our souls from hurtful cares in this world, 
and from the vengeance, which because of these things is 
appointed for us in that place. Let us store up righteous- 
ness in the heavens. Instead of riches upon earth, let us 
collect treasures impregnable, treasures which can accompany 
us on our journey to heaven, which can assist us in our peril, 
and make the Judge propitious at that hour. Whom may we 
all have gracious unto us, both now and at that day, and 
enjoy with much confidence 6 the goods things prepared in 
the heavens for those who love Him as they ought, through 
the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with 
Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory, now and 
ever, and world without end. Amen. 

δ oi' { with much openness, i. 6. before angels and men. 


John i. 11. 
He came unto His own, and His own received Him not. 

If ye remember our former reflections, we shall the more 
»al.' the zealously proceed with the building up 1 of what remains, as 
dispens- doing so f or great gain. For so will our discourse be more 
intelligible to you who remember what has been already 
said, and we shall not need much labour, because you are 
able through your great love of learning to see more clearly 
into what remains. The man who is always losing what is 
given to him will always need a teacher, and will never know 
any thing; but he who retains what he has received, and so 
receives in addition what remains, will quickly be a teacher 
instead of a learner, and useful not only to himself, but to 
all others also ; as, conjecturing from their great readiness 
to hear, I anticipate that this assembly will specially be. 
Come then, let us lay up in your souls, as in a safe treasury, 
the Lord's money, and unfold, as far as the grace of the 
Spirit may afford us power, the words this day set before us. 
He (St. John) had said, speaking of the old times, that 
ver. 10. the world knew Him not ; afterwards he comes down in his 
narrative to the times of the proclamation (of the Gospel), 
and says, He came to His own, and His own received Him 
not, now calling the Jews His own, as His peculiar people, 
or perhaps even all mankind, as created by Him. And as 
above, when perplexed at the folly of the many, and ashamed 
of our common nature, he said that the world by Him was 
made, and having been made, did not recognise its Maker; so 
^W*»«-here again, being troubled beyond bearing 2 at the stupidity 
"%* ΤΛ "' of the Jews and the many, he sets forth the charge in a yet 
more striking maimer, saying, that His own received Him 

Amazing blindness of the Jews. 75 

not, and that too when He came to them. And not only he, Jchn 
but the prophets also, wondering, said the very same, as did ' u ' 

afterwards Paul, amazed at the very same things. Thus 
did the prophets cry aloud in the person of Christ, saying, 
A people whom I have not known, have served Me ; as soon p St ig 
as they heard Me, they obeyed Me; the strange children have 43 ^^• 
dealt falsely with Me 1 , Hie strange children have waxed aged, ι « lied 
and have halted from their paths. And again, They to unto , 
whom it had not been told concerning Him, shall see, ii/idLXX. 
they which had not heard, shall understand. And, / was Is 52 
found of them that sought Me not; I was made manifest 15. 
unto them that asked not after Me, And Paul, in his is. 65, 
Epistle to the Romans, has said, What then ? Israel hath l '™ ei 
not obtained that which he seeketh for: but the election'Rom. 
hath obtained it. And again ; What shall ive say then f Ro ' m# ' 
That the Gentiles which followed not after righteous?iess, ll > 7. 
have attained unto righteousness : but Israel which followed 30. 
after the law of righteousness, hath not attained to the law 
of righteo usn ess. 

For it is a thing indeed worthy of our amazement, how 
they who were nurtured in (knowledge of) the prophetical 
books, who heard Moses every day telling them ten thou- 
sand things concerning the coming of the Christ, and the 
other Prophets afterwards, who moreover themselves beheld 
Christ Himself daily working miracles among them, giving 
up His time 2 to them alone, neither as yet allowing His 2a i 
disciples to depart into the way of the Gentiles, or to enter' con- 
into a city of Samaritans, nor doing so Himself, but every ^th.' 5 
where 3 declaring that He was sent to the lost sheep of the J 1 ^• 10 » 
house of Israel: how, (I say,) while they saw the signs, 'άΏάζ'& νωκα \ 
heard the Prophets, and had Christ Himself continually ^ T&? 
putting them in remembrance, they yet made themselves once 24. 
for all so blind and dull, as by none of these things to be 
brought to faith in Christ. While they of the Gentiles, who 
had enjoyed none of these things, who had never heard the 
oracles of God, not, as one may say, so much as in a dream, 
but ever ranging among the fables of madmen, (for heathen 4 ^λίτ- 
philosophy is this,) having ever in their hands 4 the sillinesses y *"™* 

■ . σ ' unroll• 

of their poets, nailed to stocks and stones, and neither in i ug .' 
doctrines nor in conversation 5 possessing any thing good or ^ ολί " 

76 The Jews fell through unbelief and pride : 

Homil. sound. (For their way of life was more impure and more 

accursed than their doctrine. As was likely ; for when they 
saw their gods delighting in all wickedness, worshipped by 
shameful words, and more shameful deeds, reckoning this 
festivity and praise, and moreover honoured by foul murders, 
and child-slaughters, how should not they emulate these 
things?) Still, fallen as they were as low as the very depth of 
wickedness, on a sudden, as by the agency of some machine, 
they have appeared to us shining from on high, and from 
the very summit of heaven. 

How then and whence came it to pass ? Hear Paul telling 
you. For that blessed person searching exactly into these 
things, ceased not until he had found the cause, and had 
declared it to all others. What then is it ? and whence 
came such blindness upon the Jews? Hear him who was 
ι Cor. entrusted with this stewardship declare. What then does he 

9 17 . 

Rom.' sa > r * n resolving this doubt of the many ? For they, says he, 

10 > 3. being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to 
establish their own righteousness, have not submitted them- 
selves unto the righteousness of God. Wherefore they have 
suffered this. And again, explaining the same matter in 

Rom. 9, other terms, he says, What shall we say then ? That the 
Gentiles which followed not after righteousness, have attained 
unto righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; 
but Israel, which followed after the law of righteousness, 
hath not attained to the law of righteousness. Wherefore? 
Because they sought it not by faith. For they stumbled at 
that stumbling stone. His meaning is this : " These men's 
unbelief has been the cause of their misfortunes, and their 
haughtiness was parent of their unbelief." For when having 

1 Έλλή- before enjoyed greater privileges than the heathen 1 , through 
having received the law, through knowing God, and the rest 
which Paul enumerates, they after the coming of Christ 
saw the heathen and themselves called on equal terms 
through faith, and after faith received one of the circumcision 
in nothing preferred to the Gentile, they came to envy and 
were stung by their haughtiness, and could not endure the 
unspeakable and exceeding lovingkindness of the Lord. 
So this has happened to them from nothing else but pride, 
and wickedness, and unkindness. 


Their discontent unreasonable. 77 

[2.] For in what, Ο most foolish of men, are ye injured by John 
the care 1 bestowed on others? How are your blessings made , 1,u ' 
less through having others to share the same ? But of a truth vias 
wickedness is blind, and cannot readily perceive any thing 
that it ought. Being therefore stung by the prospect of 
having others to share the same confidence 2 , they thrust a 2 ποψ fa- 
sword against themselves, and cast themselves out from the σίαϊ • 
lovingkindness of God. And with good reason. For He 
saith, Friend, I do thee no wrong, I will give to these also Mat. 20, 
even as unto thee. Or rather, these Jews aie not deserving u ' 
even of these words. For the man in the parable if he was 
discontented, could yet speak of the labours and weariness, 
the heat and sweat, of a whole day. But what could these 
men have to tell ? nothing like this, but slothfulness and 
profligacy and ten thousand evil things of which all the 
prophets continued ever to accuse them, and by which they 
like the Gentiles had offended against God. And Paul 
declaring this says, For there is no difference between the Rom. 
Jew and the Greek : For all have sinned, and come short of 1 ^^ 
the glory of God: being justified freely by His grace. And 22—24. 
on this head he treats profitably and very wisely throughout 
that Epistle. But in a former part of it he proves that they 
are worthy of still greater punishment. For as many as Rom. 2, 
have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law ; that is ' 
to say, more severely, as having for their accuser the law as 
well as nature. And not for this only, but for that they have 
been the cause that God is blasphemed among the Gentiles : 
My z Name, He saith, is blasphemed among the Gentiles 2 του 
through you. ^°γ 

Since now this it was that stung them most, (for the thing Rom. 2, 
appeared incredible even to those of the circumcision who i s# '52 5. 
believed, and therefore they brought it as a charge against 
Peter, when he was come up to them from Cesarea, that he Acts]], 
ivent in to men uncircumcised, and did eat with them ; and 3 ' 
after that they had learned the dispensation of God, even so 
still 4 they wondered how on the Gentiles also was poured* al. 
out the gift of the Holy Ghost: shewing by their astonish- £ft™'o 
ment that they could never have expected so incredible a 45 • 
thing,) since then he knew that this touched them nearest, 

]0, 12. 


78 The call of the Geniles no loss to the Jews. 

HoMiL.sec how he has emptied 1 their pride, and relaxed 2 their 
*^• highly swelling insolence. For after having discoursed on 
does all the case of the heathen 3 , and shewn that they had not from 
thaThe an y q uarter an y excuse, or hope of salvation, and after 
may having definitely charged them both with the perversion 4 of 
«aL'may their doctrines and the uncleanness of their lives, he shifts 
relax.' hi s argument to the Jews; and 5 after recounting all the 
Έλλη^ί- expressions of the Prophet, in which he had said that they 
κων were polluted, treacherous, hypocritical persons, and had 
στροψ-η. altogether become unprofitable, that there was none among 
< th e n ' tnem that seeketh after God, that they had all gone out of 
Rom. 3, tlte way, and the like, he adds, Now we know that what 
Rom. 3, things soever the law saith, it sailh to them who are under 
19, the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world 
~Rom.3,may become guilty before God. For all have sinned, and 
come short of the glory of God. 

Why then exaltest thou thyself, Ο Jew? why art thou 
high minded ? for thy mouth also is stopped, thy boldness 
also is taken away, thou also with all the world art become 
guilty, and, like others, art placed in need of being justified 
freely. Thou oughtest surely even if thou hadst stood 
upright and hadst had great boldness with God, not even so 
to have envied those who should be pitied and saved through 
His lovingkindness. This is the extreme of wickedness, to 
pine at the blessings of others ; especially when this was to 
be effected without any loss of thine. If indeed the salva- 
tion of others had been prejudicial to thy advantages, thy 
grieving might have been reasonable ; though not even then 
*<ρι\οσο• would it have been so to one who had learned true wisdom 6 . 
But if thy reward is not increased by the punishment of 
another, nor diminished by his welfare, why dost thou 
bewail thyself because that other is freely saved ? As I said, 
thou oughtest not, even wert thou (one) of the approved, 
to be pained at the salvation which cometh to the Gentiles 
through grace. But when thou, who art guilty before thy 
Lord of the same things as they, and hast thyself offended, 
art displeased at the good of others, and thinkest great 
things, as if thou alone oughtest to be partaker of the 
grace, thou art guilty not only of envy and insolence, but 

The evils of pride, and how to avoid it. 79 

of extreme folly, and may est be liable to all the severest John 
torments; for thou hast planted within thyself the root of all — — L 

evils, pride. 

Wherefore a wise man has said, Pride is the beginning o/Ecclus. 
sin: that is, its root, its source, its mother. By this the first 10 ' l3 * 
created was banished from that happy abode : by this the 
devil who deceived him had fallen from that height of 
dignity; from which that accursed one, knowing that the 
nature of the sin was sufficient to cast down even from 
heaven itself, came this way when he laboured to bring 
down Adam from such high honour. For having puffed him 
up with the promise that he should be as a God, so he broke 
him down, and cast him down into the very gulphs of hell 1 . 1 $*•» 
Because nothing so alienates men from the loving-kindness 
of God, and gives them over to the fire of the pit 2 , as the 2 yim»i 
tyranny of pride. For when this is present with us, our 
whole life becomes impure, even though we fulfil tem- 
perance, chastity, fasting, prayer, almsgiving, any thing. 
For, Every one, saith the wise man, that is proud in heart Prov • 
is an abomination* to the Lord. Let us then restrain this3i' un '_ 
swelling of the soul, let us cut up by the roots this lump of f^/ 
pride, if at least we would wish to be clean, and to escape the 
punishment appointed for the devil. For that the proud 
must fall under the same punishment as that (wicked) one, 
hear Paul declare ; Not a novice, lest being lifted η ρ with l Tim. 
pride, he fall into the judgment, and the snare of the devil. (p ar 'ti a *i- 
Whatis the judgment*? He means, into the same condemnation, ^! <i uot - 
the same punishment. How then does he say, that a man may 4 ^ Λ? 
avoid this dreadful thing ? By reflecting upon 5 his own nature, ' con " 
upon the number of his sins, upon the greatness of thetion,' 
torments in that place, upon the transitory nature of the 5 ^ * 
things which seem bright in this world, differing in nothing' calcu- 
from grass, and more fading than the flowers of spring. If 
we continually stir within ourselves these considerations, and 
keep in mind those who have walked most upright, the devil, 
though he strive ten thousand ways, will not be able to lift 6 6 l*«t** 
us up, nor even to trip k us at all. May the God Who is 
the God of the humble, the good and merciful God, grant 
both to you and me a broken and humbled heart, so shall 

k vroffKiXltrat, (a gymnastic term, like the preceding). 


Homil. we be enabled easily to order the rest, aright, to the glory 
IX • of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to 
the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory for ever and ever. 


John i. 11. 
He came unto His own, and His oivn received Him not. 

Beloved, God being loving towards man and beneficent, 
does and contrives all things in order that we may shine in 
virtue, and as desiring that we be well approved by Him. 
And to this end He draws no one by force or compulsion ; 
but by persuasion and benefits He draws all that will, and 
wins them to Himself. Wherefore when He came, some 
received Him, and others received Him not. For He will 
have no unwilling, no forced domestic, but all of their own 
will and choice, and grateful to Him for their service. Men, 
as needing the ministry of servants, keep many in that state 
even against their will, by the law of ownership a ; but God, 
being without wants, and not standing in need of any thing 
of ours, but doing all only for our salvation, makes us 
absolute 1 in this matter, and therefore lays neither force ' *^»w 
nor compulsion on any of those who are unwilling. For He 
looks only to our advantage : and to be drawn unwilling to 
a service like this is the same as not serving at all. 

" Why then," says one, " does He punish those who will 
not listen 2 to Him, and why hath He threatened hell to those 2 al. 
who endure 3 not His commands?" Because, being Goods 8 ^."" 
exceedingly, He cares even for those who obey Him not, ' hear ' 
and withdraws not from them who start back and flee from 
Him. But when we 4 had rejected the first way of His 4 al. 
beneficence, and had refused to come by the path of per- 
suasion and kind treatment, then He brought in upon us 

* ttrirortictf , i.e. { the law of master and slave.' 

82 God's great care for man. 

Homtl. the other way, that of correction and punishments ; most bitter 
X * indeed, but still necessary, when the former is disregarded . 
Now lawgivers also appoint many and grievous penalties 
against offenders, and yet we feel no aversion to them for 
this ; we even honour them the more on account of the 
punishments they have enacted, and because though not 
needing a single thing that we have, and often not knowing 
who they should be that should enjoy the help afforded by 
ι « writ- their written laws 1 , they still took care for the good ordering 
"t 8S 'bf l ' ^ our nves > rewarding those who live virtuously, and check- 
2 al# t as ing by punishments the intemperate, and those - who would 
those' mar the repose 3 of others. And if we admire and love these 
< settled men, ought we not much more to marvel at and love God on 
state' account of His so great care ? For the difference between 
their and His forethought regarding us is infinite. Unspeak- 
able of a truth are the riches of the goodness of God, and 
4 al. < be- passing all excess 4 . Consider; He came to His own, not 
thought' f° r His personal need, (for, as I said, the Divinity is without 
wants,) but to do good unto His own people. Yet not even 
so did His own receive Him, when He came to His own for 
their advantage, but repelled Him, and not this only, but 
they even cast Him out of the vineyard, and slew Him. Yet 
not for this even did He shut them out from repentance, but 
granted them, if they had been willing, after such wickedness 
as this, to wash off all their transgressions by faith in Him, and 
to be made equal to those who had done no such thing, but 
are His especial friends. And that I say not this at random, 
or for persuasion's sake, all the history of the blessed 
Paul loudly declares. For when he, who after the Cross 
persecuted Christ, and had stoned His martyr Stephen by 
those many hands, repented, and condemned his former sins, 
and ran to Him Whom he had persecuted, He immediately 
enrolled him among His friends, and the chiefest of them, 
having appointed him a herald and teacher of all the world, 
ι Tim. who had been a blasphemer, and 'persecutor, and injurious. 
] ' 13 ' Even as he rejoicing at the loving-kindness of God, has 
proclaimed aloud, and has not been ashamed, but having 
recorded in his writings, as on a pillar, the deeds formerly 

b al. ' For when the former way is disregarded, the introduction of the second 
is necessary.' Ben. 

St. Paul an instance of lite long-suffering of God. 83 

dared by him, has exhibited them to all; thinking it better Jchm 
that his former life should be placarded 6 in sight of all, so T ' H * 
that the greatness of the free gift of God might appear, than 
that he should obscure His ineffable and indescribable 
loving-kindness by hesitating to parade 1 before all men his 1 i« ren- 
own error. Wherefore continually 2 he treats of his persecu- f *Τ ΛΙ v 
tion, his plottings, his wars against the Church, at one time «*■»•* 
saying, i" am not meet to be called an Apostle, because 1 1 Cor. 
'persecuted the Church of God; at another, Jesus came into v Tim# 
the world to save sinners, of whom I am chief. And 1 * 15 • 
again, Ye have heard of my conversation in time past in the Ga\, 1, 
Jews' religion, how that beyond measure I persecuted the ' 
church of God, and wasted it. 

[2.] For making as it were a kind of return to Christ for 
His long-suffering towards him, by shewing who it was, what 
a hater and enemy that He saved, he declared with much 
openness the warfare which at the first with all zeal he 
warred against Christ; and with this he holds forth good 
hopes to those who despaired of their condition. For he 
says, that Christ accepted him, in order that in him first He 
might shew forth all long-suffering, and the abundant riches ι Tim. 
of His goodness, for a pattern to them that should hereafter ' 
believe in Him to life everlasting. Because the things which 
they had dared were too great for any pardon; which the 
Evangelist declaring, said, 

He came to His own, and His own received Him not. 
Whence came He, Who filleth all things, and Who is every 
where present? What place did He empty of His presence, 
Who holdeth and graspeth all things in His hand? He 
exchanged not one place for another; how should He? But 
by His coming down to us, He effected this. For since, 
though being in the world, He did not seem to be there, 
because He was not yet known, but afterwards manifested 
Himself by deigning to take upon Him our flesh, he (St. 
John) calls this manifestation and descent, " a coming d ." 
One might wonder at e the disciple who is not ashamed of the 
dishonour of his Teacher, but even records the insolence 

c στκλίτίύί<τΟΆ4. lit. 'set on a pillar,' Ν. T. 
al. στίζίσβα,ι, ' be branded.' e al. * there is reason to wonder 

d πκξουσίκ. commonly so used in that.' 


84 The punishment of those who received not Christ. 

Homil. which was used towards Him : yet this is no small proof of 
— ^— his truth-loving disposition. And besides, he who feels 
shame should feel it for those who have offered an insult, 
not for the person outraged f . Indeed He by this very 
thing shone the brighter, as taking, even after the 
insult, so much care for those who had offered it; while 
they appeared ungrateful and accursed in the eyes of all 
men, for having rejected Him Who came to bring them 
so great goods, as hateful to them, and an enemy. And 
not only in this were they hurt, but also in not obtaining 
what they obtained who received Him. What did these 
obtain ? 

Ver. 12. As many as received Him, to them gave He 
power to become sons of God, says the Evangelist. " Why 
then, Ο blessed one, dost thou not also tell us the punish- 
ment of them who received Him not ? Thou hast said 
that they were His own, and that when He came to His 
own, they received Him not; but what they shall suffer for 
this, what punishment they shall undergo, thou hast not 
gone on to add. Yet so thou wouldest the more have 
terrified them, and have softened the hardness of their in- 
sanity by threatening. Wherefore then hast thou been 
silent ?" " And what other punishment," he would say, " can 
be greater than this, that when power is offered them to 
become sons of God, they do not become so, but willingly 
deprive themselves of such nobility and honour as this ?" 
Although their punishment shall not even stop at this point, 
that they gain no good, but moreover the unquenchable fire 
shall receive them, as in going on he has more plainly 
revealed. But for the present he speaks of the unutterable 
goods of those who received Him, and sets these words in 
brief before us g , saying, As many as received Him, to them 
gave He power to become sons of God. Whether bond or 
free, whether Greeks or barbarians or Scythians, unlearned 
or learned, female or male, children or old men, in honour 
or dishonour, rich or poor, rulers or private persons, all, he 
saith, are deemed worthy the same privilege ; for faith and 
the grace of the Spirit, removing the inequality caused by 

' vru^onriuivrti , 'insulted by men & al. ' sets them in brief before us ia 
heated with wine.' these words.' 

The great Gift of Baptism : mail's duty to guard it. 85 

worldly things, hath moulded all to one fashion, and stamped John 
them with one impress, the King's. What can equal this — '- — - 
loving-kindness ? A king, who is framed of the same clay 
with us, does not deign to enrol among the royal host his 
fellow-servants, who share the same nature with himself, and 
in character often are better than he, if they chance to be 
slaves ; but the Only-Begotten Son of God did not disdain 
to reckon among the company of His children both publicans, 
sorcerers, and slaves, nay, men of less repute and greater 
poverty than these, maimed in body, and suffering from ten 
thousand ills. Such is the power of faith in Him, such the 
excess of His grace. And as the element of fire, when it 
meets with ore from the mine, straightway of earth makes 
it gold, even so and much more Baptism makes those who 
are washed to be of gold instead of clay, the Spirit at that 
time falling like fire into our souls, burning up the image of ι Cor. 
the earthy, and producing the image of the heavenly, fresh ' 
coined, bright and glittering, as from the furnace-mould. 

Why then did he say not that " He made them sons of 
God," but that He gave them power to become sons of God ? 
To shew that we need much zeal to keep the image of 
sonship impressed on us at Baptism, all through without spot 
or soil 1 ; and at the same time to shew that no one shall be 1 **»- 
able to take this power from us, unless we are the first to 
deprive ourselves of it. For if among men, those who have 
received the absolute control of any matters have well-nigh 
as much power as those who gave them the charge ; much 
more shall we, who have obtained such honour from God, be, 
if we do nothing unworthy of this power, stronger than all; 
because He Who put this honour in our hands is greater and 
better than all. At the same time too he wishes to shew, 
that not even does grace come upon man irrespectively 2 , 2 άτλ£ί 
but upon those who desire and take pains for it. For it lies 
in the power of these to become (His) children ; since if they 
do not themselves first make the choice, the gift does not 
come upon them, nor have any effect. 

[3.] Having therefore every where excluded compulsion, 
and pointing to (man's) voluntary choice and free power, 
he has said the same now. For even in these mystical 
blessings 3 , it is, on the one hand, pod's part, to give the 3i - e •. of 


86 Faith unavailing without a holy life: 

Homil. grace, on the other, man's, to supply faith ; and in after time 

x • there needs for what remains much earnestness. In order to 

preserve our purity, it is not sufficient for us merely to have 
been baptized and to have believed, but we must, if we will 
continually enjoy this brightness, display a life worthy of it. 
This then is God's work in us. To have been born tli3 
mystical Birth, and to have been cleansed from all our 
former sins, comes from Baptism ; but to remain for the 
future pure, never again after this to admit any stain, belongs 
to our own power and diligence. And this is the reason why 
he reminds us of the manner of the birth, and by comparison 
with fleshly pangs shews its excellence, when he says, 
1 lit. Ver. 13. Who were born, not of blood 1 , nor of the will of 

< bloods' fj ie fl es ft 9 ou t of God. This he has done, in order that, con- 
sidering the vileness and lowness of the first birth, which is 
of blood, and the will of the flesh, and perceiving the high- 
ness and nobleness of the second, which is by grace, we may 
form from thence some great opinion of it, and one worthy 
of the gift of Him Who hath begotten us, and for the future 
exhibit much earnestness. 

For there is no small fear, lest, having sometime defiled 

that beautiful robe by our after sloth and transgressions, we 

2* βί ττά-|3 θ cast ou t f rom t ne inner room 2 and bridal chamber, like 

Mat.25.the five foolish virgins, or him who had not on a wedding 

Mat • 22 • garment. He too was one of the guests, for he had been 

invited; but because, after the invitation and so great an 

honour, he behaved with insolence towards Him Who had 

invited him, hear what punishment he suffers, how pitiable, 

fit subject for many tears. For when he comes to partake of 

that splendid table, not only is he forbidden the feast, but 

bound hand and foot alike, is carried into outer darkness, to 

undergo eternal and endless wailing and gnashing of teeth. 

3 al. Therefore, beloved, let not us either expect 3 that faith is 

sufficient to us for salvation ; for if we do not shew forth 

a pure life, but come clothed with garments unworthy of this 

blessed calling, nothing hinders us from suffering the same 

as that wretched one. Tt is strange that He, Who is God 

and King, is not ashamed of men who are vile, beggars, and 

of no repute, but brings even them of the cross ways to that 

table ; while we manifest so much insensibility, as not even 

which is the wedding garment required. 87 

to be made better by so great an honour, bat even alter the John 
call remain in our old wickedness, insolently abusing 1 the Iml3 ' 
unspeakable loving-kindness of Him Who hath called us. ' lf t***' 
tor it was not for this that He called us to the spiritual and 
awful communion of His mysteries, that we should enter 
with our former wickedness; but that, putting off our filthi- 
ness, we should change our raiment to such as becomes those 
who are entertained in palaces. But if we will not act 
worthily of that calling, this no longer rests with Him Who 
hath honoured us, but with ourselves; it is not He that casts 
us out from that admirable company of guests, but we cast 
out ourselves. 

He has done all His part. He has made the marriage, 
He has provided the table, He has sent men to call us, has 
received us when we came, and honoured us with all other 
honour; but we, when we have offered insult to Him, to the 
company, and to the wedding, by our filthy garments, that 
is, our impure actions, are then with good cause cast out. 
It is to honour the marriage and the guests, that He drives 
off those bold 2 and shameless persons; for were He to suffer 2 irafMue 
those clothed in such a garment, He would seem to be 
offering insult to the rest. But may it never be that one, 
either of us or of others, find this of Him Who has called 
us ! For to this end have all these things been written before 
they come to pass, that we, being sobered by the threats of 
the Scriptures, may not suffer this disgrace and punishment 
to go on to the deed, but stop it at the word only, and each 
with bright apparel come to that call ; which may it come 
to pass that we all enjoy, through the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom, 
to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory for ever and ever. 


John i. 14. 
And the Word was made Flesh, and dwelt among us. 

I desire to ask one favour of you all, before I touch on 
the words of the Gospel ; do not you refuse my request, for 
I ask nothing heavy or burthensome, nor, if granted, will 
it be useful only to me who receive, but also to you who 
grant it, and perhaps far more so to you. What then is it 
that I require of you ? That each of you take in hand that 
section of the Gospels which is to be read among you on 
the first day of the week, or even on the Sabbath, and before 
the day arrive, that he sit down at home and read it through, 
aud often carefully consider its contents, and examine all its 

JiU.'very parts well, what 3 is clear, what obscure 1 , what seems to 
make for the adversaries b , but does not really so ; and when 

- arxZs.yow have tried c , in a word 2 , every point, so go to hear it 
read. For from zeal like this will be no small gain both to 
you and to us. We shall not need much labour to render 
clear the meaning of what is said, because your minds will 
be already made familiar with the sense of the words, and 
you will become keener and more clearsighted not for hearing 
only, nor for learning, but also for the teaching of others. 
Since, in the way that now most of those who come hither 
hear, compelled to take in the meaning of all at once, both 
the words, and the remarks we make upon them, they will 
not, though we should go on doing this for a whole year, 
reap any great gain. How can they, when they have leisure 

a al. ' let him mark what is clear c *hia.Kuho)n4<x.i<rit, i having tried by 
&c.' ringing.' 

b al. ' to be contradictory.' 

Excuses of the negligent. 89 

for what is said as a bye work 1 , and only in this place, and John 
for this short time ? If any lay the fault on business, and ,-^ — - 
cares, and constant occupation in public and private matters, ί ζγβ υ. 
in the first place, this is no slight charge in itself, that they 
are surrounded with such a multitude of business, are so 
continually nailed to the things of this life, that they cannot 
find even a little leisure for what is more needful than all. 
Besides, that this is a mere pretext and excuse, their meetings 
with friends would prove against them, their loitering in the 
theatres, and the parties 2 they make to see horse races, at a «"fym. 
which they often spend whole days, yet never in that case 
does one of them complain of the pressure of business. For 
trifles then you can without making any excuses, always find 
abundant leisure ; but when you ought to attend to the 
things of God, do these seem to you so utterly superfluous 
and mean, that you think you need not assign even a little 
leisure to them ? How do men of such disposition deserve 
to breathe or to look upon this sun ? 

There is another most foolish excuse of these sluggards ; 
that they have not the books in their possession. Now as 
to the rich, it is ludicrous that we should take our aim at 3 this 3 £*««/- 
excuse ; but because I imagine that many of the poorer sort" 1 ' a> ' 
continually use it, I would gladly ask, if every one of them 
does not have all the instruments of the trade which he 
works at, full and complete, though infinite 4 poverty stand 4 α"ί<«• 
in his way ? Is it not then a strange thing, in that case to 
throw no blame on poverty, but to use every means that 
there be no obstacle from any quarter, but, when we might 
gain such great advantage, to lament our want of leisure and 
our poverty ? 

Besides, even if any should be so poor, it is in their power, 
by means of the continual reading of the holy Scriptures 
which takes place here, to be ignorant of nothing contained 
in them. Or if this seems to you impossible, it seems so with 
reason ; for many do not come with fervent zeal to hearken 
to what is said, but having done this one thing d for form's 
sake 5 on our account 6 , immediately return home. Or if any β ^ ΛΛ ,_ 
should stay, they are no better disposed than those who have ζ*?""• 
retired, since they are only present here with us in body, the day.' 
A i. e. having come to the assembly. 

90 Greatness not lessened by condescension. 

Homil. But that we may not overload you with accusations, and 
spend all the time in finding fault, let us proceed to the 
words of the Gospel, for it is time to direct the remainder of 
our discoiuse to what is set before us. Rouse yourselves 
therefore, that nothing of what is said escape you. 

And the Word was made Flesh, he saith, and dwelt among 

Having declared that they who received Him were bom 

of God, and had become sons of God, he adds the cause and 

reason of this unspeakable honour. It is that the Word 

became Flesh, that the Master took on Him the form of a 

1 ywM*. servant. For He became Son of man, Who was God's own f 

Son, in order that He might make the sons of men to be 

children of God. For the high when it associates with the 

low touches not at all its own honour, while it raises up the 

other from its excessive lowness ; and even thus it was with 

the Lord. He in nothing diminished His own Nature by 

2 allele- this condescension 2 , but raised us, who had always sat in 

scent, disgrace an( j darkness, to glory unspeakable. Thus it may 

be, a king, conversing with interest and kindness with a poor 

mean man, does not at all shame himself, yet makes the other 

observed by all and illustrious. Now if in the case of the 

adventitious dignity of men, intercourse with the humbler 

person in nothing injures the more honourable, much less 

can it do so in the case of that simple and blessed Essence, 

which has nothing adventitious, or subject to growth or decay, 

3< al.pos- but has 3 all good things immoveable, and fixed for ever. 

So that when you hear that the Word became Flesh, be not 

4 μ**- disturbed nor cast down. For that Essence did not change 4 

M'a" to- flesh, (it is impiety 5 to imagine this,) but continuing what 

from It is, It so took upon It the form of a servant. 

was [2.] Wherefore then does he use the expression, was 

into.' made? To stop the mouths of the heretics. For since 

< truiy there are some e who say that all the circumstances of the 

impious Dispensation were an appearance, a piece of acting, an 

allegory, at once to remove beforehand their blasphemy, he 

has put v:as made; desiring to shew thereby not a change of 

substance, (away with the thought,) but the assumption of 

e The Doceta;, who maintained that was a phantom. Perhaps they are the 
our Lord appeared only to act and heretics specially alluded to hy St. John, 
-iuffer in the Flesh, and that His Body 1 Ep. iv. 2. and 2 Ep. 7. 

The unchangeable Nature of God. 91 

very flesh. For as when (Paul) says, Christ hath redeemed John 
us from the curse of the lata, being made a curse for us, he 

does not mean that His essence removing from Its proper 
glory took upon It the being 1 of an accursed thing, (this not J •«««*«. 
even devils could imagine, nor even the very foolish, nor 
those deprived of their natural understanding, such impiety 
as well as madness does it contain,) as (St. Paul) does not 
say this, but that He, taking upon Himself the curse pro- 
nounced against us, leaves us no more under the curse ; so 
also here he (St. John) says that He ivas made Flesh, not by 
changing His Essence to flesh, but by taking flesh to Him- 
self, His Essence remained untouched. 

If they say that being God, He is Omnipotent, so that He 
could lower Himself 2 to the substance of flesh, we will reply V»«e- 
to them, that He is Omnipotent as long as He continues to 
be God. But if He admit of change, change for the worse, 
how could He be God ? for change is far from that simple 
Nature. Wherefore the Prophet s&\th, % They all shall wax^* tl0l i 
old as doth a garment, and as a vesture shalt Thou roll them LXX. 
up, and they shall be changed; but Thou art the same, and 
Thy years shall not fail. For that Essence is superior to all 
change. There is nothing better than He, to which He 
'might advance and reach. Better do I say ? No, nor equal 
to, nor the least approaching Him. It remains, therefore, 
that if He change, He must admit a change for the worse ; 
and this would not be God. But let the blasphemy return 
upon the heads of those who utter it. Nay, to shew that he 
uses the expression, was made, only that you should not 
suppose a mere appearance, hear from what follows how he 
clears the argument, and overthrows that wicked suggestion. 
For what does he add ? And dwelt among us. All but say- 
ing, " Imagine nothing improper from the word was made ; 
I spoke not of any change of that unchangeable Nature, but 
of Its dwelling 3 and inhabiting. But that which dwells 4 \ Ut • 
cannot be the same with that in which it dwells, but different; nacling' 
one thing dwells in a different thing, otherwise it would not < ht ' , 
be dwelling; for nothing can inhabit itself. I mean, different taberna- 
as to essence; for by an Union 5 and Conjoining 6 God the?^^ 

Word and the Flesh are One, not by any confusion or obli- (i ™* α - 


9*2 Mail's nature hopelessly fallen, how raised; 

Homil. teration of substances, but by a certain union ineffable, and 
— — \~ past 1 understanding. Ask not how 3 ; for It was made, so 

1 αψξα- r 

*rou as He knoweth. 

not'ac? What then was the tabernacle in which He dwelt? Hear 

curate- the Prophet say; / will raise up the tabernacle of David 

Amos 9 that is fallen. It was fallen indeed, our nature had fallen 

n ' an incurable fall, and needed only that mighty Hand. There 

was no possibility of raising it again, had not He who 

fashioned it at first stretched forth to it His Hand, and 

stamped it anew with His Image, by the regeneration of 

water and the Spirit. And observe, I pray you, the awful 

3 al. • in- and ineffable nature 3 of the mystery. He inhabits this 

off η Vil Ρ 

mystery' tabernacle for ever, for He clothed Himself, with our flesh, 

not as again to leave it, but always to have it with Him. Had 

not this been the case, He would not have deemed it worthy 

of the royal throne, nor would He while wearing it have been 

worshipped by all the host of heaven, angels, archangels, 

thrones, principalities, dominions, powers. What word, what 

thought can represent such great honour done to our race, so 

truly marvellous and awful? What angel, what archangel? 

Not one in any place, whether in heaven, or upon earth. For 

* *«τ•ς. such are the mighty works 4 of God, so great and marvellous 

are His benefits, that a right description of them exceeds not 

only the tongue of men, but even the power of Angels. 

sal.* let Wherefore we will 5 for a while close our discourse, and be 

"«β ι . silent^ only delivering to you this charge 6 , that you repay 

yva<rxv- this our so great Benefactor by a return which again shall 

bring round to us all profit. The return is, that we look 

with all carefulness to the state of our souls. For this too is 

the work of His loving-kindness, that He Who stands in no 

need of any thing of ours, says that He is repaid when we 

take care of our own souls. It is therefore an act of extremest 

folly, and one deserving ten thousand chastisements, if we, 

when such honour has been lavished upon us, will not even 

contribute what we can, and that too when profit comes 

round to us again by these means, and ten thousand blessings 

arc laid before us on these conditions. For all these things 

'άνατί/Α- let us return 7 glory to our merciful God, not by words only, 

v**"*' but much more by works, that we may obtain the good things 

the return to he made by him. 93 

hereafter, which may it be that we all attain to, through the John 
grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom ' u ' 
and with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 


John i. 14. 

And we beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten 
of the Father, fall of grace and truth. 

1 *ζύην Perhaps we seemed to you the other day 1 needlessly hard 

upon you and burdensome, using too sharp language, and 
extending too far our reproaches against the sluggishness of 
the many. Now if we had done this merely from a desire 
to vex you, each of you would with cause have been angry ; 
but if, looking to your advantage, we neglected in our speech 
what might gratify you, if ye will not give us credit for our 
forethought, you should at least pardon us on account of 

2 ?'*■»; such tender love 2 . For in truth we greatly fear, lest, if we 
3 alf 7 ' are taking pains 3 , and you are not willing to manifest the 
'speak- same diligence in listening, your future reckoning may be 

the more severe. Wherefore we are compelled continually 
to arouse and waken you, that nothing of what is said may 
4 *«ζαζ. escape 4 you. For so you will be enabled to live for the 
present with much confidence, and to exhibit it at that Day 
before the judgment-seat of Christ. Since then we have 
lately sufficiently touched you, let us to-day at the outset 
enter on the expressions themselves. 

We beheld, he says, His glory, the glory as of the Only- 
Begotten of the Father. 

Having declared that we were made sons of God, and 
5 al.'that having shewn in what manner 5 , namely, by the Word having 
no ^ " been made Flesh, he again mentions another advantage 
other- which we gain from this same circumstance. What is it ? 
than by' We beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only- Begotten of 
the Father; which we could not have beheld, had it not 

The surpassing Glory of the Only-begotten Son. 95 

been shewn to us, by means of a body like to our own 1 . John 
For if the men of old time could not even bear to look upon — — ~ 
the glorified countenance of Moses, who partook of the same <p J ξ °~ 
nature with us, if that just man needed a veil which might 
shade over the purity 2 of his glory, and shew to them the •**ξατο» 
face of their prophet mild and gentle a ; how could we 
creatures of clay and earth have endured the unveiled God- 
head, which is unapproachable even by the powers above ? 
Wherefore He tabernacled 3 among us, that we might be able 3 *««*- 
with much fearlessness to approach Him, speak to, and 
converse with Him. 

But what means the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the 
Father? Since many of the Prophets too were glorified, as 
this Moses himself, Elijah, and Elisha, the one encircled by 
the fiery chariot, the other taken up by it ; and after them, 2 Kings 
Daniel and the Three Children, and the many others who 6 ' 1 '• 
shewed forth wonders 4 ; and angels who have appeared 4 [were 
among men, and partly disclosed 5 to beholders the flashing g 1( £j" 
light of their proper nature; and since not angels only, but 5 *«e*v- 
even the Cherubim were seen by the Prophet in great glory, VT8i 
and the Seraphim also : the Evangelist leading us away 
from all these, and removing our thoughts from created 
things, and from the brightness of our fellow-servants, sets 
us at the very summit of good. For, " not of prophet," says 6 6 el. ' all 
he, " nor angel, nor archangel, nor of the higher powers, nor ini? > y " 
of any other created nature, if other there be, but of the 
Master Himself, the King Himself, the true Only-begotten 
Son Himself, of the Very Lord 7 of all, did we behold the 7 ah 'and 
glory." Master ' 

. For the expression as, does not in this place belong 
to similarity or comparison, but to confirmation and un- 
questionable definition ; as though he said, " We beheld 
glory, such as it was becoming, and likely that He should 
possess, Who is the Only-begotten and true Son of God, 
v the King of all." The habit (of so speaking) is general, for 
I shall not refuse to strengthen my argument even from 
common custom, since it is not now my object to speak 
with any reference to beauty of words, or elegance of 

a Morel. ' make the intolerable (brightness) of his countenance bearable to 

96 Christ acknowledged by the whole Creation. 

Homil. composition, but only for your advantage ; and therefore 
XIL there is nothing to prevent my establishing my argument by 
the instance of a common practice. What then is the habit 
of most persons ? Often when any have seen a king richly 
decked, and glittering on all sides with precious stones, and 
are afterwards describing to others the beauty, the orna- 
ments, the splendour, they enumerate as much as they can, 
the glowing tint of the purple robe, the size of the jewels, 
the whiteness of the mules, the gold about the yoke, the soft 
and shining couch. But when after enumerating these 
things, and other things besides these, they cannot, say what 
i*W- they will, give a full idea of 1 the splendour, they immediately 
<rrn<rxi b rm g m ; « But why say much about it; once for all, he 
was like a king;" not desiring by the expression "like," 
to shew that he, of whom they say this, resembles a king, 
but that he is a real king. Just so now the Evangelist has 
put the word as, desiring to represent the transcendent 
nature and incomparable excellence of His glory. 

For indeed all others, both angels and archangels and pro- 
phets, did every thing as under command ; but He with the 
authority which becomes a King and Master; at which even the 
Matt. 7, multitudes wondered, that He taught as one having authority. 
29# Even angels, as I said, have appeared with great glory upon 
the earth ; as in the case of Daniel, of David, of Moses, but 
they did all as servants who have a Master. But He as 
Lord and Ruler of all, and this when He appeared in poor 
and humble form ; but even so creation recognised her Lord. 
Now the star from heaven which called the wise men to 
worship Him, the vast throng pouring every where of angels 
attending the Lord 3 , and hymning His praise, and besides 
them, many other heralds sprang up on a sudden, and all, as 
2 a l. they met 2 , declared to one another the glad tidings of this 
'coming ineffable mystery; the angels to the shepherds; the shepherds 
ther' to those of the city ; Gabriel to Mary and Elisabeth ; Anna 
and Simeon to those who came to the Temple. Nor were 
3 i*rit«-men and women only lifted up 3 with pleasure, but the very 
< made m ^ ailt wno naa< not yet come forth to light, I mean the 
winged' citizen of the wilderness, the namesake of this Evangelist, 
ν•τί*ξ« leaped while yet in his mother's womb, and all were soaring 4 

a Morel. ' and heavenly multitudes appearing on earth of Angels ministering.' 

Maits nature repaired by Christ. 97 

with hopes for the future. This too immediately after the John 
Birth. But when He had manifested Himself still farther, Jm U ' 
other wonders, yet greater than the first, were seen. For it 
was no more star, or sky, no more angels, or archangels, 
not Gabriel, or Michael, but the Father Himself from heaven 
above, Who proclaimed Him, and with the Father the 
Comforter, flying down at the uttering of the Voice and 
resting on Him. Truly therefore did he say, We beheld His 
glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the Father. 

Yet he says it not only on account of these things, but 
also on account of what followed them ; for no longer do 
shepherds only, and widow women, and aged men, declare 
to us the good tidings, but the very voice 1 of the things • al. 
themselves, sounding clearer than any trumpet, and so' nature ' 
loudly, that the sound was straightway heard even in this 
land. For, says one, His fame went into* all Syria ; and Matt. 4, 
He revealed Himself to all, and all things every where 24 ' 
exclaimed, that the King of Heaven was «come. Evil spirits 
every where fled and started away from Him, Satan covered 
his face c and retired, death 2 at that time retreated before Him, 2 al.«and 
and afterwards disappeared altogether; every kind of in-ftself!' 
firmity was loosed, the graves let free the dead, the devils 
those whom they had maddened 3 , and diseases the sick. 3 ™** 
And one might see things strange and wonderful, such ££*"*' 
as with good cause the prophets desired to see, and saw 
not. One might see eyes fashioned, (might see) Him shew- John 9, 
ing to all in short space, and on the more noble portion 6 ' 7 ' 
of the body, that admirable thing which all would have 
desired to see, how. God formed Adam from the earth; 
palsied and distorted limbs fastened and adapted to each 
other, dead hands moving, palsied feet leaping amain, ears 
that were stopped re -opened, and the tongue sounding aloud 
which before was tied by speechlessness. For having taken in 
hand the common nature of men, as some excellent workman 
might take a house decayed by time, He filled up what was 
broken off, banded together its crevices and shaken portions, 
and raised up again what was entirely fallen down. 

And what should one say of the fashioning of the soul, so 
much more admirable than that of the body? The health of 
throughout. 'E.V. * iyHaXv+dptfos. 

UllUUgllUUl. JLi, V . 


98 Souls healed by Christ. 

Homil. our bodies is a great thing, but that of our souls is as much 
XIL greater as the soul is better than the body. And not on this 
account only, but because our bodily nature follows whither- 
soever the Creator will lead it, and there is nothing to resist, 
but the soul being its own mistress, and possessing power 
over its acts, does not in all things obey God, unless it will 
to do so. For God will not make it beautiful and excellent, 
if it be reluctant and in a manner constrained by force, for 
this is not virtue at all ; but He must persuade it to become 
so of its own will and choice. And so this cure is more 
difficult than the other ; yet even this succeeded, and every 
kind of wickedness was banished. And as He re-ordered 
the bodies which He cured, not to health only, but to the 
highest vigour, so did He not merely deliver the souls from 
extremest wickedness, but brought them to the very summit 
of excellence. A publican became an Apostle, and a per- 
secutor, blasphemer, and injurious, appeared as herald to the 
world, and the Magi became teachers of the Jews, and a thief 
was declared a citizen of Paradise, and a harlot shone forth 
by the greatness of her faith, and of the two women, of 
Canaan and Samaria, the latter who was another harlot, 
undertook to preach the Gospel to her countrymen, and 
having inclosed a whole city in her net d , so brought them e 
to Christ; w T hile the former, by faith and perseverance, pro- 
cured the expulsion of an evil spirit from her daughter's 
soul ; aud many others much worse than these were straight- 
way numbered in the rank of disciples, and at once all the 
1 <r«7»j infirmities 1 of their bodies and diseases of their souls were 
transformed, and they were fashioned anew to health and 
exactest virtue. And of these, not two or three men, not 
five, or ten, or twenty, or an hundred only, but entire cities 
and nations, were very easily remodelled. Why should one 
speak of the wisdom of the commands, the excellency of the 
heavenly laws, the good ordering of the angelic polity ? 
For such a life hath He proposed to us, such laws appointed 
for us, such a polity established, that those who put these 
things into practice, immediately become angels and like to 
^al.'we'Qoo^ as f ar as i s i n our power, even though they 2 may have 
been worse than all men. 

'• jKynvttjtrueroc from aaynin, ' a seine net.' e al. * brought them out.' 

The glory of the Crucifixion. 99 

[3.] The Evangelist therefore having brought together all John 
these things, the marvels in our bodies, in our souls, in the L 1 ^.:. 
elements 1 (of our faith), the commandments, those gifts J «<«. 
ineffable and higher than the heavens, the laws, the polity, * ί/β/ί 
the persuasion, the future promises, His sufferings, uttered 
that voice so wonderful and full of exalted doctrine, saying, 
We beheld His glory, the glory as of Ike Only -Be gotten of 
the Father, full of grace and truth. For we admire Him 
not only on account of the miracles, but also by reason of 
the sufferings; as that He was nailed upon the Cross, that 
He was scourged, that He was buffeted, that He was spit upon, 
that He received blows on the cheek from those to whom He 
had done good. For even of those very things which seem to 
be shameful, it is proper to repeat the same expression, since 
He Himself called that action 2 " glory." For what then took 2 i.e. His 
place was (proof) not only of kindness and love, but also ofg^ 1 " 
unspeakable power. At that time death was abolished, the 
curse was loosed, devils were shamed and led in triumph and 
made a show of, and the handwriting of our sins was nailed to 
the Cross. And then, since these wonders were doing invisibly, 
others took place visibly, shewing that He was of a truth the 
Only-begotten Son of God, the Lord of all creation. For while 
yet that blessed Body hung upon the tree, the sun turned 
away his rays, the whole earth was troubled and became 
dark, the graves were opened, the ground quaked, and an 
innumerable multitude of dead leaped forth, and went into 
the city. And while the stones of His tomb were fastened 
upon the vault, and the seals yet upon them, the Dead 
arose, the Crucified, the nail-pierced One, and 3 having 3 al.'then 
filled His eleven disciples with His mighty 4 power, He 4 ^ a 
sent them to men throughout all the world, to be the? ert ain 
common healers of all their kind 5 , to correct their way ble and 
of living, to spread through every part of the earth tlief VH f' f 
knowledge of their heavenly doctrines, to break down the their 
tyranny of devils, to teach those great and ineffable blessings, * at ° r e e > 
to bring to us the glad tidings of the soul's immortality, and 
the eternal life of the body, and rewards which are beyond 
conception, and shall never have an end. These things 
then, and yet more than these, the blessed Evangelist having 
in mind, things which though he knew, he was not able to 

η 2 

100 The greatness of the glory to come. 

Homil. write, because the world could uot have contained them? 

Xil _ (for if all things should be written every one, I suppose thai 

" 'even the world itself could not contain the books that should 

be written,) reflecting therefore on all these, he cries out, We 

beheld His glory, the glory as of the Only-Begotten of the 

Father, full of grace and truth. 

It behoves therefore those who have been deemed worthy to 

see and to hear such things, and who have enjoyed so great 

a gift, to display also a life worthy of the doctrines, that they 

may enjoy also the good things which are (laid up) there. 

For our Lord Jesus Christ came, not only that we might 

behold His glory here, but also that which shall be. For 

c. 17,24. therefore He saith, / tuill that these 1 also be icith Me where 

! ,ί I am, that they may behold My glory, Now if the glory 

G. T.) here was so bright and splendid, what can one say of that 

(which shall be) ? for it shall appear not on this corruptible 

earth, nor while we are in perishable bodies, but in a creation 

which is imperishable, and waxes not old, and with such 

brightness as it is not possible even to represent in words* 

2 al. Ο 2 blessed, thrice blessed, yea many times so, they who are 

10W deemed worthy to be beholders of that glory! It is concern- 

Ts. 26, ing this that the prophet says, Let the unrighteous he taken 

LXX. away, that he behold not the glory of the Lord. God 

grant that not one of us be taken away nor excluded ever 

from beholding it. For if we shall not hereafter enjoy it, 

then it is time to say of ourselves, Good were it for us, if we 

had never been born. For why do we live and breathe ? 

What are we, if we fail of that spectacle, if no one grant us 

then to behold our Lord? If those who see not the light of 

the sun endure a life more bitter than any death, what is it 

likely that they who are deprived of that light must suffer ? 

For in the one case the loss is confined to this one privation; 

but in the other it does not rest here, (though if this were 

the only thing to be dreaded, even then the degrees of 

punishment would not be equal, but one would be as much 

severer than the other, as that sun is incomparably superior 

to this,) but now we must look also for other vengeance; for 

he who beholds not that light must not only be led into 

darkness, but must be burned continually, and waste away, 

and gnash his teethj and suffer ten thousand other dreadful 

No safety but in good icorhs. 101 

things. Let us then not permit ourselves by making this John 
brief time a time of carelessness and remissness, to fall into— — L 

everlasting punishment, but let us watch and be sober, let us 
do all things, and make it all our business to attain to that 
felicity, and to keep far from that river of fire, which rushes 
with a loud roaring before the terrible judgment seat. For 
he who has once been cast in there, must remain for ever ; 
there is no one to deliver him from his punishment, not 
father, not mother, not brother. And this the prophets them- 
selves declare aloud; one saying, Brother delivers not brother. £ s ^|' 7 • 
Shall man deliver? And Ezekiel has declared somewhat 
more than this, saying, Though Noah, Daniel, and Job were Ε*. 14, 
in it, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters. For one 
defence » only, that through works f , is there, and lie who is ' **• ; 
deprived of that cannot be saved by any other means. Re- 
volving these things, then, and reflecting upon them con- 
tinually, let us cleanse our life and make it lustrous, that we 
may see the Lord with boldness, and obtain the promised 
good things ; through the grace and loving-kindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father 
and the Holy Spirit, be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

f There are places where he allows the consequence of his good deeds. See 
that the prayers of others may avail on Statues, Horn. ii. §. 17. Tr. p. 46, 
a man in the Judgment, when they are and note d. 


John i. 15. 

John beareth witness of Him, and crieth, saying, This is He 
of Whom I spake, saying, He that cometh after me is pre- 
ferred before me, for He ivas before me. 

Do we then run and labour in vain ? Are we sowing upon 
the rocks ? Does the seed fall without our knowing it by the 
way side, and among thorns? I am greatly troubled and 
'al/ no- fear, lest our husbandry be unprofitable; not 1 as though I 
thlDg ' shall be a loser as well as you, touching the reward of this 
labour. For it is not with those who teach as it is with hus- 
bandmen. Oftentimes the husbandman after his year's toil, his 
hard work and sweat, if the earth produce no suitable return 

2 al. ( is' for his pains, will be 2 able to find comfort for his labours 

from none else, but returns ashamed and downcast from his 
barn to his dwelling, his wife and children, unable to require 
of any man a reward for his lengthened toil. But in our 

3 »!• case there is 3 nothing like this. For even though the soil 
be' which we cultivate bring forth no fruit, if we have shewn all 

industry, the Lord of it and of us will not suffer us to depart 
with disappointed hopes, but will give us a recompense; for, 
ι Cor. says St. Paul, Every man shall receive his own reward 
Ez.2 5. according to his own labour, not according to the event 
notfrom f things. And that it is so, hearken : And Thou, he saith, 
* id.' thin Son of man, testify unto this people., if they will hear, and 
maybe if ifoy will understand. And Ezekiel says 4 , If the ivatch- 

from man aire warning what it behoves to flee from, and what to 


Character of the true pastor. 103 

choose, he hath delivered his own soul, although there be John 
none that will take heed. Yet although we have this strong Ez ' 3 ^ 
consolation, and are confident of the recompense that shall and 33, 
be made us, still when we see that the work in you does not quot e d 
go forward, our state is not better than the state of those £™ η χ 
husbandmen who lament and mourn, who hide their faees 
and are ashamed. This is the sympathy of a teacher, this 
is the natural care of a father. For Moses too, when it was in 
his power to have been delivered from the ingratitude of the 
Jews, and to have laid the more glorious foundation of an- 
other and far greater ■ people, {Let Me alone, said God, that ι a l. < in 
I may consume them*, and make of thee a nation ^ightier^l^ 

than this,) because he was a holy man, the servant of God, way' 

Ex. 32 
and a friend 3 very true and generous, he did not endure even 10 / 

to hearken to this word, but chose rather to perish with^.• 

' * ■ wipe 

those who had been once allotted to him, than without them out' 
to be saved and be in greater honour. Such ought he to be ^Jh7 
who has the charge of souls. For it is a strange thing that servant' 
any one who has weak children, will not be called the father 
of any others than those who are sprung from him, but that 
he who has had disciples placed in his hands should be 
continually changing one flock for another, that we should 
be catching at the charge now of these, then of those, then 
again of others 4 , having no real affection for any one. May "al. 'and 
we never have cause to suspect this of you. We trust that again 
ye abound more in faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in J»j^ 
love to one another and towards all men. And this we say 
as desiring that your zeal may be increased, and the excel- 
lence of your conversation 5 farther advanced. For it is 5 *•**- 
thus that you will be able to bring your understandings" 
down to the very depth of the words set before us, if no 
film 6 of wickedness darken the eyes of your intellect, and ^ λ ^ 
disturb its clearsightedness and acuteness. < defile- 

What then is it which is set before 7 us to-day? John™™ 1 ' 
bare witness of Him, and cried, saying, This was He of' said to' 
Whom I spake, He that cometh after me is preferred before 
me, for He was before me. The Evangelist is very full in 
making frequent mention of John, and often bearing about 
his testimony. And this he does not without a reason, but 
very wisely ; for all tlie Jews held the man in great adraira- 

104 Why St. John divells on the testimony of the Baptist, 

HoMiL.tion, (even Josephus imputes the war to his death 3 ; and 

shews, that, on his account, what once was the mother city, 

|al. is now no city at all b , and continues 1 the words of his 

1 raises. 

encomium to great length,) and therefore desiring by his 
means to make the Jews ashamed, he continually reminds 
them of the testimony of the forerunner. The other Evan- 
gelists make mention of the older prophets, and at each 
successive thing that took place respecting Him refer the 
hearer to them. Thus when the Child is born, they say, 
Matt, ι, Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was 
Is.*7,i4. spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall 
be with Child, and shall bring forth a Son; and when He is 
plotted against and sought for every where so diligently, that 
even tender infancy is slaughtered by c Herod, they bring in 
Matt. 2, Jeremy, saying, In Ramah was there a voice heard, lament- 
Jer. 31, ation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping 
15 • for her children; and again, when He comes up out of 
"^pro- Egypt, they mention 2 Hosea, saying, Out of Egypt have I 
Mati.2, called M V Son S and this they do every where. But John 
Hos li P rovidin S testimony more clear and fresh, and uttering a 
i. 'voice more glorious than the others, brings continually for- 
ward not those only who had departed and were dead, but 
one also who was alive and present, who pointed Him out 
and baptized Him, him he continually introduces, not 
Morel.desiringtogain credit for the master 3 through the servant, 
hence, bl *t condescending to the infirmity of his hearers 4 . For as 
wTth y the imless He had taken the form of a servant, He would not 
K' have been easi1 ^ re ceived, s° had He not by the voice of a 
bates.? servant prepared the ears of his fellow-servants, the many (at 
s al. any rate) of the Jews would not 5 have received the Word, 
notso.' t~] But Desici es this, there was another great and won- 
derful provision. For because to speak any great words 
concerning himself, makes a man's witness to be suspected, 
and is often an obstacle to many hearers, another comes to 

cau'se 1 *' tGStify ° f Him ' And besides this > the man y 6 are in a 

many.' Λτ 

τ i° SUC S P a f? ag ? 1S extant iD b Ben • ' tlie ™ through which the 

Josephus Probably the place alluded city of the Jews, which was once the 

to is Antiq. b. xvm. c. 5. §. 2. where mother citv, is no city.' 

the destruction of the troops of Herod - Morel! κ«) *A,lm rk u.lroZ §*m 

the death of John the Baptist. r * t ,φ αΤ τ,μί*η . 



Infirmity of the Jews. 105 

manner wont to run more readily to a voice which is more John 
familiar and natural to them, as recognising it more than — : — '— 

other voices; and therefore the Voice from heaven was 
uttered 1 once or twice, but that of John oftentimes and con- ' γίγον» 
tinually. For those 2 of the people who had surmounted the^ j£• 
infirmity of their nature, and had been released from all the there- 
things of sense, could hear the Voice from heaven, and had 
no great need of that of man, but in all things obeyed that 
other, and were led by it; but they who yet moved below, 
and were wrapt in many veils, needed that meaner (voice.) 
In the same way John, because he had stripped himself in 
every way of the 3 things of sense, needed no other instruc- tt * *, 
tors 4 , but was taught from heaven. He that sent me, saith 4 al.'men 
he, to baptize with water, the Same said unto me, L Tpon c ^ j 33. 
whom thou shalt see the Spirit of God descending, the 
same is He. But the Jews who still were children, and 
could not as yet reach to that height, had a man for their 
teacher, a man who did not speak to them words of his own, 
but brought them a message from above. 

What then saith he ? He beareth witness concerning Him, 
and crieth, saying. What means that word cTieth? Boldly, 
he means, and freely, without any reserve 5 , he proclaims. 5 v* at rra• 
What does he proclaim? to what does he bear witness, and x " 
cry ? This is He of Whom I said, He that cometh after me is 
preferred before me; for He was before me. The testimony 
is dark 6 , and contains besides much that is lowly. Forhe 61it • , 

' shaded 

does not say, " This is the Son of God, the Only-begotten, over.' 
the true Son; but what? He that cometh after me, is pre- 
ferred before me; for He was before me. As the mother birds 
do not teach their young all at once how to fly, nor finish their 
teaching in a single day, but at first lead them forth so as to 
be just outside the nest, then after first allowing them to 
rest, set them again to flying 6 , and on the next day continue 
a flight much farther, and so gently, by little and little, bring 
them to the proper height; just so the blessed John did not 
immediately bring the Jews to high things, but taught them 

d Morel. ' as obeying it in all things: being wrapt.' 
but they who yet moved below, needed e Morel, and MS. Savile reads *ζύστι~ 

also many other (things,) because of 6ίοκη r« vrrfou xi\tv κα.) .... «τλι/ονα 

their grovelling on the ground, and συνάπνουσ». 

106 The Jews prepared by the Baptist to receive Christ. 

HoMiL.for a while to fly up a little above the earth, saying, that 
— ί-ί_ Christ was greater than he. And yet this, even this, was for 
ι a ] # the time no small thing, to have been able to persuade 1 the 

' make hearers that one who had not yet appeared nor worked any 
believe.' _ , Λ , T . 

wonders was greater than a man, (John, 1 mean,) so mar- 
vellous, so famous, to whom all ran, and whom they thought 
to be an angel. For a while therefore he laboured to esta- 
blish this in the minds of his hearers, that He to Whom 
testimony was borne was greater than he who bore it; He 
that came after, than he that came before, He who had not 
yet appeared, than he that was manifest and famous. And 
observe how prudently he introduces his testimony ; for he does 
not only point Him out when He has appeared, but even before 
He appears, proclaims Him. For the expression, This is 
He of Whom I spake, is the expression of one declaring this. 
As also Matthew says, that, when all came to him, he said, 
*M&t.s,*I indeed baptize you with taater, but He that comet h after 
li. and me fa m iq utter titan I, the latchet of Whose shoes I am not 

Luke 2, j •> j 

16. worthy to unloose. Wherefore then even before His appear- 
ance did he this ? In order that when He appeared, the 
testimony might readily be received, the minds of the 
hearers being already prepossessed by what was said con- 
cerning Him, and the mean external appearance not vitiating 
it f . For if without having heard any thing at all concerning 

3 ali Him they had seen the Lord 3 , and as they beheld Him had 
* Christ a t the same time received the testimony of John's words, so 
self.' wonderful and great, the meanness of His appearance 4 would 

4 σχνμ» jj ftve straightway been an objection to the grandeur of the 

expressions. For Christ took on Him an appearance so 
mean and ordinary, that even Samaritan women, and harlots, 
and publicans, had confidence boldly to approach and 
(3.) converse with Him. As therefore, I said, if they had at 
once heard these words and seen Himself, they might per- 
haps have mocked at the testimony of John ; but now be- 
cause even before Christ appeared, they had often heard and 
s Ben. had been accustomed to 5 what was said concerning Him, 
vokedfto tne y were a ff ecte( l in tne opposite way, not rejecting the 
curiosi- instruction of the words by reason of the appearance of Him 
ty) by' FP 

r Some Mss. add, ' but being able to possess the souls of tbe many with much 

How Christ ivas before the Baptist. 107 

Who was witnessed of, but from their belief of what had John 
been already told them, esteeming Him even more glorious. — ilzi- 

The phrase, that cometh after, means, that preacheth after 
me, not that was born after me. And this Matthew glances 
at when he says 1 , After me cometh a man, not speaking of 1 Mat. 3, 
His birth from Mary, but of His coming to preach (the verbally 
Gospel), for had he been speaking of the birth, he would not quote * 
have said, cometh, but " is come ;" since He was born when 
John spake this. What then means, is before me ? Is more 
glorious, more honourable. " Do not," he saith, " because 
I came preaching first, from this suppose that I am greater 
than He ; I am much inferior, so much inferior that Τ am 
not worthy to be counted in the rank of a servant. This is 
the sense of is before me, which Matthew shewing in a 
different manner, saith 2 , The latchet of whose shoes I am not* not 
worthy to unloose. iVgain, that the phrase, is before me, does m Matt. 
not refer to His coming into Being, is plain from the sequel ; ^ 6 uke 3 > 
for had he meant to say this, what follows, for He was before 
me, would be superfluous. For who so dull and foolish as 
not to know that He who " was born before 3 " him "was 3 w• 
before 4 " him ? Or if the words refer to His subsistence 5 before «•ς«,ί« 
the ages, what is said is nothing else than that " He Who!,^ 7 " 
cometh after me came into being before me." Besides, such 5 ίτά^ξβ- 
a thing as this is unintelligible, and the cause is thrown in m 
needlessly; for he ought to have said the contrary, if he had 
wished to declare this, " that He Who cometh after me was 
before me, since also He was born before me." For one 
might with reason assign this, (the " being born before") as 
the cause of c: being before," but not the " being before" as 
the cause of " being born." While what we assert is very 
reasonable. Since you all at least know this, that they are 
always things uncertain, not things evident, that require their 
causes to be assigned. Now if the argument related to the 
production of substance 6 , it could not have been uncertain 6 9 fa&. 
that he who " was born" first must needs " be" first; but"•" 
because he is speaking concerning honour, he with reason 
explains what seems to be a difficulty. For many might 
well enquire, whence and on what pretext He Who came 
after, became before, that is, appeared with greater honour ; 
in reply to this question therefore, he immediately assigns the 

108 How to give glory to God. 

Homil. reason ; and the reason is, His Being first. He does not 
XiI1 • Rfl,y 3 that " by some kind of advancement he cast me who 
had been first behind him, and so became before me," but 
that He was before me, even though He arrives after me. 

lal.'the But how, says one, if the Evangelist refers 1 to His mani- 

euceis' festation to men, and to the glory which was to attend Him 
from them, does he speak of what was not yet accomplished, 
as having already taken place ? for he does not say, ' shall 
be,' but was. Because this is a custom among the prophets 
of old, to speak of the future as of the past. Thus Isaiah 
speaking of His slaughter, does not say, " He shall be led 
(which would have denoted futurity) as a sheep to the 

Is. 53 7. slaughter ;" but He was led as a sheep to the slaughter; yet 
He was not yet Incarnate, but the Prophet speaks of what 
should be as if it had come to pass. So David, pointing to 
the Crucifixion, said not, " They shall pierce My hands and 

Ps. 22, My feet," but TJiey pierced My hands and My feet, and 

16, 18 * parted My garments among them, and cast lots upon My 
vesture ; and discoursing of the traitor as yet unborn, he 

Ps. 41, says, He which did eat of My bread, hath lifted up 2 his 

2 al 'has ^ iee ^ a 9 a ^ ns ^ M e » an( ^ °f tne circumstances of the Crucifixion, 
magni- They gave Me gall for meat, and in My thirst they gave Me 
Ps. 69 vinegar to drink. 

21 • [4.] Do you desire that we adduce more examples, or do 

these suffice ? For my part, I think they do ; for if we have 

3 al.' not not dug over the ground in all its extent 3 , we have at least 
ground' dug down to its bottom ; and this last kind of work is not 

less laborious than the former; and we fear lest by straining 
your attention immoderately we cause you to fall back. 

Let us then give to our discourse a becoming conclusion. 

And what conclusion is becoming? A suitable giving of 

glory to God; and that is suitable which is given, not by 

Mat. 5, words only, but much more by actions. For He saith, Let 

your light so shine before men, that they may see your good 

works, and glorify your Father Which is in Heaven. Now 

nothing is more full of light, than a most excellent con- 

Prov. versation. As one of the wise men has said, The paths of 

LXX. t1te J ust shine like the light ; and they shine not for them 

alone who kindle the flame by their works, and are guides in 

the way of righteousness, but also for those who are their 

The living and pure sacrifice accepted. 109 

neighbours. Let us then pour oil into these lamps, that the John 
flame become higher 1 , that rich light appear. For not only j-jj — - 
has this oil great strength now, but even when sacrifices ' more 
were at their height 2 , it was far more acceptable than they? ^ 1111 
could be. Τ will have mercy e , He saith, and not sacrifice.' . Άοη - 


And with good reason ; for that is a lifeless altar, this a Mat.12, 
living; and all that is laid on that altar becomes the food of^- 
fire, and ends in dust, and it is poured forth as ashes, and 6, 6. 
the smoke of it is dissolved into the substance of the air; 
but here there is nothing like this, the fruits which it bears 
are different. As the words of Paul declare; for in describing 
the treasures of kindness to the poor laid up by the Corin- 
thians, he writes, For the administration of this service not 2 Cor - 

. 9 12. 

only supplieth the want of the saints, but is abundant also ' 
by many thanksgivings unto God. And again ; Whiles they 
glorify God for your professed subjection unto the Gospel of 
Christ, and for your liberal distribution unto them, and 
unto all men; and by their prayer for you, which long after 
you. Dost thou behold it 3 resolving itself into thanksgiving 3 the 
and praise of God, and continual prayers of those who have x s f ^ ce 
been benefited, and more fervent charity ? Let us then γί« 
sacrifice, beloved, let us sacrifice every day upon these altars. 
For this sacrifice is greater than prayer and fasting, and 
many things beside, if only it come from honest gain, and 
honest toils, and be pure from all covetousness, and rapine, 
and violence. For God. accepts such 4 offerings as these, 4 al. ( only 
but the others He turns away from and hates; He will not suc 
be honoured out of other men's calamities, such sacrifice is 
unclean and profane, and would rather anger God than 
appease Him. So that we must use all carefulness, that 
we do not, in the place of service, insult Him Whom we 
would honour. For if Cain for making a second-rate offer- 
ing h , having done no other wrong, suffered extreme punish- 
ment, how shall not we when we offer any thing gained by 
rapine and covetousness, suffer yet more severely. It is for 
this that God has shewn to us the pattern 5 of this command- s «^ 
ment, that we might have mercy, not be severe to our 

s 'ίλίον. St. Chrysostom plays on h τα ϊιυηςΰα Χζβσιηγκων. St. Chrys. 

the word, which was pronounced implies, that the offering of Cain was 

nearly as ίλχιον, ' oil.' Thus on not of his hest. 
2 Tim. 2, 25. Horn. vi. Tr. p. 223. 

110 No alms of wealth ill-gotten. 

Homil. fellow-servants ; but he who takes what belongs to one and 

- gives it to another, hath not shewn mercy, but inflicted hurt, 

and done an extreme injustice. As then a stone cannot 
yield oil, so neither can cruelty produce humanity ; for 
alms when it has such a root as this is alms h no longer. 
Therefore I exhort that we look not to this only, that we give 
to those that need, but also that we give not from other 
Eccius. men's plunder. When one prayeth, and another curseth, 
whose voice will the Lord hear ? If we guide ourselves thus 
strictly, we shall be able by the grace of God to obtain much 
loving-kindness and mercy and pardon for what we have 
done amiss during all this long time, and to escape the river 
of fire ; from which may it come to pass that we be all 
delivered, and ' ascend to the Kingdom of Heaven, through 
the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
Whom, with the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

h IXiwetruvt), (lit. ' mercifulness,') ' Morel. ' sit down in the heavenly 
whence our alms. bride-charaher.' 


John i. 16. 

And of His fulness have all we received, and grace for 

I said the other day, that John, to resolve the doubts of 
those who should question with themselves how the Lord, 
though He came after to the preaching, became before and 
more glorious than he, added, for He was before me. And 
this is indeed one reason. But not content with this, he 
adds again a second, which now he declares. What is it? 
And of His fulness, says he, have all we received, and grace 
for grace. With these again he mentions another. What 
is this ? That 

Ver. 17. The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth 
came by Jesus Christ. 

And what means that, saith he, Of His fulness have all we 
received? for to this we must for awhile direct our discourse. 
He possesseth not, says he, the gift by participation *, but is ι μ ^ ίκ . 
Himself the very Fountain and very Root of all good, very **■ *»• 
Life, and very Light, and very Truth, not retaining within 
Himself the riches of His good things, but overflowing with 
them unto all others, and after the overflowing remaining 
full, in nothing diminished by supplying others, but stream- 
ing ever forth, and imparting to others a share of these 
blessings, He remains in sameness of perfection. What 
I possess is by participation, (for I received it from another,) 
and is a small portion of the whole, as it were a poor 2 rain 2 a i. 
drop compared with the untold abyss or the boundless sea ; ' little ' 
ov rather not even can this instance fully express what we 

1 1 2 The Fulness of Christ. 

Humtl. attempt to say, for if you take a drop from the sea, you have 

XIV ' lessened the sea itself 1 , though the diminution be imper- 

< just so ceptible. But of that Fountain we cannot say this ; how 

mucb ' much soever a man draw, It continues undiminished. We 

therefore must needs proceed to another instance, a weak one 

also, and not able to establish what we seek, but which guides 

us better than the former one to the thought now proposed 

to ns. 

Let us suppose that there is a fountain of fire ; that from 
that fountain ten thousand lamps are kindled, twice as many, 
thrice as many, ofttimes as many ; does not the fire remain 
at the same degree of fulness even after its imparting of its 
virtue to such numbers ? It is plain to every man that it 
does. Now if in the case of bodies which are made up 
of parts, and are diminished by abstraction, one has been 
found of such a nature, that after supplying to others some- 
thing from itself it sustains no loss, much more will this take 
place with that incorporeal and uncompounded Power. If 
in the instance given, that which is communicated is sub- 
stance and body, is divided yet does not suffer division, 
when our discourse is concerning an energy, and an energy 
too of an incorporeal substance, it is much more probable 
that this will undergo nothing of the sort. And therefore 
John said, Of His fulness have all we received, and joins 
his own testimony to that of the Baptist; for the expression, 
Of His fulness have we all received, belongs not to the fore- 
runner but to the disciple; and its meaning is something like 
this : " Think not," he says, " that we, who long time eom- 

2 lit. panied with Him, and partook of His food 2 and table, bear 
' salt' witness through favour, since even John, who did not even 

know Him before, who had never even been with Him, but 
merely saw Him in company with others when he was bap- 

3 or> tizing, cried out, He was before me, having from that source 3 
' sight,' received all ; and all we the twelve, the three hundred, the 

three thousand, the five thousand, the many myriads of 
Jews, all the fulness of the faithful who then were, and 
now are, and hereafter shall be, have received of His fulness. 
What have we received ? grace for grace, saith he. What 
grace, for what ? For the old, the new. For there was 
Phil. 3, a righteousness, and again a righteousness, {Touching the 


Relation of types to realities. 113 

righteousness which is in the law, saith Paul, blameless.) John 

There was a faith, there is a faith. (From faith to faith.) There Rom " t 

was an adoption, there is an adoption. {To whom pertainelh if• 

the adoption.) There was a glory, there is a glory. (For if 4 ] 

that which was done away was glorious, much more that ^ Cor - 

which remaineth is glorious.) There was a law, and there is Rom's, 

a law. (For the law of the Spirit of life hath made me f*'^-)^ om 9 

There was a service, and there is a service. (7b whom per- 4 - 

taineth the service : and again; Serving God in the Spirit.) 3. ' ' 

There was a covenant, and there is a covenant. (I will make J er - 3] > 

with you 1 a new covenant, not according to the covenant MnOrig. 

tvhich I made with your 2 fathers.) There was a sanctifica- 'J^ of 

tion, and there is a sanctification : there was a baptism, and Israel 

there is a Baptism : there was a sacrifice, and there is a j u dah' 

Sacrifice: there was a temple, and there is a temple: there ? i ° 0ri £• 

, . . . . , their' 

was a circumcision, and there is a circumcision ; and so too 

there was a grace, and there is a grace. But the words in the 

first case are used as types, in the second as realities, 

preserving a sameness of sound, though not of sense. So 

in patterns and figures, the shape of a man scratched with 

white lines 3 upon a black ground is called a man as well as^ al ; 

that which has received the correct colouring ; and in the black on 

case of statues, the figure whether formed of gold or of wl j lte , 

plaster, is alike called a statue, though in the one case as a 

model, in the other as a reality. 

[2.] Do not then, because the same words are used, suppose 
that the things are identical, nor yet diverse either; for in 
that they were models they did not differ from the truth; but 
in that they merely preserved the outline, they were less than 
the truth. What is the difference in all these instances ? Will 
you that we take in hand and proceed to examine one or 
two of the cases mentioned ? thus the rest will be plain to 
you; and we shall see that the first were lessons for children, 
the last for high-minded full• grown men ; that the first laws 
were made as for mortals, the latter as for angels. 

Whence then shall we begin ? From the sonship itself? 
What then is the distinction between the first and second ? 
The first is the honour of a name, in the second the thing 
goes with it. Of the first the Prophet says, I have said, y<?Ps.82,6. 
are Gods, and all of you are children of the Most High ; 


114 Christian sonship and holiness contrasted with Jeivish, 

HoMiL.but of the latter, that they were born of God. How, and in 

what way ? By the washing of regeneration, and renewing 

of the Holy Ghost. For they, even after they had received 
the title of sons, retained the spirit of slavery, (for while they 
remained slaves they were honoured with this appellation,) 
but we being made free, received the honour, not in name, 
Rom. 8, but in deed. And this Paul has declared and said, For ye 
lo# have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but ye 
have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, 
1 or, Father. For having been born again 1 , and, as one may say, 
above' thoroughly remade a , we so are called " sons." And if 
one consider the character of the holiness, what the first was 
and what the second, he will find there also great b difference. 
They, when they did not worship idols, nor commit forni- 
cation or adultery, were called by this name; but we become 
holy, not by refraining from these vices merely, but by acquiring 
things greater. And this gift we obtain first by means of the 
. coming upon us of the Holy Ghost; and next, by a rule of life 
ζ μύζβ- far more comprehensive 2 than that of the Jews. To prove 
τιί™ '" tnat these words are not mere boasting, hear what He saith 
Perhaps to them, " Ye shall not use divination c , nor make purification 
Deut °^ ^ om cn i 1,ca 'en, for ye are a holy people." So that holiness 
18, ίο. with them consisted in being free from the customs of idolatry ; 
ι Cor. but it is not so with us. That she may be holy, saith Paul, 
Heb.12 * n body and in spirit. Follow peace, and holiness, without 
14 • which no man shall see the Lord : and, Perfecting holiness 
7,1. i* 1 the fear of God. For the word holy has not force to give 
the same meaning in every case to which it is applied ; since 
God is called Holy, though not as we are. What, for 
instance, does the Prophet say, when he heard that cry 
■■i al. raised 3 by the flying Seraphim? Woe is me! because I am 
j^ U g g 5 a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people 
of unclean lips; though he was holy and clean; but if we 
be compared with the holiness which is above, we are un- 
clean. Angels are holy, Archangels are holy, the Cherubim 
and Seraphim themselves are holy, but of this holiness again 
there is a double difference ; that is, in relation to us, and to 

a άναο-τοιχίιωβίνης , made up of fresh leian. Savile reads ol <ro\\fa. 
elements. c Or, ' purify yourselves,' ψοιβύ- 

b So Morel. Ben. and Ms. in Bod- 91961, 

The various gifts of grace. 115 

the higher powers' 1 . We might proceed to all the other J(hn 

points, but then the discussion would become too long, and 
its extent too great. We will therefore desist from proceed- 
ing farther, and leave it to you to take in hand the rest, for 
it is in your power at home to put these things together, and 
examine their difference, and in the same way to go over 
what remains. Give, saith one, a starting-place to the ivise, Prov. 9, 
and he becometh wiser. The beginning is from us, but the 
end will be from you. We must now resume the connection. 
After having said, Of His fulness have all we received, he 
adds, and grace for grace. For by grace the Jews were 
saved; I chose you, saith God, not because you were many Beut 7> 
in number, but because of your fathers. ] f now they were 7 • LXX • 
chosen by God not for their own good deeds 1 , it is manifest 1 **«?• 
that by grace they obtained this honour. And we too all are 
saved by grace, but not in like manner; not for the same 
objects, but for objects much greater and higher. The grace 
then that is with us is not like theirs,. For not only was 
pardon of sins given to us, (since this we have in common 
with them, for all have sinned,) but righteousness also, and 
sanctification, and sonship, and the gift of the Spirit far more 
glorious 2 and more abundant. By this grace we have be- 2 al. 
come the beloved of God, no longer as servants, but as sons stron § er 
and friends. Wherefore he saith, grace for grace. Since 
even the things of the law were of grace, and the very fact of 
man 3 being created from nothing, (for we did not receive 3 al.W 
this as a recompense for past good deeds, how could 
we, when we even w r ere not? but from God Who is ever 
the first to bestow His benefits,) and not only that we were 
created from nothing, but that when created, we straightway 
learned what we must and what we must not do, and that we 
received this law 7 in our very nature, and that our Creator 
entrusted to us the impartial rule of conscience, these, I 
say, are proofs of the greatest grace and unspeakable loving- 
kindness. And the recovery of this law after it had become 
corrupt, by means of the written (Law), this too was the 
work of grace. For what might have been expected to 

<l Morel, and Ms. in Bodleian read holiness, and surpassing, as in com- 
the passage thus: ' are holy, but the parison with us. so also with the powers 
(Holiness) of God is greater than their which are above us.' 

ι 2 

116 Moses compared to Christ. 

Homil. follow was, that they who falsified 1 the law once given 
should suffer correction and punishments; but what actually 

χαξάτ- took place was not this, but, on the contrary, an amending of 

™ TKS our nature, and pardon, not of debt, but given through mercy 
and grace. For to shew that it was of grace and mercy, hear 

Ps ; 103, what David saith; The Lord executeth righteousness and 
judgment for all that are oppressed ; He made known His 
ways unto Moses, His acts unto the children of Israel : and 

Ps.25,8. again ; Good and upright is the Lord, therefore will He 
give laws to them that are in the way. 

[3.] Therefore that men received the law was of pity, 
mercies, and grace; and for this reason he saith, Grace for 

* f 1 • grace. But striving yet more fervently 2 to (express) the 
greatness of the gifts, he goes on to say, 

Ver. 17. The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth 
came by Jesus Christ. 

See ye how gently, by a single word and by little and 
little, both John the Baptist and John the Disciple lead up 
their hearers to the highest knowledge, having first exercised 
them in humbler things ? The former having compared to 
himself Him Who is incomparably superior to all, thus after- 
wards shews His superiority, by saying, is become before 
me, and then adding the words, was before me: while the 
latter has done much more than he, though too little for the 
worthiness of the Only-Begotten, for he makes the com- 
parison, not with John, but with one reverenced by the Jews 
more than John, with Moses. For the law, saith he, was 
given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. 

Observe his wisdom. He makes enquiry not concerning 
the person, but the things ; for these being proved, it was 
probable that even the senseless would of necessity receive 
from them a much higher judgment and notion respecting 
Christ. For when facts bear witness, which cannot be 

3 a1 •' * c " suspected 3 of doing so either from favour to any, or from 
malice, they afford a means of judging which cannot be 
doubted even by the senseless; for they remain to open view 
just as their actors may have arranged them, and therefore 
their evidence is the least liable to suspicion of any. And 
see how he makes the comparison easy even to the weaker 
sort; for he does not prove the superiority by argument, but 

Types given by Mo*es, truth came by Christ. 117 

points out the difference by the bare words, opposing grace John 
and truth to law, and came to was given. Between each of — - — — 
these there is a great difference; for one, was given, be- 
longs to something ministered, when one has received from 
another, and given to whom he was commanded to give ; but 
the other, grace and truth came, befits a king forgiving- 
all offences, with authority, and himself furnishing the gift. 
Wherefore He said, Thy sins be forgiven thee ; and again ; Matt. 9, 
But that ye may know that the Son of Man hath power on ^ idt v 6 
earth to forgive sins, {He saith to the sick of the palsy,) 
Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house. 

Seest 1 thou how grace cometh by Him ? look also to truth. 1 ^^ 
His grace the instance just mentioned, and what happened 
in the case of the thief, and the gift of Baptism, and the 
grace of the Spirit given by Him e declare, and many other 
things. But His truth we shall more clearly know, if we 
understand the types. For the types like patterns anticipated 
and sketched beforehand the dispensations 2 which should 2 «<*«- 
be accomplished under the new covenant, and Christ came νψ ' Λ ' 
and fulfilled them. Let us now consider the types in few 
words, for we cannot at the present time go through all that 
relates to them; but when you have learned some points 
from those (instances) which I shall set before you 3 , you3 a i. 
will know the others also. ^™* 

Will you then that we begin with the Passion itself? What few 
then saith the type? u Take ye a lamb for an house, aiid tlie 
kill it, and do as he commanded and ordained." But it is ^ hol e' 

7 . Exod. 

not so with Christ. He doth not command this to be done, 12, 3. 
but Himself becomes It 4 , by offering Himself a Sacrifice and 4 a ^ os 
Oblation to His Father. ah f° 


[4.] See how the type was given by Moses, but the Truth 

came by Jesus Christ. 

Again, when the Amalekites warred in Mount Sinai, the Exod • 

17 12. 
hands of Moses were supported, being stayed up by Aaron 

and Hur standing on either side of him ; but when Christ 

came, He of Himself stretched forth His Hands upon the 

Cross. Hast thou observed how the type was given, but 

•the Truth came? 

e Morel, and MS. in Bodleian, read, ' and the adoption through the Spirit, 
given to us.' 

118 Zeal required of man in proportion to his privileges. 

Homit.. Again, the Law said, Cursed is every one that continueth 

= — not in all things that are written in this book. But what 

27, 26. saitli grace ? Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are 

Τ X X 

Mat i*i heavy laden, and I will give you rest; and Paul, Christ hath 
28. redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse 

Gal. 3, 

13. f or us - 

Since then we have enjoyed such grace and truth, I exhort 
you that we be not more slothful by reason of the greatness 
of the gift; for the greater the honour of which we have been 
deemed worthy, the greater our debt of excellence ; for one 
who has received but small benefits, even though he makes 

1 al. * so but small returns, does not deserve the same l condemnation; 

but he who has been raised to the highest summit of honour, 
and yet manifests grovelling and mean dispositions, will be 
worthy of much greater punishment. May I never have to 
suspect this of you. For we trust in the Lord that you 
have winged your souls for heaven, that you have removed 
from earth, that being in the world ye handle not the 
things of the world ; yet though so persuaded, we do not 
cease thus continually to exhort you. In the games of the 
heathen, they whom all the spectators encourage are not 
those who have fallen and lie supine, but those who are 
exerting themselves and running still; of the others, (since 

2 al. they would be doing what would be of no use 2 , and would 
* sense- not k e a kj e to ra | se U p D y their encouragements men 

once for all severed from victory,) they cease to take any 
notice. But in this case some good may be expected, 
not only of you who are sober, but even of those who have 
fallen, if they would but be converted. Wherefore we use 
every means, exhorting, reproving, encouraging, praising, in 
order that we may bring about your salvation. Be not then 
offended by our continual admonishing concerning the 
Christian conversation, for the words are not the words of 
one accusing you of sloth, but of one who has very excellent 
hopes respecting you. And not to you alone, but to our- 
selves who speak them, are these words said, yea, and shall 
be said, for we too need the same teaching; so though they 
be spoken by us, yet nothing hinders their being spoken to 
us, (for the Word, when it finds a man in fault, amends him, 
when clear and free, sets him as far off from it as possible,) and 

Efficacy of the Gospel depends on its right application. 1 1 9 

we ourselves are not pure from transgressions. The course of John 
healing is the same for all, the medicines are set forth for — ' 
all, only the application is not the same, but is made 
according to the choice of those who use the medicines ; for 
one who will handle the remedy as he ought, gains some 
benefit from the application, while he who does not place 
it upon the wound, makes the evil greater, and brings it to 
the most painful end. Let us then not fret when we are 
being healed, but much rather rejoice, even though the 
system of discipline bring bitter pains, for hereafter it will 
shew to us fruit sweeter than any. Let us then do all to 
this end, that we may depart to that world 1 , cleared of the 1 «<«»•. 
wounds and strokes which the teeth of sin make in the soul, 
so that having become worthy to behold the countenance of 
Christ, we may be delivered in that day, not to the avenging 
and cruel powers, but to those who are able to bring us to 
that inheritance of the heavens which is prepared for them 
that love Him; to which may it come to pass that we all 
attain, through the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and dominion for ever and 
ever. Amen. 


John i. 18. 

No man hath seen God at any time; the Only -he gotten 
Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, He hath 
declared Him. 

God will not have us listen to the words and sentences 
contained in the Scriptures carelessly, but with much atten- 
tion. This is why the blessed David hath prefixed in many 
Ps. 32, places to his Psalms the title " for understanding 8 ," and hath 
p 2 •' n°Q sa ^> Open Thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous 
18. ' tilings oat of Thy Laiv. And after him his son again shews 
Prov. 2 that we ought to seek out wisdom as silver*, and to make 
4. and merchandize of her rather than of gold. And the Lord 
[par-* when He exhorts the Jews to search the Scriptures, the 
^uotecT more lli 'g es us to the enquiry, for He would not thus have 
John 5, spoken if it were possible to comprehend them immediately 
at the first reading. No one would ever search for what is 
obvious and at hand, but for that which is wrapt in shadow, 
and which must be found after much enquiry ; and so to 
Prov. 2, arouse us to the search He calls them hidden treasure. 


Mat. 13, These words are said to us that we may not apply ourselves 
44 • to the words of the Scriptures carelessly or in a chance way, 
but with great exactness. For if any one listen to what is 
said in them without enquiring into the meaning, and receive 
all so as it is spoken, according to the letter, he will suppose 
many unseemly things of God, will admit of Him that He is 

• tit conn, *3toD Maschil, obwis, Some Mss • read Sllver ' and 

intellect™, et ut hieron. reddit, erudi- search for ifc as treasure; He would not 

tio, aliqui, erudi ens, vel intellectum have said Search Sec' 
prcextans. Lorin. in tit. Ps. 31. (32.) 

No man hath seen God as He Is. 121 

a man, that He is made of brass, is wrathful, is furious, and John 
many opinions yet worse than these. But if he fully learn , L 18 • 
the sense that lies beneath, he will be freed from all this?^* 1 ' 
unseemliness. The very text which now lies before us says, 
that God has a bosom, a thing proper to bodily substances, 
yet no one is so insane as to imagine, that He Who is 
without body is a body. In order then that we may pro- 
perly interpret the entire passage according to its spiritual 
meaning/let us search it through from its beginning. 

No man hath seen God at any time. By what connec- 
tion of thought does the Apostle come to say this ? After 
shewing the exceeding greatness of the gifts of Christ, and 
the infinite difference between them and those ministered by 
Moses, he would add the reasonable cause of the difference. 
Moses, as being a servant, was minister of lower things, but 
Christ being Lord and King, and the King's Son, brought to 
us things far greater, being ever with the Father, and behold- 
ing Him continually; wherefore He saith, No man hath 
seen God at any time. What then shall we answer to the 
most mighty of voice, Esaias, when he says, I saw the Lord\ s . 6, 1. 
sitting upon a throne high, and lifted up; and to John 
himself testifying of Him, that he said these things when hech. 12, 
had seen His glory? What also to Ezekiel? for he toot 1 ', 
beheld Him sitting above the Cherubim. What to Daniel? and 10. 
for he too saith, The Ancient of days did sit. What to Dan. Γ, 
Moses himself, saying, Shew me Thy glory, that I may see% x 33 
Thee so as to know Thee. And Jacob took his name from 13 • 
this very thing, being called Israel; for Israel is " one thatf^ y 
sees God 3 ." And others have seen Him. How then saith ^ xx •] 
John, No man hath seen God at any time? It is to declare, ™ s 
that all these were instances of (His) condescension, wotj^ u ^ s * 
the vision of the Essence itself unveiled. For had they seen Dei, lib. 
the very Nature, they would not have beheld It under ,3 ' 
different forms, since That is simple, without form, or parts, 
or bounding lines. It sits not, nor stands, nor walks : these 
things belong all to bodies. But how He Is, He only 
knoweth. And this He hath declared by a certain prophet, 
saying, / have multiplied visions, and used similitudes by the Hosea 
hands of the prophets, that is, " I have condescended, I have ii t .'< been 
not appeared as I really was." For since His Son was about 1lkened ' 

122 The Son alone hath seen God: 

Homil. to appear in very flesh, He prepared them from old time to 
xv • behold the substance of God, as far as it was possible for 
them to see It ; but what God really is, not only have not 
the prophets seen, but not even angels nor archangels. If 
you ask them, you shall not hear them answering any thing 
1 al. concerning His Essence, but sending up 1 , Glory to God 
linging' i n the highest, on earth peace, good will towards men. If 
Luke 2, vou desire to learn something from Cherubim or Seraphim, 
you shall hear the mystic song of His Holiness, and that 
*Is.6, 3. " heaven and earth are full of His glory 2 ." If you enquire of 
3 al. the higher powers, you shall but find 3 that their one work is 
lhai? tne P ra i se °f God. Praise ye Him, saith David, all His 
answer hosts. But the Son only beholds Him, and the Holy Ghost. 
ΨβΪιιβ How can any created nature even see the Uncreated ? If we 
2 • are absolutely unable clearly to discern any incorporeal 

power whatsoever, even though created, as has been often 
proved in the case of angels, much less can we discern the 
Essence which is incorporeal and uncreated. Wherefore 
ι Tim. p au i saith, Whom no man hath seen, nor can see. Does 
A&i- then this special attribute 4 belong to the Father only, not to 
? tr< " the Son? Away with the thought. It belongs also to the 
Son ; and to shew that it does so, hear Paul declaring this 
Col. l, point, and saying, that He is the Image of the invisible God. 
15 ' Now if He be the Image of the Invisible, He must be invisi- 
ble Himself, for otherwise He would not be an image. And 
ι Tim. wonder not that Paul saith in another place, God was mani- 
3j 16, fested in the Flesh; because the manifestation 6 took place 
by means of the flesh, not according to (His) Essence. Be- 
sides, Paul shews that He is invisible, not only to men, but 
also to the powers above, for after saying, was manifested in 
the Flesh, he adds, was seen of angels. 

[2.] So that even to angels He then became visible, when 
He put on the Flesh; but before that time they did not 
so behold Him, because even to them His Essence was 
Mat. 18, " How then," asks some one, " did Christ say, Despise not one 
10 • of these little ones, for I tell you, that their angels do always 
behold the face of My Father Which is in heaven ? Hath then 

■ al. therefore saith (Paul), Who was manifested in (he Flesh, for the mani- 
festation, &c. 

and knoweth Him. 123 

God a face, and is He bounded by the heavens ?" Who so John 
mad as to assert this? What then is the meaning of the words? L 18, 

As when He saith, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall Matt. 5, 

see God, He means that intellectual vision which is possible 

to us, and the having God in the thoughts; so in the case of 

angels, we must understand l that by reason of their pure t al< 

and sleepless 2 nature they do nothing else, but always image ' many 

to themselves God. And therefore Christ saith, that No man s α γζντ . 

knoweth the Father, save the Son. What then, are we all in'" , Λ 

. Mat. 10, 

ignorance? God forbid; but none knoweth Him as the Son 27. 

knoweth Him. As then many 3 have seen Him in the mode 3 al. 

of vision permitted to them, but no one has beheld His r ^ any 

Essence, so many of us know God, but what His substance ptets' 

can be none knoweth, save only He that was begotten of 

Him. For by " knowledge" He here means an exact idea 

and comprehension, such as the Father hath of the Son. 

As the Father knoweth Me, even so know I the Father.,i5. 

Observe, therefore, with what fulness 4 the Evangelist 4 * ίζΙύυ . 

speaks ; for haviug said that no man hath seen God at any *'**> a1 • 

time, he does not go on to say, " that the Son who hath seen, ness' 

hath declared Him," but adds something beyond " seeing" 

by the words, Who is in the bosom of the Father; because, 

" to dwell 5 in the bosom'" is far more than " to see." For he 5 \^ lai . 

that merely " seeth" hath not an in every way exact know- τασ6αι 

ledge of the object, but he that " dwelleth in the bosom" can 

be ignorant of nothing. Now lest when thou nearest that 

none knoweth the Father. ,, save the Son, thou shouldest assert 

that although He knoweth the Father more than all, yet He 

knoweth not how great He is, the Evangelist says that He 

dwells in the bosom of the Father ; and Christ Himself 

declares, that He knoweth Him as much as the Father 

knoweth the Son. Ask therefore the gainsay er, " Tell me, 

doth the Father know the Son ? And if he be not mad, he 

will certainly answer, " Yes." Then ask again ; " Doth He 

see and know Him with exact vision and knowledge ? Doth 

He know clearly what He Is ?" He will certainly confess 

this also. From this next collect the exact comprehension 

the Son has of the Father. For He saith, As the Father 0.10, 15. 

knoweth Me, even so know I the Father; and in another 

place, Not that any man hath seen the Father, save Hec.6,46. 

124 Eternity of the Son. 

Homil. Which is of God. Wherefore, as I said, the Evangelist 
— mentions " the bosom," to shew all this to us by that one 

word; that great is the affinity and nearness of the Essence, 
that the knowledge is nowise different, that the power is 
equal. For the Father would not have in His bosom one of 
another essence, nor Would He have dared, had He been 
one amongst many servants, to live f in the bosom of his 
1 lit. Lord, for this belongs only to a true Son, to one Who has 1 
much confidence towards His Father, and Who is in nothing 
inferior to Him. 

Wouldest thou learn also His eternity? Hear what Moses 
saith concerning the Father. When he asked what he was 
commanded to answer should the Jews enquire of him, 
" Who it was that had sent him," he heard these words : 
Exod. Say, I AM hath sent me, Now the expression, / AM, is 
significative of Being ever, and Being without beginning, of 
Being really and absolutely. And this also the expression, 
Was in the beginning, declares, being indicative of Being 
ever; so that John uses this word to shew that the Son Is 
ϊανάζχωί from everlasting to everlasting 1 in the bosom of the Father. 
For that you may not from the sameness of name, suppose 
that He is some one of those who are made sons by grace, 
first, the article is added, distinguishing Him from those by 
grace. But if this does not content you, if you still look 
earthwards, hear a name more absolute than this, Only- 
begotten. If even after this you still look below, " I will 
not refuse," says he, (St. John,) " to apply to God a term 
belonging to man, I mean the word bosom, only suspect 
nothing degrading." Dost thou see the loving-kindness and 
carefulness of the Lord ? God applies 2 to Himself unworthy 
expressions, that even so thou mayest see through them, 
and have some great and lofty thought of Him; and dost 
thou tarry below ? For tell me, wherefore is that gross and 
carnal word " bosom" employed in this place ? Is it that we 
may suppose God to be a body ? Away, he by no means 
saith so. Why then is it spoken ? for if by it neither the 
genuineness of the Son is established, nor that God is not a 

ε τζίφισόοα, al. στζίφπόχι, versari. and should answer, he is bidden to say 

b lit. ' He Who Is.' Another reading that <fcc.' 
of the passage is, ' if he were asked ... i al. ' allows to be applied.' 


Clearness and power of our Lord's teacldng. i-25 

body, the word, because it serves no purpose, is superfluously John 
thrown in. Why then is it spoken ? For I shall not desist — - — — 
from asking thee this question. Is it not very plain, that it 
is for no other reason but that by it we might understand 
the genuineness of the Only-Begotten, and His Coeternity 
with the Father? 

He hath declared Him, saith John. What hath He 
declared? That no man hath seen God at any time? That 
God is one? But this all the other prophets testify, and 
Moses continually 1 exclaims, TJie Lord thy God is One 1 «νω 
Lord; and Esaias, Before Me there was no God formed,™^**™ 
neither shall there be after Me. What more then have we 4 • 
learned from the Son Which is in the bosom of the Father? 10 . ' 
What from the Only-Begotten? Injthe first place, these very [3.] 
words were uttered by His working ; in the next place, we 
have received a teaching that is far clearer, and learned that 
God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship ch.4,24. 
Him in spirit and in truth; and again ? that it is impossible 
to see God; that no man knoweth Him, save the Son; thatMat.n, 
He is the Father of the true and Only-Begotten; and all 27, 
other things that are told us of Him. But the word hath 
declared 2 shews the plainer and clearer teaching which ΐίβ-ί&γ*- 
gave not to the Jews only but to all the world, and established. ***' 
To the prophets not even all the Jews gave heed, but to 
the Only-begotten Son of God all the world yielded and 
obeyed. So the " declaration" in this place shews the 
greater clearness of His teaching, and therefore also He 
is called Word, and Angel 3 of great counsel 11 . J or, 

Since then we have been vouchsafed a larger and more seng ^' 
perfect teaching, God having no longer spoken by the 
prophets, but having in these last days spoken to us by uftsHeb. i, 
Son, let us shew forth a conversation far higher than theirs, 
and suitable to the honour bestowed on us. Strange would 
it be that He should have so far lowered Himself, as to 
choose to speak to us no longer by His servants, but by His 
own mouth, and yet we should shew forth nothing more 
than those of old. They had Moses for their teacher, we, 
Moses' Lord. Let us then exhibit a heavenly wisdom^ φιλβ . 
worthy of this honour, and let us have nothing to do with " ΰφ ' αν 

k μίγκλπ βου\γΐίοίγγι\οί. The LXX version of the titles of Chri?t, Isa. 9, 6. 


126 Christians members one of another. 

Homil. earth. It was for this that He brought His teaching from 

— heaven above, that He might remove our thoughts thither, 

that we might be imitators of our Teacher according to our 
power. But how may we become imitators of Christ ? By 
acting in every thing for the common good, and not merely 

Rom. seeking our own. For even Christ, saith Paul, pleased not 

]?s69 9 Himself, but as it is written, The reproaches of them that 
reproached Thee fell on Me. Let no one therefore seek his 
own. In truth, a man (really) seeks his own good when he 
looks to that of his neighbour. What is their good is ours; 
we are one body, and parts and limbs one of another. Let 
us not then be as though we were rent asunder. Let no one 
say, " such a person is no friend of mine, nor relation, nor 
neighbour, I have nought to do with him, how shall I 
approach, how address him?" Though he be neither relation 
nor friend, yet he is a man, who shares the same nature with 
thee, owns the same Lord, is thy fellow servant, and fellow 
*A"- sojourner 1 , for he is born in the same world. And if besides 
tent- he partakes of the same faith, behold he hath also become a 

fellow' memDer f thee : for what friendship could work such union, 
as the relationship of faith? And our intimacy one with 
another must not be such nearness only as friends ought to 
shew to friends, but such as is between limb and limb, 
because no man can possibly discover any intimacy greater 

* aL , than this sort of friendship and fellowship 2 . As then you 
cannot say, " Whence arises my intimacy and connection 
with this limb? (that would be ridiculous ;) so neither can 

ι Cor. y° u sa y so m tne case of your brother. We are all baptized 

12 > 1 3 • into one body, saith Paul. Wherefore into one body ? That 
we be not rent asunder, but preserve the just proportions of 
that one body by our intercourse and friendship one with 

Let us not then despise one another, lest we be neglectful 

Eph. 5, f ourselves 1 . For no man ever yet hated his own flesh, but 
nourish eth and cherisheth it. And therefore God hath given 
to us but one habitation, this earth, hath distributed all 
things equally, hath lighted one sun for us all, hath spread 

3 «v?*i» above us one roof, the sky, made one table, the earth, bear 3 
food for us. And another table hath He given far better 

1 al. let us then so care for our neighbours, as not neglecting each his own flesh. 

Pride and avarice separate , charity unites. 127 

than this, yet that too is one, (those who share our mysteries John 
understand my words,) one manner of Birth He hath bestowed 18, 

on all, the spiritual, we all have one country, that in the 
heavens, of the same cup drink we all. He hath not 
bestowed on the rich man a gift more abundant and more 
honourable, and on the poor one more mean and small, but 
He hath called all alike. He hath given carnal things 
with equal regard to all >, and spiritual in like manner. l •μ•- 
Whence then proceeds the great inequality of conditions in T>i 
life ? From the avarice and pride of the wealthy. But let 
not, brethren, let not this any longer be ; and when matters 
of universal interest and more pressing necessity bring us 
together, let us not be divided by things earthly and in- 
significant : I mean, by wealth and poverty, by bodily rela- 
tionship, by enmity and friendship ; for all these things are 
a shadow, nay less substantial than a shadow, to those who 
possess the bond of charity from above. Let us then pre- 
serve this unbroken, and none of those evil spirits 2 will be 2 al. 
able to enter in, who cause division in so perfect union 3 ; to si ^J» 
which may we all attain by the grace and loving-kindness of 3 a1 •. 
our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the w ith 
Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory, now and ever, and Him ' 
world without end. Amen. 


John i. 19. 

And Ih is is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests 
and Lev ites from Jerusalem to ask him, Who art thou? 

A dreadful thing is envy, beloved, a dreadful thing and 
a pernicious, to the enviers, not to the envied. For it harms 
and wastes them first, like some mortal venom deeply seated 
in their souls; and if by chance it injure its objects, the 
harm it does is small and trifling, and such as brings greater 
gain than loss. Indeed not in the case of envy only, but in 
every other, it is not he that has suffered, but he that has 
done the wrong, who receives injury. For had not this 
been so, Paul would not have enjoined the disciples rather 
l Cor. to endure wrong than to inflict it, when he says, Why do ye 
' '• not rather take wrong? Why do ye not rather suffer your- 
selves to he defrauded ? Well he knew, that destruction ever 
follows, not the injured party, but the injuring. All this 
I have said, by reason of the envy of the Jews. Because 
those who had flocked from the cities to John, and had 
condemned their own sins, and caused themselves to be bap- 
tized, repenting as it were after Baptism, send to ask him, 
Who art thou? Of a truth they were the offspring of vipers, 
serpents, and even worse if possible than this. Ο evil and 
adulterous and perverse generation, after having been bap- 
tized, do ye then become vainly curious, and question 
about the Baptist? What folly can be greater than this of 
yours? How was it that ye came forth? that ye^confessed 
your sins, that ye ran to the Baptist? How was it that you 

Christ in outward appearance inferior to the Baptist. 129 

asked him what you must do ? when in all this you were John 
acting unreasonably, since you knew not the principle and J ' 19, 

purpose of his coining. Yet of this the blessed John said 
nothing, nor does he charge or reproach them with it, but 
answers them with all gentleness. 

It is worth while to learn why he did thus. It was, that 
their wickedness might be manifest and plain to all men. 
Often did John testify of Christ to the Jews, and when he 
baptized them he continually made mention of Him to his 
company, and said, / indeed baptize you with water, but Mutt. 3, 
there cometh One after me Who is mightier than I; He 11 ' 
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. With 
regard to him they were affected by a human feeling; for, trem- 
blingly attentive 1 to the opinion of the world, and looking to ' wri- 
the outward appearance, they deemed it an unworthy thing ^Cor. 
that he should be subject to Christ. Since there were many 10 > Sh- 
illings that pointed out John for an illustrious person. In 
the first place, his distinguished and noble descent ; for he 
was the son of a chief priest. Then his conversation, his 
austere mode of life, his contempt of all human things ; for 
despising dress and table, and house and food itself, he had 
passed his former time in the desert. In the case of Christ 
all was the contrary of this. His family was mean, (as they 
often objected to Him, saying, Is not this the carpenter's Mat. 13, 
son ? Is not his moth'er called Mary? and his brethren 50 ' 
James and Joses?) and that which was supposed to be His 
country was held in such evil repute, that even Nathanael 
said, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth f e, 1, 46. 
His mode of living was ordinary, and His garments not 
better than those of the many. For He was not girt with 
a leathern girdle, not was His raiment of hair, nor did He 
eat honey and locusts. But He fared like all others, and 
was present at the feasts of wicked men and publicans, that 
He might draw them to Him. Which thing the Jews not 
understanding reproached Him with, as He also saith Him- 
self, The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they Mat.n, 
say, Behold a gluttonous man and a wine bibber, a friend 19 ' 
of publicans and sinners. When then John continually sent 
them from himself to Jesus, who seemed to them a meaner 
person, being ashamed and vexed at this, and wishing rather 


130 Design of the Jews in questioning the Baptist: have him for their teacher, they did not dare to say so 
'- plainly, but send to him, thinking by their flattery to induce 

him to confess that he was the Christ. They do not there- 
fore send to him mean men, as in the case of Chiist, for 
when they wished to lay hold on Him, they sent servants, 
and then Herodians, and the like, but in this instance, priests 
and Levites, and not merely priests, but those from Jeru- 
salem, that is, the more honourable; for the Evangelist did not 
notice this without a cause. And they send to ask, Who art 
thou ? Yet the manner of his birth was well known to all, so 
Lukei, that all said, What manner of child shall this be? and the 
report had gone forth into all the hill country. And after- 
wards when he came to Jordan, all the cities were set on the 
wing, and came to him from Jerusalem, and from all Judaea, 
! j£• s to be baptized. Why then do they ! now ask ? Not because 
there- they did not know him, (how could that be, when he had 
been made manifest in so many ways ?) but because they 
wished to bring him to do that which I have mentioned. 

[2.] Hear then how this blessed person answered to the 
intention with which they asked the question, not to the 
question itself. When they said, Who art thou? he did not 
at once give them what would have been the direct answer, 
/ am the voice of one crying in the wilderness. But what 
did he ? He removed the suspicion they had formed ; for, 
saith the Evangelist, being asked, Who art thou ? 

Ver. 20. He confessed , and, denied not; hut confessed , 
J am not the Christ. 

Observe the wisdom of the Evangelist. He mentions this 
for the third time, to set forth the excellency of the Baptist, 
and their wickedness and folly. And Luke also says, that 
when the multitudes supposed him to be the Christ, he again 
removes their suspicion \ This is the part of an honest 
servant, not only not to take to himself his master's honour, 
η,ακ ξβ ν Dut a ] so lo re j ec t it 2 when given to him by the many. But 
the multitudes arrived at this supposition from simplicity 
and ignorance ; these questioned him from an ill intention, 

a Morel. ' in like manner one may mightier than I cometh, and by hi8 

see in Luke, (3, 16.) John saying to answer again removing such a sus- 

those who reasoned concerning him picion.' 
whether he was the Christ, that One 

who replies to their intention. 131 

which I have mentioned, expecting, as 1 said, to draw him John 
over to their purpose by their flattery. Had they not expected - — - — ' 
this, they would not have proceeded immediately to another 
question, but would have been angry with him for having 
given them an answer foreign to their enquiry, and would 
have said, i( Why, did we suppose that? did we come to ask 
thee that ?" But now as taken and detected in the fact, they 
proceed to another question, and say, 

Ver. 21. What then? art thou Elias? And he saith, I am 

For they expected that Elias also would come, as Christ 
declares; for when His disciples enquired, Ho/a then cfoMat.17, 
the scribes say that Elias must first come? He replied, 
Elias truly shall first come, and restore all tilings. Then 
they ask, Art thou that Prophet Υ and he answered, No. 
Yet surely he was a prophet. Wherefore then doth he deny 
it? Because again he looks to the intention of his ques- 
tioners. For they expected that some especial prophet 
should come, because Moses said, The Lord thy God willBeut. 

18 15 
raise up unto thee a Prophet of thy brethren like unto me, ' 

unto Him shall ye hearken. Now this was Christ. Where- 
fore they do not say, " Art thou a prophet ?" meaning 
thereby one of the ordinary prophets ; but the expression, 
Art thou the Prophet ? with the addition of the article, 
means, " Art thou that Prophet who was foretold by Moses;" 
and therefore he denied not that he was a prophet, but that 
he was that Prophet. 

Ver. 22, Then said they unto him, Who art thou ? that 
we may give an answer to them that sent us. What say est 
thou of thyself ? 

Observe them pressing him more vehemently, urging him, 
repeating their questions, and not desisting; while he first 
kindly removes false opinions concerning himself, and then 
sets before them one which is true. For, saith he, 

Ver. 23. / am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 
Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet 

When he had spoken some high and lofty words con- 
cerning Christ, as if (replying) to their opinion, he im- 


132 Treachery of the Jews detected: 

Homil. mediately betook himself to the Prophet to draw from thence 
Χλ J ' confirmation of his assertion. 

Ver. 24, 25. And (saith the Evangelist) they which were 
sent were of the Pharisees. And they asked him, and said 
unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou he not that 
Christ, neither Elias, neither that Prophet? 

Seest thou that not without reason I said that they wished 

to bring him to this ? and the reason why they did not at 

first say so was, lest they should be detected by all men. 

And then when he said, / am not the Christ, they, being 

1 Iripuof desirous to conceal what they were plotting 1 within, go on 

to Elias, and that Prophet. But when he said that he was 

not one of these either, after that, in their perplexity, they 

cast aside the mask, and without any disguise shew clearly 

their treacherous intention, saying, Why baptizest thou then, 

if thou be not that Christ ? And then again, wishing to 

throw some obscurity over the thing b , they add the others 

also, Elias, and that Prophet. For when they were not able 

>i*o<rxt- to trip* him by their flattery, they thought that by an 

Xinu accusation they could compel him c to say the thing that was 


What folly, what insolence, what illtimed ofnciousness ! 
^l.'willYe were sent to learn who and whence he might be, not to 3 
ye lay down laws for him also. This too was the conduct of 
men who would compel him to confess himself to be the 
Christ. Still not even now is he angry, nor does he, as 
might have been expected, say to them any thing of this 
sort, " Do you give orders and make laws for me ?" but 
again shews great gentleness towards them. 

Ver. 26, 27. I, saith he, baptize with water : but there 
standeth One among you, Whom ye know not; He it is, 
Who coming after me is preferred before me, Whose shoe's 
latchet I am not worthy to unloose. 

[3.] What could the Jews have left to say to this? for 
even from this the accusation against them cannot be evaded, 
the decision against them admits not of pardon, they have 

b Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. l seest c Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. ' they 
thou how, disguising what they had, attempt to involve him in an accu- 
they add.' sation, compelling him.' 

what they ought to have done. 133 

given sentence against themselves. How ? In what way ? John 
They deemed John worthy of credit, and so truthful, that-^ — - 
they might believe him not only when he testified of others, 
but also when he spoke concerning himself. For had they 
not been so disposed, they would not have sent to learn 
from him what related to himself. Because you know that 
the only persons whom we believe, especially when speaking 
of themselves, are those whom we suppose to be more 
veracious than any others. And it is not this alone which 
closes their mouths, but also the disposition with which they 
had approached him; for they came forth to him at first with 
great eagerness, even though afterwards they altered. Both 
which things Christ declared, when He said, He was a 
burning {and a shining) light, and ye were willing for 
a season to rejoice in Ids light. Moreover, his answer v 

made him yet more worthy of credit. For (Christ) saith, 
He that seeketh not his own glory 1 , the same is true, x <rh 
and no unrighteousness is in him. Now this man sought J&JJJ! 
it not, but refers the Jews to another. And those who were ««*«"» 
sent were of the most trustworthy among them, and of 
the highest rank, so that they could have in no way any 
refuge or excuse, for the unbelief which they exhibited 
towards Christ. Wherefore did ye not receive the things 
spoken concerning Him by John ? you sent men who held 
the first rank among you, you enquired by them, you heard 
what the Baptist answered, they manifested all possible 
officiousness, sought into every point, named all the persons 
you suspected him to be ; and yet most publicly and plainly 
he confessed that he was neither Christ, nor Elias, nor that 
Prophet. Nor did he stop even there, but also informed 
them who he was, and spoke of the nature of his own 
baptism, that it was but a slight and mean thing, nothing more 
than some water, and told of the superiority of the Baptism 
given by Christ; he also cited Esaias the prophet, testifying 
of old very long ago, and calling Christ, Lord, but giving is.40, 3. 
him the names of " minister and servant." What after this 
ought they to have done ? Ought they not to have believed 
on Him Who was witnessed of, to have worshipped Him, to 
have confessed Him to be God? For the character and 
heavenly wisdom of the witness shewed that his testimony 

134 Christ's dignity, mans unworthiness. 

Homil. proceeded, not from flattery, but from truth ; which is plain 
- XVI ' -also from this, that no man prefers his neighbour to himself, 
nor, when he may lawfully give honour to himself, will yield 
it up to another, especially when it is so great as that of 
ι IZiffT* which we speak. So that John would not have renounced • 
this testimony (as belonging) to Christ, had He not been 
God. For though he might have. rejected it for himself as 
being too great for his own nature, yet he would not have 
assigned it to another nature that was beneath it. 

But there standeth One among you, Whom ye know not. 
Reasonable it was that Christ should mingle among the 
people as one of the many, because every where He taught 
men not to be puffed up and boastful. And in this place by 
" knowledge" the Baptist means a perfect acquaintance with 
Him, Who and Whence He was. And immediately next to 
this He puts, Who cometh after me ; all but saying, " Think 
not that all is contained in my baptism, for had that been 
perfect, Another would not have arisen after me to offer you 
a different One, but this of mine is a preparation and a 
clearing the way for that other. Mine is but a shadow and 
image, but One must come Who shall add to this the reality. 
So that His very coming after me especially declares His 
dignity : for had the first been perfect, no place would have 
2'ispre-been required for a second." Is* before me, is more honour- 
E/v/ a bl e > brighter. And then, lest they should imagine that His 
superiority was found by comparison, desiring to establish 
His incomparableness, he says, Whose shoe^s latchet I am 
not ivorthy to unloose ; that is, Who is not simply before me, 
but before me in such a way, that I am not worthy to be 
numbered among the meanest of His servants. For to loose 
the shoe is the office of humblest service. 
Mat.n, Now if John was not worthy to unloose the latchet, John, 
than whom among them that are born of women there hath 
not risen a greater, where shall we rank ourselves? If he 
who was equal to, or rather greater than, all the world d , (for 
Heb.n,saith Paul, the ivorld was not worthy of them,) declares 
himself not worthy to be reckoned even among the meanest 
of those who should minister unto Him, what shall we say, 

d Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. 'for cerning whom he writes, of whom, 
thus Paul speaks of the saints con- cfec.' 

Danger and folly of pride. 135 

who are full of ten thousand sins, and arc as far from the John 
excellence of John, as earth from heaven. I• 26,27 

[4.] He then saith that he himself is not worthy so much 
as to unloose the latchet of His shoe; while the enemies of 
the truth are mad with such a madness, as to assert e that 
they are worthy to know Him even as He knows Himself. 
What is worse than such insanity, what more phrenzied 
than such arrogance? Well hath a wise man said, The 
beginning of pride is not to know the Lord 1 . 

The devil would not have been brought down and become 
a devil, not being a devil before, had he not been sick of 
this disease. This it was that cast him out from that con- 
fidence 1 , this sent him to the pit of fire, this was the cause 1 «a?pn- 
of all his woes. For it is enough of itself to destroy every " as 
excellence of the soul, whether it find almsgiving, or prayer, 
or fasting, or any thing. For, saith the Evangelist, 2%aiLukei6, 
which is highly esteemed among men is impure before the qu oted 
Lord. Therefore it is not only fornication or adultery that exactl y) 
are wont to defile those who practise them, but pride also, 
and that far more than those vices. Why ? Because forni- 
cation, though it is an unpardonable sin, yet a man may 
plead the desire ; but pride cannot possibly find any cause 
or pretext of any sort whatever by which to obtain so much 
as a shadow of excuse ; it is nothing but a distortion and 
most grievous disease of the soul, produced from no other 
source but folly. For there is nothing more ibolish than a 
proud man, though he be surrounded with wealth, though he 
possess much of the wisdorn of this world, though he be set 
in royal place, though he bear about with him all things 
that among men appear desirable. 

For if the man who is proud of things really good is 
wretched and miserable, and loses the reward of all those 
things, must not he who is exalted by things that are nought, 
and puffs himself up because of a shadow or the flower of 
the grass, (for such is this world's glory,) be more ridiculous 
than any, when he does just as some poor needy man might 

e Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. ' boldly f Ecclus. 10, 12. LXX. ανιάτου 
speaking out, (άχαυΟαδιαζομίηυί ,) say αφΐ9ταμί.\ου άτο του Κ. Eng. ver. 'when 
that, &c.' one departeth.' 

136 Riches transitory : 

Homil. do, pining all his time with hunger, yet if ever he should 
- chance one night to see a dream of good fortune, filled with 

conceit because of it? 

Ο wretched and miserable! when thy soul is perishing 
by a most grievous disease, when thou art poor with utter 
poverty, art thou high minded because thou hast such and 
such a number of talents of gold ? because thou hast a mul- 
titude of slaves and cattle? Yet these are not thine; and if 
thou dost not believe my words, learn from the experience of 

1 οι• 're- those wno have gone before 1 thee. And if thou art so 


them drunken, that thou canst not be instructed even from what 

before' ^ αδ befallen others, wait a little, and thou shalt know by 

what befals thyself that these things avail thee nothing, 

when gasping for life, and master not of a single hour, not 

2 al. even of a little moment, thou shalt unwillingly leave them 2 to 
tifemon' those who are about thee, and these perhaps those whom 

thou wouldest not. For many have not been permitted even 
to give directions concerning them, but have departed sud- 
* &tpn denly 3 , desiring to enjoy them, but not permitted, dragged 
from them, and forced to yield them up to others, giving 
place by compulsion to those to whom they would not. 
That this be not our case, let us, while we are yet in 
strength and health, send forward our riches hence to our 
own city, for thus only and in no other way shall we be able 
to enjoy them; so shall we lay them up in a place inviolate 
and safe. For there is nothing, there is nothing there that can 
« dxnfos take them from us; no death, no attested wills 4 , no successors 
*%&*' to inheritances \ no false informations, no plottings against us, 
χοι x\ri- but he who has departed hence bearing away great wealth with 
him may enjoy it there for ever. \Vho then is so wretched 
as not to desire to revel in riches which are his own 
throughout? Let us then transfer our wealth, and remove it 
thither. We shall not need for such a removal asses, or 
camels, or carriages, or ships, (God hath relieved even us 
from this difficulty,) but we only want the poor, the lame, 
the crippled, the infirm. These are entrusted with this 
transfer, these convey our riches to heaven, these introduce 
the masters of such wealth as this to the inheritance of 
goods everlasting. Which may it be that we all attain 

and how to make them lasting, 137 

through the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus John 
Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father and the— 6 -^ e 
Holy Ghost, be glory, now and ever, and world without end. 


John i. 28, 29. 

These things were done in Bethany beyond Jordan, where 
John was baptizing. The next day he seeth Jesus coming 
unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, Which 
taketh away the sin of the world. 

A great virtue is boldness and freedom of speech, and the 
waking all things second in importance to the confessing of 
Christ ; so great and admirable, that the Only-begotten Son 
Luke) 2, of God proclaims such an one in the presence of the Father. 
Yet the recompense is more than just, for thou confessest 
upon earth, He in heaven, thou in the presence of men, He 
before the Father and all the Angels. 

Such an one was John, who regarded not the multitude, 
nor opinion, nor any thing else belonging to men, but trod 
all this beneath his feet, and proclaimed to all with becoming 
freedom the things respecting Christ, And therefore the 
Evangelist marks the very place, to shew the boldness of the 
loud-voiced herald. For it was not in a house, not in a 
corner, not in the wilderness, but in the midst of the multi- 
tude, after that he had occupied Jordan, when all that were 
baptized by him were present, (for the Jews came upon him 
as he was baptizing,) there it was that he proclaimed aloud 
that wonderful confession concerning Christ, full of those 
sublime and great and mysterious doctrines, and that he was 
not worthy to unloose the latchet of His shoe. Wherefore 
he saith l , These things were done in Bethany, or, as all the 
more correct copies have it, in Bethabara. For Bethany 

* al. ' how then doth he this Ρ adding and saying.' 

Different periods dwell on by the Evangelists. 189 

was not beyond Jordan, nor bordering on the wilderness, but John 
somewhere nigh to Jerusalem. — — - 

He marks the places also for another reason. Since he 
was not about to relate matters of eld date, but such as had 
come to pass but a little time before, he makes those who 
were present and had beheld, witnesses of his words, and 
supplies proof from the places themselves. For confident 
that nothing was added by himself to what was said, but that 
he simply and with truth described things as they were, 
he draws a testimony from the places, which, as I said, would 
be no common demonstration of his veracity. 

The next day he seeth Jesus coming to him, and saith, 
Behold the Lamb of God, Which taketh away the sin of the 

The Evangelists distributed the periods amongst them ; 
and Matthew having cut short his notice of the time before 
John the Baptist was bound, hastens to that which follows, 
while the Evangelist John not only (Joes not cut short this 
period, but dwells most on it. Matthew, after the return of 
Jesus from the wilderness, saying nothing of the intermediate 
circumstances, as what John spake, and what the Jews sent 
and said, and having cut short all the rest, passes immediately 
to the prison. For, saith he, Jesus having heard that John Mat.14, 
was betrayed, departed thence. But John does not so. He 
is silent as to the journey into the wilderness, as having been 
described by Matthew; but he relates what followed the de- 
scent from the mountain, and after having gone through many 
circumstances, adds, For John was not yet cast into prison. c • 3 > 24 • 

And wherefore, says one, does Jesus now come to him? 
why does He come not merely once, but this second time 
also ? For Matthew says that His coming was necessary on 
account of Baptism : since Jesus adds, that thus it becometh Matt. 3, 
us to fulfil all righteousness. But John says that He came 
again after Baptism, and declares it in this place, for, / saw, 
saith he, the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and 
It abode upon Him. Wherefore then did He come to John? 
for He came not casually, but went expressly to him. John, 
saith the Evangelist, seeth Jesus coming unto him. Then 
wherefore cometh He ? In order that since John had 
baptized Him with many (others), no one might suppose 

140 Why Christ came to be baptized. 

Homil. that He had hastened to John for the same reason as the 

' rest, to confess sins, and to wash in the river unto repentance. 

For this He comes, to give John an opportunity of setting 
this opinion right again, for by saying, Behold the Lamb of 
God, that taketh away the sin of the world, he removes the 
whole suspicion. For very plain it is that One so pure as to 
1 al. ' to be able to wash away l the sins of others, does not come to 

redeem' „ . . . , 

confess sins, but to give opportunity to that marvellous herald 
to impress what he had said more definitely on those who 
had heard his former words, and to add others besides. The 
word Behold is used, because many had been seeking Him 
by reason of what had been said, and for a long time. For 
this cause, pointing Him out when present, he said, Behold, 
this is He so long sought, this is the Lamb. He calls Him 
Lamb, to remind the Jews of the prophecy of Isaiah, and of 
the shadow under the law of Moses, that he may the better 
lead them from the type to the reality. That lamb of Moses 
took not at once away the sin of any one; but This took 
away the sin of all the world ; for when it was in danger of 
perishing, He quickly delivered it from the wrath of God. 

Ver. 30. This is He of Whom I said, He that cometh 
after me is preferred before me. 

[2. ] Seest thou here also how he interprets the word 
before ? for having called Him Lamb, and that He taketh 
aw ay the sin of the world, then he saith that He is preferred 
before me, for He was before me; declaring that this is the 
before, the taking upon Him the sins of the world, and the 
baptizing with the Holy Ghost. £^For my coming had no 
farther object than to proclaim the common Benefactor of 
the world, and to afford the baptism of water; but His was 
to cleanse all men, and to give them the power of the 
Comforter."^ LLe is preferred before me, that is to say, has 
appeared brighter than I, because He was before me. Let 
those who have admitted the madness of Paul of Samosata 
be ashamed when they withstand so manifest a truth. 

Ver. 81. And I knew Him not, he saith. 

Here he renders his testimony free from suspicion, by 
shewing that it was not from human friendship, but had been 
caused by divine revelation. / knew Him not, he saith. 
How then couldest thou be a trustworthy witness? How 

The descent of the Spirit was to declare Christ. 141 

shalt thou teach others, while thou thyself art ignorant ? He John 
did not say, " I know Him not," but, / knew Him not ; so ' ■ 

that in this way he would be shewn most trustworthy; for 
why should he have shewn favour to one of whom he was 

But that He should be made manifest unto Israel, there- 
fore am I come baptizing with water . 

He then did not need Baptism, nor had that laver any other 
object than to prepare for all others a way to faith on Christ. 
For he did not say, " that Τ might cleanse those who are 
baptized," or, " that I might deliver them from their sins," 
but, that He should be made manifest unto Israel. " And 
why, lell me, could he not without Baptism have preached 
and brought the multitudes to Him ?" But in this way it 
would not have been by any means easy. For they would 
not so all have run together, if the preaching had been 
without the baptism ; they would not by the comparison 
have learned His superiority. For .the multitude came 
together not to hear his words, but for what? To be bap- 
tized, confessing their sins. But when they came, they 
Were taught the matters concerning Christ, and the differ- 
ence of His Baptism. Yet even this of John was of greater 
dignity than the Jewish, and therefore all ran to it; yet even 
so it was imperfect. 

" How then didst thou know Him ?" " By the descent of 
the Spirit," he saith. But again, lest any one should 
suppose that he was in need of the Spirit as we are, hear 
how he removes trie suspicion, by shewing that the descent 
of the Spirit was only to declare Christ. For having said, 
And I knew Him not, he adds, But He that sent me to v. 33. 
baptize with water, the Same said unto me, Upon Whom 
thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining on Him, 
the same is He Which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. 

Seest thou that this was the work of the Spirit, to point 
out Christ? The testimony of John was indeed not to be 
suspected, but wishing to make it yet more credible, he leads 
it up to God and the Holy Spirit. For when John had 
testified to a thing so great and wonderful, so fit to astonish 
all his hearers, that He alone took on Him the sins of all 
the world, and that the greatness of the gift sufficed for so 

142 Christ at first unknown to the Baptist: 

Homil. great a ransom, afterwards he proves this assertion *. And 
L the proof is, that He is the Son of God, and that He needed 

φ*™ not baptism, and that the object of the descent of the Spirit 
was only to make Him known. For it was not in the power 
of John to give the Spirit, as those who were baptized by 
Acts 19, him shew when they say, We have not so much as heard 
2 " whether there be any Holy Ghost. In truth, Christ needed 

2 or < of not baptism, neither his nor any other 2 ; but rather baptism 
o§fer needed the power of Christ. For that which was wanting was 
man ' the crowning blessing of all, that he who was baptized 
3 %οζη should be deemed worthy of the Spirit; this free gift 3 then 
y ' a of the Spiiit He added when He came. 

Ver. 3*2 — 34. And John bare record, saying, I saw the 

Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and It abode 

upon Him. And I knew Him not: but He that sent me to 

baptize with water, the Same said unto me, Upon Whom 

thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, 

the same is He Which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And 

I saiv, and bare record that this is the Son of God. 

**υηχ,Ζ>ί He puts the / knew Hi?n not repeatedly 4 . On what 

account, and wherefore? He was His kinsman according to 

Luke i, the flesh. Behold, saith the angel, thy cousin Elisabeth, she 

36 • also hath conceived a son. That therefore he might not 

seem to favour Him because of the relationship, he repeats the 

/ knew Him not. And this happened with good reason ; 

for he had passed all his time in the wilderness away from 

his father's house. 

How then, if he knew Him not before the descent of the 
Spirit, and if he then for the first time recognised Him, did 
Matt. 3, he forbid Him before baptism, saying, / have need to be 
baptized of Thee, and contest Thou to me ? since this was 
a proof that he knew Him very well. Yet he knew Him 
not before or for a long time, and with good cause ; for the 
marvels which took place when He was a Child, as the 
circumstances of the Magi and others the like, had happened 
long before, while John himself was very young, and since 
much time had elapsed in the interval, He was naturally 
unknown to all. For had He been known, John would not 
have said, That He should be made manifest to Israel, 
therefore am I come baptizing. 

but known bejore His Baptism. 143 

[3.1 Hence it remains clear to us, that the miracles which John 

. I 32-34 

they say belong to Christ's Childhood, are false, and the - — - — - 
inventions of certain who bring them into notice. For if He 
had begun from His early age to work wonders, neither 
could John have been ignorant of Him, nor would the 
multitude have needed a teacher to make Him known. But 
now he says, that for tins he is come, that He might be 
made manifest to Israel ; and for this reason he said again, 
I have need to be baptized of Thee. Afterwards, as having 
gained more exact knowledge of Him, he proclaimed Him 
to the multitude, saying, This is He of Whom I said, After 
me cometh a Man Which is preferred before me. For He 
Who sent me to baptize with water, and sent me for this end, 
that He should be made manifest to Israel, Himself revealed 
Him even before the descent of the Spirit. Wherefore even 
before He came, John said, One cometh after me Who is 
preferred before me. He knew Him not before he came to 
Jordan and baptized all men, but when He was about to be 
baptized, then he knew Him; and this from the Father 
revealing Him to the Prophet, and the Spirit shewing 
Him when He was being baptized to the Jews, for whose 
sake indeed the descent of the Spirit took place. For that 
the witness of John might not be despised who said, that 
He was before me, and that He baptizeth with the Spirit, 
and that " He judgeth the world," the Father utters a Voice 
proclaiming the Son, and the Spirit descends, directing 1 that l **«*■««» 
Voice to the Head of Jesus. For since one was baptizing, 
the other receiving Baptism, the Spirit comes to correct the 
idea which some of those present might form, that the words 
were spoken of John. So that when he says, / knew Him 
not* he speaks of former time, not that near to His Baptism. 
Otherwise how could he have forbidden Him, saying, / 
have need to be baptized of Thee? How could he have said 
such words concerning Him? 

" But," says one, " how then did not the Jews believe? for 
it was not John only that saw the Spirit in the likeness of a 
dove." It was, because, even if they did see, such things 
require not only the eyes of the body, but more than these, 
the vision of the understanding, to prevent men from sup- 
posing the whole to be a vain illusion. For if when they 

144 Truth of the Evangelists shewn by their omissions. 

HoMTL.eaw Him working wonders, touching with His own Hands 

— 1 the sick and the dead, and so bringing them back to life and 

health, they were so drunk with malice as to declare the 
contrary of what they saw; how could they shake off their 
unbelief by the descent of the Spirit only ? And some say, 
that they did not all see it, but only John and those of them 

1 tvyvu- who w ere better 1 disposed. Because, even though it were 
fiontrrt- possible with fleshly eyes to see the Spirit descending as in 

the likeness of a dove, still not for this was it absolutely 
necessary that the circumstance should be visible to all. 
For Zacharias saw many things in a sensible form, as did 
Daniel and Ezekiel, and had none to share in what they 
saw; Moses also saw many things such as none other hath 

2 a l. seen; nor did all the disciples enjoy 2 the view of the 
'were Transfiguration on the mount, nor did they all alike behold 

thought & ' J 

worthy' Him at the time of the Resurrection. And this Luke plainly 
Acts io, shews, when he says, that He shewed Himself to witnesses 
chosen before of God. 

And I saw, and bare record that This is the Son of God. 
Where did he bear record that This is the Son of God ? 
he called Him indeed Lamb, and said that He should 
baptize with the Spirit, but no where did he say of Him, 
Son of God» But the other Evangelists do not write that 
He said any thing after the Baptism, but having been silent 
as to the time intervening, they mention the miracles of 

3 σύλλη- Christ which were done after John's captivity 3 , whence we 
V' v may reasonably conjecture that these and many others are 

omitted. And this our Evangelist himself has declared, at 
the end of his narrative. For they were so far from invent- 
ing any thing great concerning Him, that the things which 

* a1 • seem to bring reproach, these they have all with one voice 4 
'mind' λ • , „ ι -. •« η •. 

and with all exactness set down, and you will not find one 
of them omitting one of such circumstances; but of the 

5 al. miracles, part some have left for the others to relate 5 , part all 
ma( je have passed over in silence. 

room for j sav not this without cause, but to answer the shameless- 

otheis' J 

6 Ht. ness of the heathen 6 . For this is a sufficient proof of their 

ee s truth-loving disposition, and that they say nothing for 

favour. And thus as well as in other ways you may arm 

7 λίγα» yourselves for trial of argument 7 with them. But take heed. 


Conversion of Heathen hincleredby Christian indifference. 145 

Strange were it that the physician, or the shoemaker, or the Johs 
weaver, in short all artists, should be able each to contend — — '- 
correctly for his own art, but that one calling himself 
Christian should not be able to give a reason for his own 
faith; yet those things if overlooked bring only loss to men's 
property, these if neglected destroy our very souls. Yet 
such is our wretched disposition, that we give all our care 
to the former, and the things which are necessary, and 
which are the groundwork 1 of our salvation, as though of 1 ύ* ohm 
little worth, we despise. 

[4.] This it is which prevents the heathen from quickly 
deriding their own error. For when they, though established 
in a lie, use every means to conceal the shamefulness of their 
opinions, while we, the servants of the truth, cannot even 
open our mouths, how can they help condemning the great 
weakness of our doctrine ? how can they help suspecting 
our religion to be fraud and folly ? how shall they not 
blaspheme Christ as a deceiver, and a cheat, who used the 
folly of the many to further his fraud ? And we are to blame 
for this blasphemy, because we will not be wakeful in argu- 
ments for godliness, but deem these things superfluous, and 
care only for the things of earth. He who admires a dancer 
or a charioteer, or one who contends with beasts, uses every 
exertion and contrivance not to come off worst in any dis- 
putes concerning him, and they string together long pane- 
gyrics, as they compose their defence against those who find 
fault with them, and cast sneers without number at their 
opponents : but when arguments for Christianity are pro- 
posed, they all hang their heads, and scratch themselves, and 
gape, and retire at length the objects of contempt. 

Must not this deserve excessive wrath, when Christ is 
shewn to be less honourable in your estimation than a 
dancer? since you have contrived ten thousand defences 
for the things they have done, though more disgraceful than 
any, but of the miracles of Christ, though they have drawn 
to Him the world, you cannot bear even to think or care at 
all. We believe in the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, in the Resurrection of bodies, and in Life everlasting. 
If now any heathen say, " What is this Father, what this 
Son, what this Holy Ghost ? How do you who say that there 


146 Duty of Christians to defend their faith. 

Homtl. are three Gods, charge us with having many Gods ?" What 
— -—--will you say? What will you answer? How will you repel 
the attack of these arguments ? But what if when you are 
silent, the unbeliever should again propose this other ques- 
tion, and ask, " What in a word is resurrection ? Shall we 
rise again in this body? or in another, different from this ? 
If in this, what need that it be dissolved ?" What will you 
answer ? And what, if he say, " Why did Christ come now 
and not in old time ? Has it seemed good to Him now to 
care for men, and did He despise us during all the years 
that are past ?" Or if he ask other questions besides, more 
than these ? for I must not propose many questions, and be 
silent as to the answers to them, lest, in so doing, I harm the 
simpler among you. What has been already said is sufficient 
to shake off your slumbers. Well then, if they ask these ques- 
tions, and you absolutely cannot even listen to the words, 
shall we, tell me, suffer trifling punishment only, when we have 
been the cause of such error to those who sit in darkness ? I 
wished, if you had sufficient leisure, to bring before you all 
the book of a certain impure heathen philosopher written 
against us, and that of another of earlier date, that so at least 
I might have roused you, and led you away from your 
exceeding slothfulness. For if they were wakeful that they 
might say these things against us, what pardon can we 
deserve, if we do not even know how to repel the attacks 
made upon us ? For what purpose have we been brought 

1 **«'»■ forward 1 ? Dost thou not hear the Apostle say, Be ready to 
ι Peter give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the 
3 > 15 • hope that is in you? And Paul exhorts in like manner. 
Col. 3, saying, Let the Word of Christ dwell in you richly. W T hat 

2 al. ir- d° tne y wno are more slothful 2 than drones reply to this ? 
rational " Blessed is every simple soul," and, He that walketh simply* 
io,8. walketh surely. For this is the cause of all sorts of evil, 
rightly ' that the man y d° not k llow how to apply rightly even the 
E^v. testimony of the Scriptures. Thus in this place, the writer 

does not mean (by tc simple") the man who is foolish, or who 

knows nothing, but him who is free from wickedness, who is 

no evil-doer, who is wise. If it were not so, it would have 

4 al. ' to been useless to say 4 , Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as 

Mat. ίο doves. But why should I name these things, when th< 
16. ' 

Need of general improvement. 147 

discourse comes in quite out of place ? For besides the John 
things already mentioned, other matters are not right with — '- — - 
us, those, I mean, which concern our life and conversation. 
We are in every way wretched and ridiculous, ever ready to 
find fault with each other, but slow to correct in ourselves 
things for which we blame and accuse our neighbour. 
Wherefore I exhort you, that now at least we attend to our- 
selves, and stop not at the finding fault, (this is not enough 
to appease God;) but that we shew forth a change in every 
way most excellent, in order that having lived here to the 
glory of God, we may enjoy the glory to come; which may 
it come to pass that we all attain, through the grace and 
loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 



John i. 35, 36, 37. 

Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples; 
and looking upon Jesus as He walked, he saith, Behold 
the Lamb of God. And the tioo disciples heard him speak, 
and they followed Jesus. 

The nature of man is somehow a thing slothful, and easily 
declining to perdition, not by reason of the constitution of the 
nature itself, but by reason of that sloth which is of deliberate 
choice. Wherefore it needs much reminding. And for this 
Philip, cause Paul, writing to the Philippians, said, To write the 
' * same things to you, to me indeed is not grievous, but for 
you it is safe. 

The earth when it has once received the seed, straightway 
gives forth its fruits, and needs not a second sowing; but 
with our souls it is not so, and one must be content, after 
having sown many times, and manifested much carefulness, 
to be able once to receive fruit. For in the first place, what 
is said settles in the mind with difficulty, because the ground 
is very hard, and entangled with thorns innumerable, and 
there are many which lay plots, and carry away the seed ; 
afterwards, when it has been fixed and has taken root, it still 
needs the same attention, that it may come to maturity, and 
having done so may remain uninjured, and. take no harm 
from any. For in the case of seeds, when the ear is fully 
formed and has gained its proper strength, it easily despises 
rust, and drought, and every other thing ; but it is not so 
with doctrines; in their case after all the work has been 
fully done, one storm and flood often comes on, and 
either by the attack of unpleasant circumstances, or by the 

Desire of the Baptist to bring men to Christ. 149 

plots of men skilled to deceive, or by various other tempt- John 
ations brought against them, brings them to ruin. — '- — — 

I have not said this without cause, but that when you hear 
John repeating the same words, you may not condemn him 
for vain talking *, nor deem him impertinent or wearisome. ] a1 • 
He desired to have been heard by once speaking, but because taste' 
not many gave heed to what was spoken from the first, by 
reason of deep sleep, he again rouses them by this second 
call. Now observe ; he had said, He that cometh after me, is 
preferred before me: and that Τ am not worthy to unloose 
the latchet of His shoe ; and that He baptizeth with the 
Holy Ghost, and with fire; and that he saiu the Spirit 
descending like a dove, and It abode upon Him, and he bare 
record that This is the Son of God. No one gave heed, nor 
asked, nor said, " Why sayest thou these things? in whose 
behalf? for what reason ?" Again he had said, Behold the 
Lamb of God, Which taketh away the sin of the world; yet not 
even so did he touch their insensibility, Therefore, after 
this he is compelled to repeat the same words again, as if 
softening by tillage 2 some hard and stubborn soil, and by*M«*M 
his word as by a 3 plough, disturbing the mind which had3 a i. <a 
hardened into clods 4 , so as to put in the seed deep. For]^^ 
this reason he does not make his discourse a long one^iv»»» 
either ; because he desired one thing only, to bring them 
over and join them to Christ. He knew that as soon as 
they had received this saying, and had been persuaded, 
they would not afterwards need one to bear witness unto 
Him. As also it came to pass. For, if the Samaritans could 
say to the woman after hearing Him, Now we believe, not 
because of thy saying, for we know that this is indeed the 
Christ, the Saviour of the world, the disciples would be 
much more quickly subdued , as was the case. For when 
they had come and heard Him but one evening, they re- 
turned no more to John, but were so nailed to Him, that 
they took upon them the ministry of John, and themselves 
proclaimed Him. For, saith the Evangelist, He findeth 
his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have 

c Morel, and Ms. in Bodleian, ' much affected, and when they had come would 
more would the disciples have heen thus have been subdued by His words.' 

150 Men attracted most by tidings of mercy. 

Homil. found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. 

• And observe, I pray you, this, how, when he said, He that 

cometh after me is preferred before me ; and that, / am not 
worthy to unloose the latcliet of His shoe ; he caught no 
one, but when he spoke of the Dispensation, and lowered 
his discourse to a humbler tone, then the disciples followed 

And we may remark this, not only in the instance of the 
disciples, but that the many are not so much attracted when 
some great and sublime thing is said concerning God, as 
when some act of graciousness and loving-kindness, some- 
thing pertaining to the salvation of the hearers, is spoken of. 
They heard that He takeih away the sin of the world, and 
straightway they ran to Him. For, said they, " if it is 

1 al. < to possible to wash away ' the charges that lie against us, why 
our - do we delay ? here is One Who will deliver us without 
selves ] aDour of ours. Is it not extreme folly to put off accepting 

the Gift?" Let those hear who are Catechumens, and are 

2 i. e. putting off their salvation - to their latest breath. 

Ba'tism Again, saith the Evangelist, John stood, and saith, Behold 
the Lamb of God. Christ utters no word, His messenger 
saith all. So it is with a bridegroom. He saith not for 
a while any thing to the bride, but is there in silence, while 
some shew him to the bride, and others give her into his 
hands ; she merely appears, and he departs not having 
taken her himself, but when he has received her from 
another who gives her to him. And when he has received her 
thus given, he so disposes her, that she no more remembers 
those who betrothed her. So it was with Christ. He came 
to join to Himself the Church; He said nothing, but merely 
came. It was His friend, John, who put into His the bride's 
right hand, when by his discourses he gave into His hand 
the souls of men. He having received them, afterwards so 
disposed them, that they departed no more to John who had 
committed them to Him. 

[2.] And here we may remark, not this only, but some- 
thing besides. As at a marriage the maiden goes not to the 
bridegroom, but he hastens to her, though he be a king's 
son, and though he be about to espouse some poor and 


Christ's presence proclaimed by the Baptist. 151 

abject person, or even a servant, so it was here. Man's John 
nature did not go up l , but contemptible and poor as it was, l j 3β " 
He came to it, and when the marriage had taken place, He i depart' 
suffered it no longer to tarry here, but having taken it to 
Himself, transported it to the house of His Father. 

" Why then doth not John take his disciples apart, and r 

converse with them on these matters, and so deliver them 
over to Christ, instead of saying publicly to them in common 
with all the people, Behold the Lamb of God ?" That it may 
not seem to be a matter of arrangement ; for had they gone 
away from him to Christ after having been privately ad- 
monished by him, and as though to do him a favour, they 
would perhaps soon have started away again ; but now, 
having taken upon them the following Him, from teaching 
which had been general, they afterwards remained His 
firm disciples, as not having followed Him in order to 
gratify the teacher, but as looking purely to their own 

The Prophets and Apostles then all preached Him absent; 
the Prophets before His coming according to the flesh, the 
Apostles after He was taken up; John alone proclaimed 
Him present. Wherefore he calls himself the friend of the c 3, 29. 
Bridegroom, since he alone was present at the marriage, he 
it was that did and accomplished all, he made a begin- χ / 
ning of the work. And looking upon Jesus walking, he saiih, 
Behold the Lamb of God. Not by voice alone, but with 
his eyes also he bore witness to, and expressed his ad- 
miration of, Christ, rejoicing and glorying. Nor does he 
for a while address any 2 word of exhortation to his followers, 2 al. 
but only shews wonder and astonishment at Him Who was a ^!f u 
present, and declares to all the Gift which He came to give, 
and the manner of purification. For the Lamb declares both 
these things. And he said not, " Who shall take," or " Who 
hath taken;" but, Who taketh away the sins of the world; 
because this He ever doth. He took them not then only 
when He suffered, but from that time even to the present 
doth He take them away, not being repeatedly 3 crucified, •> iii 
(for He offered One Sacrifice for sins,) but by that One 
continually purging them. As then The Wokd shews us 
His preeminence 4 , and The Son His superiority in com- 4 f>*5- 


152 No time unseasonable for the Baptist's teaching. 

HoMiL.p a ri son with others, so The Lamb, The Christ, that Prophet, 

t — " — 'the True Light, the Good Shepherd, and whatever other 
names are applied to Him with the addition of the article, 
mark a great difference. For there were many " Lambs," 
and " Prophets," and " Christs," and " sons," but from all 
these John separates Him by a wide interval. And this 
he secured not by the article only, but by the addition 
of Only-begotten ; for He had nothing in common with the 

If it seems to any unseasonable that these things should 
be spoken at the tenth hour, (that was the time of day, for 

v. 39. he says, It was about the tenth hour,) such an one seems to 
me to be much mistaken. In the case indeed of the many, 
and those who serve the flesh, the season after feasting is 
not very suitable for any matters of pressing moment, 

l ° r h st ,°" because their hearts 1 are burdened with meats : but here was 
a man who did not even partake of common food, and who 
at evening was as sober as we are at morning, (or rather 
much more so ; for often the remains of our evening food 
that are left within us, fill our souls with imaginations, but 
he loaded his vessel with none of these things ;) he w T ith 
good reason spake late in the evening of these matters, 
Besides, he was tarrying in the wilderness by Jordan, where 
all came to his baptism with great fear, and caring little at 

Mat. 15, that time for the tilings of this life; as also they continued 
with Christ three days, and had nothing to eat. For this is 
the part of a zealous herald and a careful husbandman, not 
to desist before he see that the planted seed has got a firm 

sal. is hold 2 . "Why then did he not go about all the parts of 

ed' Judaea preaching Christ, rather than stand by the river 
waiting for Him to come, that he might point Him out when 
He came ?" Because he wished that this should be effected 
by His works; his own object being in the mean time only 
to make Him known, and to persuade some to hear of 
eternal life. But to Him he leaves the greater testimony, 
3 •*• that of works, as also He saith, / receive not testimony of 
men. The xvorks which My Father hath given Me, the 
same bear witness of Me. Observe how much more effectual 
this was ; for when he had thrown in a little spark, at once 
the blaze rose on high. For they who before had not even 

c. ο 


Zeal and modesty of the two disciples. 153 

given heed to his words, afterwards say, All things which John 
John spake were true. [3.] Besides, if he had gone about 

c. 10,11. 

saying these things, what was being done would have seemed 
to be done from some human motive, and the preaching to 
be full of suspicion a . 

And the two disciples heard him, and followed Jesus. 

Yet John had other disciples, but they not only did not 
follow Jesus, but were even jealously disposed towards 
Him. Rabbi, says one, He that was with thee beyondc.3,26. 
Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same 
baptizet /ι, and all men come unto him. And again 1 they 1 aL 
appear bringing a charge against Him; Why do we fast, but sam e e ' e 
thy disciples fast not? But those who were better than the Matt - 9 > 
rest had no such feeling, but heard, and at once followed; 
followed, not as despising their teacher, but as being most 
fully persuaded by him, and producing the strongest proof 
that they acted thus from a right judgment of his reasonings. 
For they did not do so by his advice, that might have 
appeared suspicious ; but when he merely foretold what was 
to come to pass, that He should baptize with the Holy 
Ghost, [and with fre,] they followed. They did not then 
desert their teacher, but rather desired to learn what Christ 
brought with Him more than John. And observe zeal com- 
bined with modesty. They did not at once approach and 
question Jesus on necessary and most important matters, 
nor were they desirous to converse with Him publicly while 
all were present, at once and in an οίΓ -hand manner, but 
privately; for they knew that the words of their teacher 
proceeded not from humility, but from truth. 

Ver. 40. One of the two which heard, and followed Him, 
was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 

Wherefore then has he not made known the name of the 
other also ? Some say, because it was the writer himself that 
followed; others, not so, but that he was not one of the 
distinguished disciples ; it behoved not therefore to say 
more than was necessary. For what would it have ad- 
vantaged us to learn his name, when the writer does not 
mention the names even of the seventy-two ? St. Paul also 

d Morel, reads: χα.) υτοψΙχ{ ϊν /xtrx το κήζυγμχ λβιτόν. 



154 The two disciples questioned by Christ. 

Homil. did the same b . We have sent, says he. with him the brother, 


g-g — -(who has often in many things been forward,) whose praise 

8, 18. is in the Gospel. Moreover, he mentions Andrew for 
another reason. What is this ? Tt is, that when you are 
informed that Simon having in company with him heard, 

Matt. 4, Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men, was not 
perplexed at so strange a promise, you may learn that his 
brother had already laid down within him the beginnings 
of the faith. 

Ver. 38. Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and 
saith unto them, What seek ye ? 

Hence we are taught, that God does not prevent our wills 
by His gifts, but that when we begin, when we provide the 
being willing, then He gives us many opportunities of 
salvation. What seek ye ? How is this ? He Who knoweth 
ϊμβα- the hearts of men, Who dwelleth 1 in our thoughts, doth He 
ask? He doth; not that He may be informed ; how could 
that be? but that by the question He may make them more 
familiar, and impart to them greater boldness, and shew them 
that they are worthy to hear Him ; for it was probable that 
they would blush and be afraid, as being unknown to Him, 
and as having heard such accounts of Him from the testi- 
mony of their teacher. Therefore to remove all this, their 
shame and their fear, he questions them, and would not let 
them come all the way to the house in silence. Yet the 
event would have been the same had He not questioned 
them; they would have remained by following Him, and 
walking in His steps would have reached His dwelling. 
Why then did He ask? To effect that which I said, to 

2 x»y„r- calm their minds 2 , yet disturbed with shame and anxiety, 
and to give them confidence. 

Nor was it by their following only that they shewed their 
earnest desire, but by their question also : for when they 
had not as yet learned or even heard any thing from Him, 
they call Him, Master; thrusting themselves as it were 
among His disciples, and declaring what was the cause of 
their following, that they might hear somewhat profitable. 
Observe their wisdom also. They did not say, " Teach us 
e Morel, and Ms. in Bod). ' this also may be seen with Paul.' 

All things secondary to the hearing of the Word. 155 

of Thy doctrines, or some other thing that we need to know ;" John 
but what? Where dwellest Thou? Because, as I before— 1 — — 
said, they wished in quiet to say somewhat to Him, and to 
hear somewhat from Him, and to learn. Therefore they did 
not defer the matter, nor say, " We will come to-morrow by 
all means, and hear thee speak in public ;" but shewed the 
great eagerness they had to hear Him, by not being turned 
back even by the hour, for the sun was already near its 
setting, {it was, saith John, about the tenth hour.) And 
therefore Christ does not tell them the marks of His abode, 
nor its situation, but rather induces them to follow Him by 
shewing them that He had accepted them. For this reason 
He did not say any thing of this kind to them, " It is an 
unseasonable time now for you to enter into the house, 
to-morrow you shall hear if you have any wish, return home 
now 1 ;" but converses with them as with friends, and those l a] • ' f °r 
who had long been with Him. sent' 

How then saith He in another place, But the Son of Man Luke 9, 
hath not where to lay His Head, while here He saith, Come ^ * 39# 
and see where I abide ? Because the expression hath not 
where to lay His Head, signifies that He had no dwelling 
place of His own, not that He did not abide in a house. 
And this too is the meaning of the comparison 2 . The 2 V e • 
Evangelist has mentioned that they abode with Him thatf oxes 
day, but has not added wherefore, because the reason was f^ d 
plain ; for from no other motive did they follow Christ, and 
He draw them to Him, but only that they might have 
instruction ; and this they enjoyed so abundantly and eagerly 
even in a single night, that they both proceeded straightway 
to the capture 3 of others. ^al.'the 

[4.] Let us then also learn hence to consider all things 
secondary 4 to the hearing the word of God, and to deem no 4 r4g>g- 
season unseasonable, and, though a man may even have to ya 
go into another person's house, and being a person unknown 
to make himself known to great men, though it be late in 
the day, or at any time whatever, never to neglect this 
traffic. Let food and baths and dinners and the other 
things of this life have their appointed time; but let the 
teaching of heavenly philosophy have no separate time, let 
every season belong to it. For Paul saith, In season, out q/'z Tim. 

156 How to recover the appetite of spiritual food, 

Hcmil. season, reprove, rebuke, exhort; and the Prophet too saith f , 

. χ .ΖΪΙ1•7λ His laio will he meditate day and niaht; and Moses 
Ps ι 3 

' 'commanded the Jews to do this always. For the things of 

this life, baths, I mean, and dinners, even if they are necessary, 
λ \11τηλ», y e t being continually repeated, render the body feeble 1 ; 
but the teaching of the soul the more it is prolonged, the 
stronger it renders the soul which receives it. But now we 
portion out all our time for trifles and unprofitable silly 
talking, and we sit together idly during the morning and 
*hi\w afternoon 9 , midday and evening besides, and we have ap- 
pointed places for this; but hearing the divine doctrines 
3 ναντιω- twice or thrice in the week we become sick 2 , and thoroughly 
■*" sated. What is the reason ? We are in a bad state of soul ; 
its faculty of desiring and reaching after these things we 
have relaxed altogether. And therefore it is not strong 
enough to have an appetite for spiritual food. And this 
among others is a great proof of weakness, not to hunger 
nor thirst, but to be disinclined to both. Now if this, when 
it takes place in our bodies, is a sure sign of grievous 
disease, and productive of weakness, much more is it so 
in the soul. 

" How then," says one, " shall we be able to renew it, thus 
fallen and relaxed, to strength ? what doing, what saying ?" 
By applying ourselves to the divine words of the prophets, 
of the Apostles, of the Gospels, and all the others ; then we 
shall know that it is far better to feed on these than on 
impure food, for so we must term our unseasonable idle 
talking and assemblies. For which is best, tell me, to con- 
verse on things relating to the market, or things in the law 
courts, or in the camp, or on things in heaven, and on what 
shall be after our departure hence ? Which is best, to talk 
about our neighbour and our neighbour's affairs, to busy our- 
selves in what belongs to other people, or to enquire into 
the things of angels, and into matters which concern our- 
selves ? For a neighbour's affairs are not thine at all; but 
heavenly things are thine. " But," says some one, " a man 
may by once speaking finish these subjects altogether." 
Why do you not think this in matters on which you converse 
uselessly and idly, why though ye waste your lives on this 
f Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. • and David also glances at this, saying.' 

Evils of idle talkiny. . 157 

have ye never exhausted the subject? And I have not yet John 
named what is far more vile than this. These are the things L 40, 
about which the better sort converse one with the other; but 
the more indifferent and careless carry about in their talk 
players and dancers and charioteers, defiling, men's ears, 
corrupting their souls, and driving their nature into mad 
excesses by these narratives, and by means of this discourse 
introducing every kind of wickedness into their own ima- 
gination. For as soon as the tongue has uttered the name of 
the dancer, immediately the soul has figured to itself his 
looks, his hair, his delicate clothing, and himself more 
effeminate than all. Another again fans the flame in another 
way, by introducing some harlot into the conversation, with 
her words, and attitudes, and glances, her languishing looks 
and twisted locks, the smoothness of her cheeks, and her 
painted eyelids 1 . Were you not somewhat affected when I l Iro- 
gave this description ? Yet be not ashamed, nor blush, for y^ ki 
the very necessity of nature requires this, and so disposes 
the soul according as the tendency of what is said may be. 
But if, when it is I that speak, you, standing in the church, 
and at a distance from these things, were somewhat affected 
at the hearing, consider how it is likely that they are dis- 
posed, who sit in the theatre itself, who are totally free from 
dread, who are absent from this venerable and awful as- 
sembly, who both see and hear those things with much 
shamelessness. " And why then," perhaps one of those who 
heed not may say, " if the necessity of nature so disposes the 
soul, do you let go that;, and blame us ?" Because, to be 
softened 2 when one hears these things, is nature's work; butv^a 
to hear them is not a fault of nature, but of deliberate choice. tTia6tt,t 
For so he who meddles with fire must needs be injured, so 
wills the weakness of our nature ; yet nature does not there- 
fore draw us to the fire and to the injury thence arising; this 
can be only from deliberate perversity. I beseech you, 
therefore, to remove and correct this fault, that you may not 
of your own accord cast yourselves down the precipice, 
nor thrust yourselves into the pits of wickedness, nor run 
of yourselves to the blaze, lest we place ourselves in jeopardy 
of the fire prepared for the devil. May it come to pass, 

158 TJie twofold fire, of sin and of hell. 

Homil. that we all being delivered both from this fire and from that, 

ΧΥΙΠ • may go to the very bosom of Abraham, through the grace 

and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom 

and with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory 

for ever and ever. Amen. 


John i. 41, 42. 

He first findeth his own brother Simoji, and saith unto him? 
We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, 
the Christ. And he brought him to Jesus. 

When God in the beginning made man, He did not suffer 
him to be alone, but gave him woman .for a helpmate, and 
made them to dwell together, knowing that great advantage 
would result from this companionship. What though the 
woman did not rightly employ this benefit ? still if any one 
make himself fully acquainted with the nature of the matter, 
he will see, that to the wise great advantage arises from this 
dwelling together; not in the cause of wife or husband only, 
but if brothers do this, they also shall enjoy the benefit. 
Wherefore the Prophet hath said, What is good, what MPs. 132, 
pleasant, but that brethren should dwell together? And 1,LXX * 
Paul exhorted not to neglect the assembling of ourselves, 
together. In this it is that we differ from beasts, for this we 2n * 
have built cities, and markets, and houses, that we maybe united 
one with another, not in the place of our dwelling only, but by 
the bond of love. For since our nature came imperfect y from ι | y ^ f 
Him Who made it, and is not self-sufficient 2 , God, for our2 e £ Ta ' e , 
advantage, ordained that the want hence existing should be Xfls 
corrected by the assistance arising from mutual intercourse; 
so that what was lacking in one should be supplied by 
another 8 , and the defective nature thus be rendered self- 

a Ben. Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. also marriage is arranged, in order that 
read the passage thus: ' For this cause what is wanting,' &c. 

160 Conversion of Andrew and Peter. 

Homil. sufficient; as, for instance, that though made mortal b , it 
should by succession for a long time maintain immortality. 
I might have gone into this argument at greater length, to 
shew what advantages arise to those who come together from 

1 ί!λιχ ζ1 - genuine and pure 1 intercourse with each other: but there is 
another thing which presses now, that on account of which 
we have made these remarks. 

Andrew, after having tarried with Jesus and learned what 
He did, kept not the treasure to himself, but hastens and 
runs quickly to his brother, to impart to him of the good 

s a l. things which he had received 2 . "But wherefore has not 

'shared' j hn said on what matters Christ conversed with them? 
Whence is it clear that it was for this that they abode with 
Him c ? It was proved by us the other day; but we may 
learn it from what has been read to-day as well. Observe 
what Andrew says to his brother ; We have found the Mes- 
sias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. You see how, 
as far as he had learned in a short time, he shewed d the 
wisdom of the teacher who persuaded them, and their own 

3 eivufov zeal, who cared for these things long ago 3 , and from the 
beginning. For this word, we have found, is the expression 

* &,ηύ• of a soul which travails 4 for His presence, and looks for 
His coming from above, and is made overjoyed when the 

5 al. c has looked for thing has happened 5 , and hastens to impart to 

ed' others the good tidings. This is the part of brotherly affection, 
of natural friendship, of a sincere disposition, to be eager to 
stretch out the hand to each other in spiritual things. Hear 
him besides speak with the addition of the article ; for he 
does not say " Messias," but the Messias ; thus they were 

6 Anoint- expecting some one Christ 6 , having nothing in common with 

ed one ^ e others. And behold, I beg of you, the mind of Peter 
obedient and tractable from the very beginning; he ran to 
Him without any delay; He brought him, saith St. John, to 
Jesus. Yet let no one blame his easy temper if he received 
the word without much questioning, because it is probable 
that his brother had told him these things more exactly and 

b χα6ά<πζ evt xcci ^vjjtjjv γινομίνγ,ν. way followed and abode with Him.' 
Ben. and Ms. in Bodl. read, ώ; αΰταν d Ben. Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. ' he 

'ίχ,ιι* κα) 6. γ. shewed hence, for he both establishes 

c Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. ' con- the wisdom,' &c. 
versed with them, when they straight- 

Divine foreknowledge of Christ. 161 

at length ; but the Evangelists from their cave for concise- John 
ness constantly cut many things short. Besides, it is not Jti?L. 
said absolutely that " he believed," but that he brought him 
to Jesus, to give him up for the future to Him, so that from 
Him he might learn all ; for the other disciple also was with 
him, and contributed to this. And if John the Baptist, when 
he had said that He was the Lamb, and that He baptized 
with the Spirit, gave them over to learn the clearer doctrine 
concerning this thing from Him, much more would Andrew 
have done this, not deeming himself sufficient to declare the 
whole, but drawing him to the very fount of light with so 
much zeal and joy, that the other 1 neither deferred nor » i^Tvou 
delayed at all 2 . 2 T ^ 

Ver. 42. And when Jesus beheld him, saith the Evangelist, rv x& v 
He said, Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas ; thou shall be 
called Cephas, which is, by interpretation, a stone. 

He begins from this time forth to reveal the things 
belonging to His Divinity, and to open It out little by little 
by predictions. So He did in the case of Nathaniel and the 
Samaritan woman. For prophecies bring men over not less (2.) 
than miracles; and are free from the appearance of boasting. 
Miracles may possibly be slandered among foolish men, 
{Fie castefh out devils, said they, by Beelzebub}) but nothing Mat. 12, 
of the kind has ever been said of prophecy. Now in the 
case of Nathaniel and Simon He used this method of 
teaching, but with Andrew and Philip He did not so. 
Why was this? Because those d (two) had the testimony of 
John, no small preparation, and Philip received a credible 
evidence of faith, when he saw those who had been present. 

Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas. By the present, the 
future is guaranteed ; for it is clear that He Who named 
Peter's father foreknew the future also. And the prediction 
is attended with praise ; but the object was not to flatter, 
but to foretel something future. Hear 3 at least in the case 3 al. 
of the Samaritan woman, how He utters a prediction with ^ on ," 
severe reproofs 6 ; Ήωη hast had, He saith, five husbands, c . 4,18. 
and he whom thou now hast is not thy husband. So also 

d i. e. those mentioned above, v. 40. Andrew, 
who were present when St. John Baptist e al. < reproving with earnestness.' 
gave his testimony, one of whom was 


16*2 Of the names given by Christ. 

Homil. His Father makes great account of prophecy, when He sets 
τ^χ? 1 Himself against the honour paid to idols: Let them declare 
13. ' to you, saith He, what shall come upon you; and again, / 
12 43; have declared, and have saved, and there was no foreign 
LXX. God amongst you ; and He brings this forward through all 
prophecy. Because prophecy is especially the work of God, 
which devils cannot even imitate, though they strive ex- 
ceedingly. For in the case of miracles there may be delu- 
sion ; but exactly to foretel the future belongs to that pure 
Nature alone. Or if devils ever have done so, it was by 
deceiving the simpler sort; whence their oracles are always 
easily detected. 

But Peter makes no reply to these words; as yet he 
knew nothing clearly, but still was learning. And observe, 
that not even the prediction is fully set forth ; for Jesus did 
not say, " I will change thy name to Peter, and upon this 
rock I will build My Church," but, Thou shall be called 
Cephas. The former speech would have expressed too great 
1 αυθεν- authority 1 and power; for Christ does not immediately nor 
T10ts ' at first declare all His power, but speaks for a while in a 
humbler tone ; and so, when He had given the proof of His 
Mat.i6, Divinity, He puts it more authoritatively, saying f , Blessed 
art thou, Simon, because My Father hath revealed it to 
thee; and again, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will 
build My Church, Him therefore He so named, and James 
Mark 3, and his brother He called sons of thunder. Why then doth 
!/ ' He this? To shew that it was He Who gave the old cove- 
nant, that it was He Who altered names, Who called Abram 
Abraham, and Sarai Sarah, and Jacob Israel. To many He 
assigned names even from their birth, as to Isaac, and 
Ts. 8, 3. Samson, and to those in Isaiah and Hosea ; but to others 
Hoseal, jj e g ave t i iem a f ter ^ e y h ac j b een named by their parents, 

as to those we have mentioned, and to Joshua the son of 
Nun. It was also a custom of the Ancients to give names 
from things, which in fact Leah also has done g ; and this 

f at. ' And I say unto thee, Thou 'Ηλία. We may venture to read " ή 

art Simon, thou shalt be called Cephas, Aeta," as he praises her for this, Horn. 

which is by interpretation a sto?ie.' lvi. on Genesis. ' Observe how she 

Ζ ?>7Γ€ρ δήπου κα\ Ήλία$ πςποίηκΐ. gave names to those she bore, not 

and there are no various readings, lightly nor at random.' 
Savile has in the margin firep oZv κάί 

Greatness of the Christian name. 163 

takes place not without cause, but in order that men may John 
have the appellation to remind them of the goodness of God, '. 4a> 
that a perpetual memory of the prophecy conveyed by the 
names may sound in the ears of those who receive it. Thus 
too He named John early 1 , because they whose virtue was » fotriep. 
to shine forth from their early youth, from that time received 
their names ; while to those who were to become great 2 at a 2 &πδί- 
later period, the title also was given later. 5ovai ' 

[3.] But then they received each a different name, we now 
have all one name, that which is greater than any, being 
called 3 " Christians," and " sons of God," and (His) " friends," 3 a]• 'the 
and (His) " Body." For the very term itself is able more than called.' 
all those others to rouse us, and make us more zealous 4 for*al• 
the practice of virtue. Let us not then act unworthily of the rea dy!' 
honour belonging to the title, considering 5 the excess of our 5 al.'con- 
dignity, we who are called Christ's ; for so Paul hath named \l*sts 
us. Let us bear in mind and respect the grandeur of theiCor.3 ; 
appellation. For if one who is said to be descended from 2 ' 
some famous general, or one otherwise distinguished, is 
proud to be called this or that man's son, and deems the 
name a great honour, and strives in every way so as not to 
affix, by remissness of his own, reproach to him after whom 
he is called ; shall not we who are called after the name, not 
of a general, nor any of the princes upon earth, nor Angel, 
nor Archangel, nor Seraphim, but of the King of these Him- 
self, shall not we freely give even our very life, so as not to 
insult Him Who has honoured us? Know ye not what 
honour the royal bands of shield-bearers and spearmen that 
are about the king enjoy? So let us who have been deemed 
worthy to be near Him, and much closer, and as much 
nearer than those just named, as the body is closer to the 
head than they, let us, I say, use every means to be imitators 
of Christ. 

What then saith Christ ? The foxes have holes, and birds Luke 9, 
of the air have nests ; hut the Son of man hath not where to ' 
lay His Head. Now if I demand this of you, it will seem 
perhaps to most of you grievous and burdensome ; because 
therefore of your infirmity I speak not of 6 such perfection, *ά<ρίημι. 
but desire you not to be nailed to riches ; and as I, because 
of the infirmity of the many, retire somewhat from (demanding) 

μ 2 




164 Riches to be used: 

Homil. the excess of virtue, I desire that you do so and much more 

XIX • on the side of vice. I blame not those who have houses, 
and lands, and wealth, and servants, but wish them to 

ai. ' to possess 1 these things in a safe and becoming way. And 
what is " a becoming way ?" As masters, not as slaves ; so 
that they rule them, be not ruled by them; that they use, not 
abuse them. This is why they are called, " things to be 

χρ -h- used 2 ," that we may employ them on necessary services, not 
hoard them up; this is a domestic's office, that a master's; 
it is for the slave to keep them, but for the lord and one who 
has great authority to expend. Thou didst not receive thy 
wealth to bury, but to distribute. Had God desired riches 
to be hoarded, He would not have given them to men, but 
would have let them remain as they were in the earth ; but 
because He wishes them to be spent, therefore He has per- 
mitted us to have them, that we may impart them to each 
other. And if we keep them to ourselves, we are no longer 
masters of them. But if you wish to make them greater and 
therefore keep them shut up, even in this case the best plan 
of all is to scatter and distribute them in all directions; 
because there can be no revenue without an outlay, no wealth 
without expenditure. One may see that it is so even in 
worldly matters. So it is with the merchant, so with the 
husbandman, who put forth the one his wealth, the other his 
seed ; the one sails the sea to disperse his wares, the other 
labours all the year putting in and tending his seed. But 
here there is no need of any one of these things, neither to 
equip a vessel, nor to yoke oxen, nor to plough land, nor to 
be anxious about uncertain weather, nor to dread a fall of 
hail ; here are neither waves nor rocks ; this voyage and this 
sowing needs one thing only, that we cast forth our pos- 
sessions ; all the rest will that Husbandman do, of Whom 

15, I.Christ saith, My Father is the Husbandman. Is it not 
then absurd to be sluggish and slothful where we may gain 
all without labour, and where there are many toils and 
J A f many 3 troubles and cares, and after all, an uncertain hope, 
there to display all eagerness ? Let us not, I beseech you, 
let us not be to such a degree senseless about our own 
salvation, but let us leave the more troublesome task, and 
run to that which is most easy and more profitable, that we 


and the folly of hoarding them. 165 

may obtain also the good things that are to come ; through John 
the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ,— — - 
with Whom to the Father and the Holy and quickening 
Spirit be glory, now and ever, and world without end. 


John i. 43, 44. 
The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and 
findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow Me. Now 
Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 

Prov. To every carefid thinker there is a gain % saith the proverb ; 

14, 23. an( j Christ implied more than this, when He said, He that 

Matt. 7, seeketh findeth. Wherefore it does not occur to me any more 

8 * to wonder how Philip followed Christ. Andrew was persuaded 

whenhe had heard from John, and Peter the same from Andrew, 

but Philip not having learned any thing from any but Christ 

Who said to him only this, Follow Me, straightway obeyed, 

and went not back, but even became a preacher to others. 

For he ran to Nathanael and said to him, We have found 

Him of Whom Moses in the Law and the Prophets did write. 

ι μ€μ€ . Seest thou what a thoughtful ■ mind he had, how assiduously 

ριμντ)- ne meditated on the writings of Moses, and expected the 

* V7]V ' Advent ? for the expression, we have found, belongs always to 

those who are in some way seeking. The day following 

Jesus went forth into Galilee. Before any had joined Him, 

He called no one ; and He acted thus not without cause, but 

according to His own wisdom and intelligence. For if, 

when no one came to Him spontaneously, He had Himself 

drawn them, they might perhaps have started away; but 

now, having chosen this of themselves, they afterwards 

remained firm. He calls Philip, one who was better 

acquainted with Him ; for he, as having been born and bred 

in Galilee, knew Him more than others. Having then 

taken the disciples, He next goes to the capture of the 

others, and draws to Him Philip and Nathanael. Now in 

■ •παντ\ τφ μζριμνωντι «/εστί τι Ιπεκτί μοι. Savile 'όθ. ovtie IV. μ. 
■π^ρισσόν. In the next sentence Morel, which seems the better reading. 
Ben. and most Mss. read 'όθ^ν και 

Why Philip speaks of Moses and the Prophets. 167 

the case of Nathanael this was not so wonderful, because the John 
fame of Jesus had gone forth into all Syria. But the ^ ^ 
wonderful thing was respecting Peter and James and Philip, 24. 
that they believed, not only before the miracles, but that 
they did so being of Galilee, out of which ariseth no prophet, 
nor can any good thing come; for the Galilaeans were 
somehow of a more boorish and dull disposition than others ; 
but even in this Christ displayed forth His power, by 
selecting from a land which bore no fruit His choicest 
disciples. It is then probable that Philip having seen Peter 
and Andrew, and having heard what John had said, followed ; 
and it is probable also that the voice of Christ wrought in 
him somewhat ; for He knew those who would be serviceable. 
But all these points the Evangelist cuts short. That Christ 
should come, he knew; that this was Christ, he knew not, 
and this Τ say that he heard either from Peter or John. But 
John mentions his village also, that you may learn that GWiCor.i, 
hath chosen the weak things of the world. 

Ver. 45. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, 
We have found Him of Whom Moses in the Law and the 
Prophets did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. 

He says this, to make his preaching credible, which it 
must be if it rests on Moses and the Prophets besides, and 
by this to abash his hearer. For since Nathanael was an 
exact 1 man, and one who viewed all things with truth, as'a^» 
Christ also testified and the event shewed, Philip with reason 
refers him to Moses and the Prophets, that so he might 
receive Him Who was preached. And be not troubled 
though he called Him the son of Joseph ; for still he was 
supposed to be his son. " And whence, Ο Philip, is it plain 
that this is He ? What proof dost thou mention to us ? for it 
is not enough merely to assert this. What sign hast thou 
seen, what miracle? Not without danger is it to believe 
without cause in such matters. What proof then hast thou?" 
" The same as Andrew," he replies ; for he though unable to 
produce the wealth which he had found, or to describe his 
treasure in words, when he had discovered it, led his brother 
to it, So too did Philip. How this is the Christ, and how 
the prophets proclaimed Him beforehand, he said not ; but 
he draws him to Jesus, as knowing that he would not 

168 Exactness and candour of Nathanael. 

Homil. afterwards fall off, if he should once taste His words and 
■ ^ teaching. 

Ver. 46, 47. And Nathanael said unto him, Can there 
any good thing come out of Nazareth ? Philip saith unto 
him, Come and see. Jesus saw Nathanael coining to Him, 
and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no 

He praises and approves the man, because he had said, 
Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? and yet he 
ought to have been blamed. Surely not ; for the words are 
not those of an unbeliever, nor deserving blame, but praise. 
" How so, and in what way r" Because Nathanael had con- 
sidered the writings of the Prophets more than Philip. For 
he had heard from the Scriptures, that Christ must come 
from Bethlehem, and from the village in which David was. 
This belief at least prevailed among the Jews, and the 
^ Iatt • 2 ' Prophet had proclaimed it of old, saying, And thou, Beth- 
Micah lehem, art by no means the least among the princes of 
5 ' 2 * Judah, for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall 
*ox l ruie'f eec ii My people Israel. And so when he heard that He was 
from Nazareth, he was confounded, and doubted, not finding 
the announcement of Philip to agree with the prediction of 
the Prophet. 

But observe his wisdom and candour even in his doubt- 
ing. He did not at once say, " Philip, thou deceivest 
me, aud speakest falsely, I believe thee not, I will not come; 
I have learned from the prophets that Christ must come from 
Bethlehem, thou Sdyestfro?n Nazareth; therefore this is not 
that Christ." He said nothing like this; but what does he? 
He goes to Him himself; shewing, by not admitting that 
Christ was of Nazareth, his accuracy respecting the Scrip- 
tures, and a character not easily deceived; and by not rejecting 
him who brought the tidings, the great desire which he felt 
for the coming of Christ For he thought within himself 
that Philip was probably mistaken about the place. 

[2.] And observe, I pray you, his manner of declining, 
how gentle he has made it, and in the form of a question. 
For he said not, " Galilee produces no good ;" but how said 
he ? " Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip also 
was very prudent; for he is not as one perplexed, angry, and 

His judgment and firmness. 169 

annoyed, but perseveres, wishing to bring over the l man, John 
and manifesting to us from the first of his preaching 2 the i ' 48 ' 
firmness 3 which becomes an Apostle. Wherefore also Christ' this* 
saith, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile. So 7 p00l ~ 
that there is such a person as a false Israelite; but this is 3 ^ύτο- 
not such an one; for his judgment, Christ saith, is impartial/ 10 "' 
he speaks nothing from favour, or from ill-feeling. Yet the 
Jews, when they were asked where Christ should be born, 
replied, In Bethlehem, and produced the evidence, saying, Matt. 2, 
And thou, Bethlehem, art by no means the least among the Micah 
princes of Judah. Before they had seen Him they bore 5 » 2 • 
this witness, but when they saw Him in their malice they 
concealed the testimony, saying, But as for this fellow, wee. 9, 29. 
know not whence He is. Nathanael did not so, but con- 
tinued to retain the opinion which he had from the begin- 
ning, that He was not " of Nazareth." 

How then do the prophets call Him a Nazarene ? From 
His being brought up and abiding there. And He omits to 
say, " I am not of Nazareth, as Philip hath told thee, but 
of Bethlehem," that He may not at once make the account 
seem questionable ; and besides this, because, even if He 
had gained belief, He would not have given sufficient proof 
that He was the Christ. For what hindered Him without 
being Christ, from being of Bethlehem, like the others who 
w r ere born there ? This then He omits ; but He does that 
which has most power to bring him over, for He shews that 
He was present when they were conversing. For when 
Nathanael had said, 

Ver. 48. Whence knowest Thou me? He replies, Before 
that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, 
I saw thee. 

Observe a man firm and steady 4 . When Christ had said, * β € βή. 
Behold an Israelite indeed, he was not made vain by this K0Ta 
approbation, he ran not after this open praise, but continues 
seeking and searching more exactly, and desires to learn 
something certain. He still enquired as of a man b , but 
Jesus answered as God. For He said, " I have known thee 

b ws άνθρωπον 4ζτ]ταζ^. So Morel. ws άνθρωπος, "be enquired 
and Ms. in Bodleian. Savile and the as a man." 

170 Nathanael convinced by the foreknowledge of Christ. 

HoMiL.from the first 1 ," (him and the candour 2 of his character , this 
' He knew not as a man, from having closely followed him, but 

2 gVt- as God from the first,) " and but now I saw thee by the fig- 
uKeiau tree .» wnen there was no one present there but only Philip 
and Nathanael who said all these things in private. It is 
mentioned, that having seen him afar off, He said, Behold 
an Israelite indeed; to shew d , that before Philip came near, 
Christ spoke these words, that the testimony might not be 
suspected. For this reason also He named the time, the 
place, and the tree ; because if He had only said, " Before 
Philip came to thee, I saw thee," He might have been 
suspected of having sent him, and of saying nothing 
wonderful ; but now, by mentioning both the place where 
he was when addressed by Philip, and the name of the tree, 
and the time of the conversation, He shewed that His fore- 
3 πρ^η- knowledge 3 was unquestionable. 

And He did not merely shew to him His foreknowledge, 
but instructed him also in another way. For He brought 
him to a recollection of what they then had said; as, 
Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? And 
it was most especially on this account that Nathanael 
received Him, because when he had uttered these words, 
He did not condemn, but praised and approved him. There- 
fore he was assured that this was indeed the Christ, both 
from His foreknowledge, and from His having exactly 
searched out his sentiments, which was the act of One 
Who would shew that He knew what was in his mind ; and 
besides, from His not having blamed, but rather praised him 
when he had seemed to speak against Himself. He said 
then, that Philip had called him ; but what Philip had said 
to him or he to Philip, He omitted, leaving it to his own 
conscience, and not desiring farther to rebuke him. 

[3.] Was it then only before Philip called him that He 
saw him ? did He not see him before this with His sleepless 
Eye ? He saw him, and none could gainsay it ; but this is 
what it was needful to say at the time. And what did 
Nathanael ? When he had received an unquestionable proof 

c One Ms. reads, ου yap dirty, άνω- d Ίνα μάθτ). Savile conjectures 'ίνα 
Θ4ν σ€ ο/δο, κα\ rbv τρόπον, και την eV. μάθης, but without authority. 

Christian joy she ten by obedience. 171 

of His foreknowledge, he hastened to confess Him, shewing j 0H n 
by his previous delay his caution \ and his fairness by his T ; 4 f • 
assent afterwards. For, saith the Evangelist, β%£~ 

Ver. 49. He answered and saith unto Him, Rabbi, Thou 
art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel. 

Seest thou how his soul is filled at once with exceeding 
joy, and embraces Jesus with words ? " Thou art," saith he, 
" That Expected, That Sought for One." Seest thou how 
he is amazed, how he marvels? how he leaps and dances 
with delight ? 

So ought we also to rejoice, who have been thought 
worthy to know the Son of God ; to rejoice, not in thought 
alone, but to shew it also by our actions. And what must 
they do who rejoice? Obey Him Who has been made known 
to them ; and they who obey, must do whatever He willeth. 
For if we are going to do what angers Him, how shall we 
shew that we rejoice ? See ye not in our houses when a man 
entertains one whom he loves, how gladly he exerts himself, 
running about in every direction, and though it be needful 
to spend all that he has, sparing nothing so that he please his 
visitor? But if one who invites should not attend to his 
, guest% and not do such things as would procure him ease, 
though he should say ten thousand times that he rejoices at 
his coming, he could never be believed by him. And justly ; 
for this should be shewn by actions. Let us then, since 
Christ hath come to us, shew that we rejoice, and do nothing 
that may anger Him ; let us garnish the abode to which He 
has come, for this they do who rejoice; let us set before Him 
the meal 2 which He desires to eat, for this they do who hold 2 fyi<nw 
festival. And what is this meal? He saith Himself; My c . 4, 34. 
meat is, that I may do the will of Him that sent Me. When 
He is hungry, let us feed Him ; when He is thirsty, let us 
give Him drink : though thou give Him but a cup of cold 
water, He receives it ; for He loves thee, and to one who 
loves, the offerings of the beloved, though they be small, 
appear great. Only be not thou slothful ; though thou cast 
in but two farthings, He refuses them not, but receives them 
as great riches. For since He is without wants, and receives 
these offerings, not because He needs them, it is reasonable 

e Ben. conj. καλονντι for κάλων ns. ' But if he mind not when he calls.' 

172 Confessing Christ by works. 

Homil. that all distinction should be not in the quantity of the gifts, but 
XX • the intention 1 of the giver. Only shew that thou lovest Him 

αφ4σ~*ι Who is come, that for His sake thou art giving all diligence, 
that thou rejoicest at His coming. See how He is disposed 
toward thee. He came for thee, He laid down His life for 
thee, and after all this He doth not refuse even to entreat thee. 

2 Cor. We are ambassadors, saith Paul, for Christ, as though God 
did beseech you by us. " And who is so mad," saith some 
one, " as not to love his own Master ?" I say so too, and 
I know that not one of us would deny this in words or 
intention ; but one who is beloved desires love to be shewn, 
not by words only, but by deeds also, For to say that we 
love, and not to act like lovers, is ridiculous, not only before 
God, but even in the sight of men. Since then to confess 
Him in word only, while in deeds we oppose Him, is not 
only unprofitable, but also hurtful to us ; let us, I entreat 
you, also make confession by our works ; that we also may 
obtain a confession from Him in that day, when before His 
Father He shall confess those who are worthy in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father 
and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever, and world 
without end. Amen. 


John i. 49, 50. 

Nathanael answered and saith unto Him, Rabbi, Thou art 
the Son of God, Thou art the Kitty of Israel, Jesus 
answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, 
I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest thou? Thou shalt 
see greater things than these. 

Beloved, we need much care, much watchfulness, to be 
able to look into the depth of the Divine Scriptures. For it 
is not possible to discover their meaning in a careless way, 
or while we are asleep, but there needs close search, and 
there needs earnest prayer, that we may be enabled to see 
some little way into the secrets of the divine oracles. To-day, 
for instance, here is no trifling question proposed to us, but 
one which requires much zeal and enquiry. For when 
Nathanael said, Thou art the Son of God, Christ replies, 
Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, 
believest thou ? Thou shalt see greater things than these. 

Now what is the question arising from this passage ? Tt is 
this\ Peter, when after so many miracles and such high 
doctrine he confessed that, Thou art the Son of God, is Mat. 16, 
called blessed, as having received the revelation from the 
Father; while Nathanael, though he said the very same 
thing before seeing or hearing either miracles or doctrine, 
had no such word addressed to him, but as though he had 
not said so much as he ought to have said, is brought 1 to i a i.<ied 
things greater still. What can be the reason of this? It is, forward ' 

* Morel, and Ms. in Bodleian read ακόντων το farbv τούτο διαπορουντς? 
the passage thus : πολλοί των άναγινω- ψάσι' τί δήποτβ TltTpos κ. τ. λ. 

174 Christ shewn to be God by the ministry of Angels. 

HoMiL.that Peter and Nathanael both spoke the same words, but 
XXI • not both with the same intention. Peter confessed Him to 
be The Son of God, but as being Very God ; Nathanael, as 
being mere man. And whence does this appear? From 
what he said after these words ; for after, Thou art the Son 
of God, he adds, Thou art the King of Israel. But the Son 
of God is not King of Israel only, but of all the world. 

And what I say is clear, not from this only, but also from 
what follows. For Christ added nothing more to Peter, but 
as though his faith were perfect, said, that upon this con- 
fession of his He would build the Church ; but in the other 
case He did nothing like this, but the contrary. For as 
though some large, and that the better, part were wanting 
to his confession, He added what follows. For what saith 

Ver. 51. Verily, verily I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall 
see heaven open, and the Angels of God ascending and 
descending upon the Son of Man. 

Seest thou how He leads him up by little and little from 
the earth, and causes him no longer to imagine Him a man 
merely? for One to Whom Angels minister, and on Whom 
Angels ascend and descend, how could He be man ? For 
this reason He said, Thou shalt see greater things than 
these. And in proof of this, He introduces the ministry of 
Angels. And what He means is something of this kind : 
" Doth this, Ο Nathanael, seem to thee a great matter, and 
hast thou for this confessed me to be King of Israel ? What 
then wilt thou say, when thou seest the Angels ascending 
and descending upon Me ?" Persuading him by these words 
to own Him Lord also of the Angels. For on Him as on 
the King's own Son, the royal ministers ascended and de- 
scended, once at the season of the Crucifixion, again at the 
time of the Resurrection and the Ascension, and before this 
Matt. 4, also, when they came and ministered unto Him, when they 
Luke 2 P roc laimed the glad tidings of His birth, and cried, Glory 
14. to God in the highest, and on earth peace, when they came 
to Mary, when they came to Joseph. 

And He does now what He has done in many instances ; 
He utters two predictions, gives present proof of the one, 
and confirms that which has to be accomplished by that 

Christ at the marriage in Can a. 175 

which is so already. For of His sayings some had been John 
proved, such as, Before Philip called thee, under the fig- ll ' l ' 3 ' 
tree I saw thee ; others had yet to come to pass, and had 
partly done so, namely, the descending and ascending of the 
Angels, at the Crucifixion, the Resurrection, and the Ascen- 
sion ; and this He renders credible by His words even before 
the event. For one who had known His power by what 
had gone before, and heard from Him of things to come, 
would more readily receive this prediction too. 

What then does Nathanael ? To this he makes no reply. 
And therefore at this point Christ stopped His discourse with 
him, allowing him to consider in private what had been said; 
and not choosing to pour forth all at once, having cast 
seed into fertile ground, He then leaves it to shoot at 
leisure. And this He has shewn in another place, where 
He saith, The kingdom of heaven is like to a man that Mat. 13, 
sowed good seed, but while he slept, his enemy cometli, αηά 2 γψ: 
soweth tares among the wheat. varying 

Chap. ii. ver. 1, 2. On the third day there was a marriage Q^ t 
in Carta of Galilee. And Jesus teas called to the marriage. 
And the mother of Jesus was there, and His brethren*. l The 

I said before that He was best known in Galilee ; there- ^ Vf- g 
fore they invite Him to the marriage, and He comes; for^^ 
He looked not to His own honour, but to our benefit. He 
who disdained not to take upon Him the form of a servant, Phil. 2, 
would much less disdain to be present at the marriage of 
servants ; He who sat down with publicans and sinners, Matt. 9, 
would much less refuse to sit down with those present 1 * 
at the marriage. Assuredly they who invited Him had not 
formed a proper judgment of Him, nor did they invite Him 
as some great one, but merely as an ordinary acquaintance ; 
and this the Evangelist has hinted at, when he says, The 
mother of Jesus was there, and His brethren. Just as they 
invited her and His brethren, they invited Jesus. 

Ver. 3. And when they wanted ivine, His mother saith 
unto Him, They have no wine. 

Here it is worth while to enquire whence it came into 
His mother's mind to imagine any thing great of her Son ; 
for He had as yet done no miracle, since the Evangelist 

176 The beginning of Miracles. 

HoMiL.saith, This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of 

J5*L Galilee. 

[2.] Now if any say that this is not a sufficient proof that 
it was the begin?ii?ig of His miracles, because there is arMed 
simply in Cana of Galilee, as allowing it to have been the 
first done there, but not altogether and absolutely the first, 
for He probably might have done others elsewhere, we will 
make answer to him of that which we have said before. 
And of what kind ? The words of John (the Baptist) ; 
And I knew Him not ; but that He should be made manifest 
to Israel, therefore am I come, baptizing uith water. Now 
if He had wrought miracles in early age, the Israelites would 
not have needed another to declare Him. For He who came 
among men, and by His miracles was so made known, not to 
those only in Judaea, but also to those in Syria and beyond, 
and who did this in three years only, or rather who did not 

Matt. 4 need even these three years to manifest Himself, for imme- 

24, diately and from the first His fame went abroad every 
where ; He, I say, Who in a short time so shone forth by 
the multitude of His miracles, that His name was well known 
to all, was much less likely, if while a child He had from an 
early age wrought miracles, to escape notice so long. 
For what was done would have seemed stranger as done by 
a boy, and there would have been time for twice or thrice as 
many, and much more. But in fact He did nothing while 
Be was a child, save only that one thing to which Luke has 

Luke 2, testified, that at the age of twelve years He sat hearing the 
doctors, and was thought admirable for His questioning. 
Besides, it was in accordance with likelihood and reason 
that He did not begin His signs at once from early age ; for 
they would have deemed the thing a delusion. For if when 
He was of full age many suspected this, much more, if while 
quite young He had wrought miracles, would they have 
hurried Him sooner and before the proper time to the Cross, 
in the venom of their malice ; and the very facts of the Dis- 
pensation would have been discredited. 

ic How then," asks some one, " came it into the mind of 
His mother to imagine any thing great of Him ?" He was 
now beginning to reveal Himself, and was plainly discovered 

Parents to he obeyed in things lawful. 177 

by the witness of John, and by what He had said to His John 
disciples. And before all Ibis, the Conception itself and all IL 4> 
its attendant circumstances 1 had inspired her with a very ^l.'and 
great opinion of the Child; " for," saith Luke, " she heard t a ^ hat 
all the sayings concerning the Child, and kept them in herP lace 
heart a ." " Why then," says one, " did not she speak this birth.' " 
before* 3 ?" Because, as I said, it was now at last that He was 
beginning to manifest Himself. Before this time He lived as 
one of the many, and therefore His mother had not confidence 
to say any such thing to Him ; but when she heard that John 
had come on His account, and that he had borne such 
witness to Him as he did, and that He had disciples, after 
that she took confidence, and called Him, and said, when 
they wanted wine, They have no wine. For she desired both 
to do them a favour, and through her Son to render herself 
more conspicuous ; perhaps too she had some human feelings, 
like His brethren, when they said, Shew thyself to the world, c. 17, 4. 
desiring to gain credit from His miracles. Therefore He 
answered somewhat vehemently 2 , saying, 2 σ-ψοδ- 

Ver. 4. Woman, what have I to do with thee? Mine 9 Tepov 
hour is not yet come. 

To prove that He greatly respected His mother, hear 
Luke relate how He was subject to His parents, and our Luke 2, 
own Evangelist declare how He had forethought for her at 51, 
the very season of the Crucifixion. For where parents cause 
no impediment or hindrance in things belonging to God, 
it is our bounden duty to give way to them, and there is 
great danger in not doing so ; but when they require any 
thing unseasonably, and cause hindrance in any spiritual 
matter, it is unsafe to obey. And therefore Pie answered 
thus in this place, and again elsewhere, Who is My mother, Mat. 12, 
and who are My brethren? because they did not yet think 48, 
rightly of Him ; and she, because she had borne Him, claimed, 
according to the custom of other mothers, to direct Him in 
all things, when she ought to have reverenced and wor- 
shipped Him. This then was the reason why He answered 


a This is the common reading, but •ημιν οζικνυσι λεγωι/• -η 5e Μαριάμ συν- 

the passage (Luke 2, 51.) is not so eTTjpet τα ρήματα πάντα συμβάλλουσα iv 

found in G. T. ; Morel, and Ms. in ttj κ. 
Bodleian rear! : τούτο κσΧ 6 Aovnas b i. e. as she spoke at the marriage. 

178 The Virgin instructed by the answer of Christ. 

Homil. as He did on that occasion. For consider what a thing it was, 
XXL that when all the people high and low were standing round 
ι lit. Him, when the multitude was intent on hearing 1 Him, and 
hanging jj^ s d oc trme had begun to be set forth, she should come into 
hearing the midst and take Him away from the work of exhortation, 
and converse with Him apart, and not even endure to come 
within, but draw Him outside merely to herself. This is 
why He said, Who is My mother and My brethren? Not 
to insult her who had borne Him, (away with the thought !) 
but to procure her the greatest benefit, and not to let her 
think meanly of Him. For if He cared for others, and used 
every means to implant in them a becoming opinion of Him- 
self, much more would He do so in the case of His mother. 
And since it was probable that if these words had been 
addressed to her by her Son, she would not readily have 
chosen even then to be convinced, but would in all cases have 
claimed the superiority as being His mother, therefore He 
replied as He did to them who spake to Him ; otherwise He 
could not have led up her thoughts from His present lowli- 
ness to His future exaltation, had she expected that she 
should always be honoured by Him as by a son, and not 
that He should come as her Master. 

It was then from this motive that He said in this place, 
Woman, ivhat have I to do with thee ? and also for another 
reason not less pressing. What was that? It was, that His 
miracles might not be suspected. The request ought to 
have come from those who needed, not from His mother. 
And why so ? Because what is done at the request of one's 
friends, great though it be, often causes offence to the 
spectators ; but when they make the request who have the 
need, the miracle is free from suspicion, the praise unmixed, 
[3.] the benefit great. So if some excellent physician should 
enter a house where there were many sick, and be spoken to 
by none of the patients or their relations, but be directed 
2 [and only by his own mother, he would be suspected 2 and 
some] disliked by the sufferers, nor would any of the patients or 
Morel, their attendants deem him able to exhibit any thing great or 
remarkable. And so this was a reason why He rebuked her 
on that occasion, saying, Woman, what have I to do with 
thee? instructing her for the future not to do the like; 

Relationship to Christ profited none but the faithful 179 

because, though He was careful to honour His mother, yet John 
He cared much more for the salvation of her soul, and for - 11, 4 ' 
the doing good to the many, for which He took upon Him 
the flesh. 

These then were the words, not of one speaking rudely to 
his mother, but belonging to a wise dispensation, which 
brought her into a right frame of mind, and provided that 
the miracles should be attended with that honour which was 
meet. And setting other things aside, this very appearance 
which these words have of having been spoken chidingly, is 
amply enough to shew that He held her in high honour, for by 
His displeasure He shewed that He reverenced her greatly; 
in what manner, we will say in the next discourse. Think of 
this then, and when you hear a certain woman saying, 
Blessed is the womb that bare Thee, and the paps which Lvkeii, 
Thou hast sucked, and Him answering, rather blessed are 27 ' 
they that do the will of My Father 1 , suppose that those ! άκού- 
other words also were said with the same intention. For the°v T ", 

τον \ό- 

answer was not that of one rejecting his mother, but of Oneyourov 
who would shew that her having borne Him would have® eo £ 
nothing availed her, had she not been very good and faithful. 
Now if, setting aside the excellence of her soul, it profited 
Mary nothing that the Christ was born of her, much less 
will it be able to avail us to have a father or a brother, or a 
child of virtuous and noble disposition, if we ourselves be far 
removed from his virtue. A brother, saith David, doth not 
redeem, shall man redeem ? We must place our hopes of p s .48,8. 
salvation in nothing else, but only in our own righteous Lxx • 
deeds (done) after 2 the grace of God. For if this by itself could 2 or<next 
have availed 3 , it would have availed the Jews, (for Christ w | th M€7 
was their kinsman according to the flesh,) it would have ™ c • 
availed the town in which He was born, it would have Virgin] 
availed His brethren. But as long as His brethren cared M ^ r fi" s 
not for themselves, the honour of their kindred availed them 
nothing, but they were condemned with the rest of the world, 
and then only were approved, when they shone by their own 
virtue ; and the city fell, and was burnt, having gained 
nothing from this; and His kinsmen according to the flesh 
were slaughtered and perished very miserably, having gained 
nothing towards being saved from their relationship to Him, 


180 Good ancestors no protection. 

Homil. because they had not the defence of virtue. The Apostles, 

on the contrary, appeared greater than any, because they 

followed the true and excellent way of gaining relationship 

with Him, that by obedience. And from this we learn that 

we have always need of faith, and a life shining and bright, 

since this alone will have power to save us. For though 

His relations were for a long time every where held in 

1 Astriro- honour, being called the Lord's kinsmen 1 , yet now we do 

Eus ' Ή not even know their names, while the lives and names of the 

Ε. i. 7. Apostles are every where celebrated. 

2 ai. c re- L e t us then not be proud of nobleness of birth 2 according 
ship' to the flesh, but though we have ten thousand famous ances- 
tors, let us use diligence ourselves to go beyond their excel- 
lences, knowing that we shall gain nothing from the diligence 
of others to help us in the judgment that is to come ; nay, 
this will be the more grievous condemnation, that though born 
of righteous parents and having an example at home, we do 
not, even thus, imitate our teachers. And this I say now, 
3 lit• because I see many heathens 3 , when we lead them to the 

'Greeks' . . . 

" faith and exhort them to become Christians, flying to their 
kinsmen and ancestors and house, and saying, " All my 
relations and friends and companions are faithful Christians." 
What is that to thee, thou wretched and miserable? This 
very thing will be especially thy ruin, that thou didst not 
respect the number of those around thee, and run to the 
truth. Others again who are believers but live a careless 
life, when exhorted to virtue make the very same defence, 
and say, " my father and my grandfather and my great 
grandfather were very pious and good men." But this will 
assuredly most condemn thee, that being descended from 
such men, thou hast acted unworthily of the root from 
whence thou art sprung. For hear what the Prophet says 
Hosea to the Jews, Israel served for a wife, and for a ivife he kept 
e. 8, 56. (sheep >') and again Christ, Your father Abraham rejoiced to 
see My day, and he saw it, and was glad. And every 
* al. where they bring forward 4 to them the righteous acts of their 
app J fathers, not only to praise them, but also to make the charge 
against their descendants more heavy. Knowing then this, 
let us use every means that we may be saved by our own 
works, lest having deceived ourselves by vain trusting on 

Danger of self-deceit. 181 

others, we learn that we have been deceived when the know- John 
ledge of it will profit us nothing. In the grave, saith David, ■ II ' 4 V 
who shall give Thee thanks? Let us then repent here, that ' ' 
we may obtain the everlasting goods, which may God grant 
we all do, through the grace and loving-kindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy 
Ghost be glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 


John ii. 4. 

Woman, what have I to do with thee ? Mine hour is not 
yet come. 

In preaching the word there is some toil, and this Paul 

ι Tim. d ec ] ares when he says, Let the elders that rule well be 
counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour 
in the word and doctrine. Yet it is in your power to make 
this labour light or heavy; for if you reject our words, or if 
without actually rejecting them you do not shew them forth 
in your works, our toil will be heavy, because we labour 
uselessly and in vain : while if ye heed them and give proof 
of it by your works, we shall not even feel the toil, because 
the fruit produced by our labour will not suffer the great- 
ness of that labour to appear. So that if you would rouse 
our zeal, and not quench or weaken it, shew us, 1 beseech 

1 Ko/iwp-you, your fruit, that we may behold the fields waving 1 with 
corn, and being supported by hopes of an abundant crop, 

8 j?' our, and reckoning up your 2 riches, may not be slothful 3 in 

• numb,' carrying on this good traffic. 

weary'' * l * s no sn S nt question which is proposed to us also 
to-day. For first, when the mother of Jesus says, They have 
no wine, Christ replies, Woman, what have I to do with 
thee? Mine hour is not yet come. And then, having thus 
spoken, He did as His mother had said ; an action which 
needs enquiry no less than the words. Let us then, after 
calling upon Him Who wrought the miracle, proceed to the 

The words are not used in this place only, but in others 

c. 8, ίο. also; for the same Evangelist says, They could not lay 

All things ordered by Christ. 183 

hands on Him 1 , because His hour ivas not yet come; and John 
again, No man laid hands on Him, because His hour was t l }'*~ 

Ί . ' ouoels 

not yet come; and again, Hie hour is come, glorify Thy Son. hrieurev 
What then do the words mean? I have brought together q T ^• 
more instances, that I may give one explanation of all. And e. 7, 30. 
what is that explanation ? Christ did not say, Mine hour is°' 17 ' U 
not yet come, as being subject to the necessity of seasons, or 
the observance of an hour; how can He be so, Who is Maker 
of seasons, and Creator of the times and the ages ? To what 
else then did He allude? He desires to shew a this; that 
He works all things at their convenient season, not doing all 
at once ; because a kind of confusion and disorder would 
have ensued, if, instead of working all at their proper seasons, 
He had mixed all together, His Birth, His Resurrection, 
and His coming to Judgment. Observe this; creation was 
to be, yet not all at once; man and woman were to be 
created, yet not even these together; mankind were to be 
condemned to death, and there was to be a resurrection, yet 
the interval between the two was to be great ; the law was to 
be given, but not grace with it, each was to be dispensed at its 
proper time. Now Christ was not subject to the necessity 
of seasons, but rather settled their order, since He is their 
Creator ; and therefore He saith in this place, Mine hour is 
not yet come. And His meaning is, that as yet He was not 
manifest 15 to the many, nor had He even His whole company 
of disciples ; Andrew followed Him, and next to 2 him Philip, 2 a], be- 
but no one else. And moreover, none of these, not even His sl θ 
mother nor His brethren, knew Him as they ought; for after 
His many miracles, the Evangelist says of His brethren, For c. 7, 5. 
neither did His brethren believe in Him. And those at the 
wedding did not know Him either, for in their need they 
would certainly have come to and entreated Him. Therefore 
He saith, Mine hour is not yet come; that is, "I am not yet 
known to the company, nor are they even aware that the 
wine has failed; let them first be sensible of this. I ought 
not to have been told it from thee ; thou art My mother, and 

a Ben. Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. άλλα Ιωάννης ivravOa rb Οΰττω ήκςι η 

read: αλλά δια των ούτως (ψημένων ωρα μου elaayti τον "Άριστον \4yovTa 

τούτο δηΧώσαι κ. τ. λ. ζςικν vs οτι κ. τ. λ. 

b Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. read : 

184 Compliance of Christ with the request of the Virgin. 

HoMii..renderest the miracle suspicious. They who wanted the 
XXI1, wine should have come and besought Me, not that I need 
this, but that they might with an entire assent accept the 
miracle. For one who knows that he is in need, is very 
grateful when he obtains assistance ; but one who has not a 
sense of his need, will never have a plain and clear sense of 
the benefit." 

Why then after He had said, Mine hour is not yet come, 
and given her a denial, did He what His mother desired ? 
Chiefly it was, that they who opposed Him, and thought that 
He was subject to the hour, might have sufficient proof that 
He was subject to no hour; for had He been so, how could 
He, before the proper hour was come, have done what He 
did? And in the next place, He did it to honour His mother, 
that He might not seem entirely to contradict and shame her 
that bare Him in the presence of so many; and also, that 
He might not be thought to want power % for she brought 
the servants to Him., Besides, even while saying to the Canaanitish woman, It 
1 βαλαν is not meet to take the children 's bread, and to give 1 it unto 
G ' 1 ' dogs, He still gave the bread, as considering her perse- 
verance; and though after His first reply, He said, I am not 
sent save unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel, yet even 
after saying this, He healed the woman's daughter. Hence 
we learn, that although we be unworthy, we often by per- 
severance make ourselves worthy to receive. And for this 
3 al. reason His mother remained by, and openly 2 brought to Him 
the servants, that the request might be made by a greater 
number ; and therefore she added, 

Ver. 5. Whatsoever He saith unto you, do it. 
For she knew that His refusal proceeded not from want of 
power, but from humility, and that He might not seem with- 
3 οπλών out cause 3 to hurry to 4 the miracle; and therefore she 
τΤιν brought the servants d . 

Ver. 6, 7. And there were set there six water pots of stone, 
after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing 
two or three firkins apiece. Jesus saith unto them, Fill 

c Thi3 passage is wanting in the <l Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. read : 

Ms. in Bodleian. δ:' δ κα\ την υπακοην αναβάλλεται. 

Water changed to wine without afresh Creation. 185 

the waterpots with water; and they jilted them up to the John 
brim. H.6,7. 

It is not without a reason that the Evangelist says, After 
the manner of the purifying of the Jews, but in order that 
none of the unbelievers might suspect that lees having been 
left in the vessels, and water having been poured upon and 
mixed with them, a very weak wine had been made. There- 
fore he says, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, 
to shew that those vessels were never receptacles for wine. 
For because Palestine is a country with but little water, and 
brooks and fountains were not every where to be found, they 
always used to fill waterpots with water, so that they might 
not have to hasten to the rivers if at any time they were 
defiled, but might have the means of purification at hand. 

" And why was it, that He did not the miracle before they 

filled them, which would have been more marvellous by far ? 

for it is one thing to change given matter to a different 

quality, and another to create matter out of nothing." The 

latter would indeed have been more .wonderful, but would 

not have seemed so credible to the many. And therefore 

He often purposely lessens 1 the greatness of His miracles, ι lit. 

that it may be the more readily received. * cll P, s , 

J J m round 

" But why," says one, (C did not He Himself produce the 
water which He afterwards shewed to be wine, instead of 
bidding the servants bring it ?" For the very same reason ; 
and also, that He might have those who drew it out to 
witness that what had been effected was no delusion : since 
if any had been inclined to be shameless, those who 
ministered might have said to them, " We drew the water, 
we filled the vessels." And besides what we have mentioned, 
He thus overthrows those doctrines which spring up against 
the Church. For since there are some who say that the 
Creator of the world is another, and that the things which are 
seen are not His works, but those of a certain other opposing 
god, to curb these men's madness He doth most of His 
miracles on matter found at hand 2 . Because, had the creator 2 faro- 
of these been opposed to Him, He would not have used what κζί ^ νων 
was another's to set forth His own power. But now to 
shew that it is He Who transmutes water in the vine plants, 
and Who converts the rain by its passage through the root 

186 Evidence given by the ruler of the feast. 

HoMiL.into wine, He effected that in a moment at the wedding 
— -it- which in the plant is long in doing. When they had filled 
the waterpots, He said, 

Ver. 8 — 10. Draw out now, and bear unto the governor 
of the feast ; and they bare it. When the ruler of the feast 
had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not 
whence it was, [but the servants which drew the water 
knew,) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom, and 
saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth 
good wine, and when men have ivell drunk, then that which 
is worse ; but thou hast kept the good wine until now. 
•ai.'im- Here again some mock 1 , saying, " this was an assembly of 
drunken men, the sense of the judges was spoilt, and not 
2 αντικά- able to taste 2 what was made, or to decide on what was 
β^σθαι ^one, so t h at t j ie y j^i nol k now whether what was made w r as 
water or wine ; for that they were drunk," it is alleged, " the 
ruler himself has shewn by what he said." Now this is 
most ridiculous, yet even this suspicion the Evangelist has 
removed. For he does not say that the guests gave their 
opinion on the matter, but the ruler of the feast, who was 
sober, and had not as yet tasted any thing. For of course 
you are aware, that those who are entrusted with the 
3 δίοκο- management 3 of such banquets are the most sober, as 
having this one business, to dispose all things in order 
and regularity ; and therefore the Lord called such a man's 
sober senses to testify to what was done. For He did not 
say, " Pour forth for them that sit at meat," but, Bear unto 
the governor of the feast. 

And when the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that 
was made wine, and knew not whence it was, {but the 
servants knew,) the governor of the feast called the bride- 
groom. " And why did he not call the servants ? for so the 
miracle would have been revealed." Because Jesus had not 
Himself revealed what had been done, but desired that the 
power of His miracles should be known gently, little by little, 
♦al/ex- And suppose that it had then been mentioned 4 , the servants 
who related it would never have been believed, but would have 
been thought mad to bear such testimony to one who at that 
time seemed to the many a mere man ; and although they 
knew the certainty of the thing by experience, (for they were 

Excellence of the miraculous ivorhs of Christ. 187 

not likely to disbelieve their own hands,) yet they were not John 
sufficient to convince others. And so He did not reveal it II,8 ~ 10, 
to all, but to him who was best able to understand what was 
done, reserving the clearer knowledge of it for a future time ; 
since after the manifestation of other miracles this also would 
be credible. Thus when He was about to heal the noble- 
man's son, the Evangelist has shewn that it had already 
become more clearly known ; for it was chiefly because the 
nobleman had become acquainted with the miracle that he 
called upon Him, as John incidentally shews when he says, 
Jesus came into Cana of Galilee, where He made the water c 4, 46. 
wine. And not wine simply, but the best. 

[3.] For such are the miraculous works of Christ, they are 
far more perfect and better than the operations of nature. 
This is seen also in other instances; when He restored any 
infirm member of the body, He made 1 it better than the 1 lit. 

, 'shewed' 


That it was wine then, and the best of wine, that had been 
made, not the servants only, but the bridegroom and the 
ruler of the feast would testify ; and that it was made by 
Christ, those who drew the water; so that although the 
miracle were not then revealed, yet it could not in the 
end be passed in silence, so many and constraining testi- 
monies had He provided for the future. That He had made 
the water wine, He had the servants for witnesses ; that the 
wine was good that had been made, the ruler of the feast 
and the bridegroom. 

It might be expected that the bridegroom would reply 
to this (the ruler's speech), and say something, but the 
Evangelist, hastening to more pressing matters, has only 
touched upon this miracle, and passed on. For what we 
needed to learn was, that Christ made the water wine, and 
that good wine ; but what the bridegroom said to the 
governor he did not think it necessary to add. And many 
miracles, at first somewhat obscure, have in process of time 
become more plain, when reported more exactly by those 
who knew them from the beginning. 

At that time, then, Jesus made of water wine, and both 

then and now He ceases not to change our weak and un- 2 ij tt 

stable 2 wills. For there are, yes, there are men who in* flowing 

' J ' away' 

188 Earthly things fleeting and destructive. 

Homil. nothing differ from water, so cold, and weak, and unsettled. 

— — '- But let us bring those of such disposition to the Lord, that 

He may change their wall to the quality of wine, so that they 

JSiappeT^be no longer washy 1 , but have body 2 , and be the cause of 

eVeo-- gladness in themselves and others. But who can these cold 

τυμμέ- ones be? They are those who give their minds to the fleeting 

1 astrin- things of this present life, who despise not this world's luxury, 

gency' who are lovers of glory and dominion ; for all these things 

are flowing waters, never stable, but ever rushing violently 

down the steep. The rich to-day is poor to-morrow, he who 

one day appears with herald, and girdle, and chariot, and 

numerous attendants, is often on the next the inhabitant of 

a dungeon, having unwillingly quitted all that show to make 

διασπώ- room for another. Again, the gluttonous and dissipated 3 

man, when he has filled himself to bursting % cannot retain 

A χορ-η- even for a single day the supply 4 conveyed by his delicacies, 

yiav ' but when that is dispersed, in order to renew it he is obliged 

to put in more, differing in nothing from a torrent. For as 

in the torrent when the first body of water is gone, others in 

turn succeed; so in gluttony, when one repast is removed, 

we again require another. And such is the nature and the 

lot of earthly things, never to be stable, but to be alw r ays 

pouring and hurrying by; but in the case of luxury, it is not 

merely the flowing and hastening by, but many other things 

^άποξύπ, that trouble us. By the violence of its course it wears away s 

rades' the strength of the body, and strips the soul of its manliness, 

and the strongest currents of rivers do not so easily eat away 

their banks and make them sink down, as do luxury and 

wantonness sweep away all the bulwarks of our health ; and 

if you enter a physician's house and ask him, you will find 

that almost all the causes of diseases arise from this. For 

6 λίτί» frugality and a plain 6 table is the mother of health, and 

Hit. therefore physicians 7 have thus named it; for they have 

dren of C3 ^ e & tne not being satisfied " health," (because not to be 

phys.' satisfied with food is health,) and they have spoken of sparing 

diet as the " mother of health." Now if the condition of 

8 ^δ€ία want 8 is the mother of health, it is clear that fulness is the 

mother of sickness and debility, and produces attacks which 

are beyond the skill even of physicians. For gout in the feet, 

e lit. ' has burst his stomach.' 


Evils of repletion and luxury. 189 

apoplexy, dimness of sight, pains in the hands, tremors, John 
paralytic attacks, jaundice, lingering and inflammatory - 
fevers, and other diseases many more than these, (for we 
have not time to go over them all,) are the natural offspring, 
not of abstinence and moderate l diet, but of gluttony and ^ 
repletion. And if you will look to the diseases of the soul 
that arise from them, you will see that feelings of coveting, 
sloth, melancholy, dulness, impurity, and folly of all kinds, 
have their origin here. For after such banquets the souls of 
the luxurious become no better than asses, being torn to 
pieces by such wild beasts as these (passions). Shall I say 
also how many pains and displeasures they have who wait 
upon luxury ? I could not enumerate them all, but by a 
single principal point I will make the whole clear. At a 
table such as I speak of, that is, a sumptuous one, men 
never eat with pleasure ; for abstinence is the mother of 
pleasure as well as health, while repletion is the source and 
root not only of diseases, but of displeasure. For where 
there is satiety there desire cannot be, and where there is no 
desire, how can there be pleasure ? And therefore we should 
find that the poor are not only of better understanding and 
healthier than the rich, but also that they enjoy a greater 
degree of pleasure. Let us, when we reflect on this, flee 
drunkenness and luxury, not that of the table alone, but all 
other which is found in the things of this life, and let us 
take in exchange for it the pleasure arising from spiritual 
things, and, as the Prophet says, delight ourselves in the 
Lord; Delight thyself in the Lord, and He shall give thee^ a - 3 7 y 4 
the desires of thine heart; that so that we may enjoy the 
good things both here and hereafter, through the grace and 
loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and 
with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory, 
world without end. Amen. 


John ii. 11. 
TJiis beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee. 

Frequent and fierce is the devil in his attacks, on all 
sides besieging our salvation ; we therefore must watch 
and be sober, and every where fortify ourselves against his 
1 αψορ- assault, for if he but gain some slight vantage ground 1 , he 
*** goes on to make for himself a broad passage, and by degrees 
introduces all his forces. If then we have any care at all for 
our salvation, let us not allow him to make his approaches 
even in trifles, that thus we may check him beforehand in 
important matters ; for it would be the extreme of folly, if, 
while he displays such eagerness to destroy our souls, we 
should not bring even an equal amount in defence of our 
own salvation. 

I say not this without a cause, but because I fear lest that 

wolf be even now standing unseen by us in the midst of the 

2 or 4 sa- fold 2 , and some sheepbecome a prey to him, being led astray 

crtd en- 

closure' from the flock and from hearkening by its own carelessness 

^" ώ and his craft. Were the wounds 3 sensible, or did the body 

< words' receive the blows, there would be no difficulty in discerning 

his plots; but since the soul is invisible, and since that it is 

which receives the wounds, we need great watchfulness that 

1 Cor. 2, each may prove himself; for none knoweth the things of a 

man as the spirit of a man that is in him. The word is 

spoken indeed to all, and is offered as a general remedy to 

those who need it, but it is the business of every individual 

hearer to take what is suited to his complaint. I know not 

who are sick, I know not who are well. And therefore I use 

Variety of Holy Scripture. 191 

every sort of argument, and introduce remedies suited to all John 
maladies % at one time condemning covetousness, after that — '-^ 
touching on luxury, and again on impurity, then composing 
something in praise of and exhortation to charity, and each 
of the other virtues in their turn. For I fear lest when my 
arguments are employed on any one subject, I may without 
knowing it be treating you for one disease while you are ill 
of others. So that if this congregation were but one person, 
I should not have judged it so absolutely necessary to make 
my discourse varied ; but since in such a multitude there 
are probably also many maladies, I not unreasonably diversify 
my teaching, since my discourse will be sure to attain its 
object when it is made to embrace you all. For this cause 
also Scripture is something multiform 1 , and speaks on ten λ ^o\v- 
thousand matters, because it addresses itself to the nature of et 
mankind in common, and in such a multitude all the passions 
of the soul must needs be; though all be not in each. Let 
us then cleanse ourselves of these, and so listen to the divine 
oracles, and with contrite heart b hear what has been this day 
read to us. 

And what is that ? This beginning of miracles did Jesus in 
Cana of Galilee. I told you the other day, that there are 
some who say that this is not the beginning. " For what," 
says one, " if Cana of Galilee be added ? This shews that 
this was the beginning He made in Cana ." But on these 
points I would not venture to assert any thing exactly. I 
before have shewn that He began His miracles after His 
Bapt'.sm, and wrought no miracle before it; but whether of 
the miracles done after His Baptism, this or some other was 
the first, it seems to me unnecessary to assert positively. 

And manifested for th His glory. 

"How?" asks one, "and in what way? For only the 
servants, the ruler of the feast, and the bridegroom, not the 
greater number of those present, gave heed to what was 
done. How then did he " manifest forth His glory?" He 

a Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. read the κα\ ούτω μβτά συντετριμμένης σφόδρα 

passage thus : κινώ, πασιν άνθρώποιε της Siavoias κ. τ. λ. 
ομοίως αρμόζοντα, κα\ πασιν επιτήδειον c Morel and Ms. in Bodleian read : 

πάθεσιν. - τ\ yap άτοπον ττροσκεΐσθαι iv Κανά, καϊ 

b Morel, and Ms. in Bodleian read : μη αρχήν είναι ταντην των τον Ίησοΰ 

ούτω το7ς θείοι? AOyois προσβά\λωμεν, σημείων. 

19*2 Miracles withheld from the ill-disposed. 

Homil. manifested it at least for His own part, and if all present heard 


-' not of the miracle at the time, they would hear of it afterwards, 

for unto the present time it is celebrated, and has not been 
unnoticed, That all did not know it on the same day is 
clear from what follows, for after having said that He mani- 
fested forth His glory, the Evangelist adds, 
And His disciples believed on Him. 

His disciples, who even before this regarded Him with 
1 [ad- wonder 1 . Seest thou that it was especially necessary to 
and be- wor k the miracles at times when men were present of honest 
M Vec ^ minds, and who would carefully give heed to what was done? 
and Ms. for these would more readily believe, and attend more exactly 
to the circumstances. " And how could He have become 
known without miracles?" Because His doctrine and pro- 
phetic powers were sufficient to cause wonder in the souls 
of His hearers, so that they took heed to what He did with 
a right disposition, their minds being already well affected 
towards Him. And therefore in many other places the 
Mat. 12, Evangelists say, that He did no miracle on account of the 
13,' 58.' perversity of the men who dwelt there. 

&c. y er> ]o. After this He went down to Capernaum, He, 

and His mother, and His brethren, and His disciples; and 
they continued there not many days. 

Wherefore comes He with His mother to Capernaum ? for 
He had done no miracle there, and the inhabitants of that 
city were not of those who were rightminded towards Him, 
but of the utterly corrupt. And this Christ declared when 
Lulceio, He said, And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, 
shall be thrust down to hell. Wherefore then goes He ? 
I think it was, because He intended a little after to go up 
to Jerusalem, that He then went to Capernaum, to avoid 
2 έπισύ- leading about 2 every where with Him, His mother, and His 
brethren. And so, having departed and tarried a little while 
to honour His mother, He again commences His miracles 
after restoring to her home her who had borne Him. There- 
fore the Evangelist says, After not many days, 
Ver. 18. He went up to Jerusalem. 

He received Baptism then a few days before the Passover. 
But on going up to Jerusalem, what did He ? a deed full of 
high authority ; for He cast out of the Temple those dealers 

The Temple twice cleansed. 193 

and money changers, and those who sold doves, and oxen, John 
and sheep, and who passed their time there for this pur- 16 j 8 


[2.] Another Evangelist writes, that as He cast them out, 
He said, Make not My Father's house 1 a den of thieves, but 1 Luke 
this one, i 9 '~ 46 • 

Ver. 16. (Blake not My Father's house) an house of^oi-h- 
merchandise. «Γγ'λ 

They do not in this contradict each other, but shew that G - T • 
He did this a second time, and that both these expressions 
were not used on the same occasion, but that He acted thus 
once at the beginning of His ministry, and again when He 
had come to the very time of His Passion. Therefore^ 
(on the latter occasion,) employing more strong expressions, 
He spoke of it as 2 (being made) a den of thieves, but here at s lit. 
the commencement of His miracles He does not so, but it P alled 
uses a more gentle rebuke ; from which it is probable that 
this took place d a second time. 

" And wherefore, 1 ' says one, ίζ did Christ do this same, 
and use such severity against these men, a thing which He 
is no where else seen to do, even when insulted and reviled, 
and called by them ' Samaritan' and ' demoniac ?' for He 
was not even satisfied with words only, but took a scourge, 
and so cast them out." Yes, but it was when others were 
receiving benefit, that the Jews accused and raged against 
Him ; when it was probable that they would have been made 
savage by His rebukes, they shewed no such disposition 
towards Him, for they neither accused nor reviled Him. 
What say they ? 

Ver. 18. What sign shewesi Thou unto us, seeing that 
Thou doest these things ? 

Seest thou their excessive malice, and how the benefits 
done to others incensed them more (than reproofs) ? 

At one time then He said, that the Temple was made by 
them a den of thieves, shewing that what they sold was 
gotten by theft, and rapine, and covetousness, and that they 
were rich through other men's calamities; at another, a house 
of merchandize, pointing to their shameless traffickings. 
" But wherefore did He this ?" Since he was about to heal 

d Or, ' that He did this.' 'όθςν et'/cbs Sevrepov τούτο yeyevrjaeai. al. πΐττοι-ηκέναι* 


194 Zeal of Christ for His Fathers House. 

Homil.ou the Sabbath day, and to do many such things which 
XXIIL were thought by them transgressions of the Law, in order 
that He might not seem to do this as though He had come 
ι or ( ad- to be some rival God 1 and opponent of His Father, He takes 
*¥βΊ' occasion hence to correct any such suspicion of theirs. For 
One who had exhibited so much zeal for the House was not 
likely to oppose Him who was Lord of the House, and Who 
was worshipped in it. No doubt even the former years 
during which He lived according to the Law, were sufficient 
to shew His reverence for the Legislator, and that He came 
not to give contrary laws ; yet since it was likely that those 
years were forgotten through lapse of time, as not having 
been known to all because He was brought up in a poor and 
mean dwelling, He afterwards does this in the presence of 
all, (for many were present because the feast was nigh at 
hand,) and at great risk. For He did not merely cast them 
out, but also overturned the tables, and poured out the money, 
giving them by this to understand, that He Who threw Him- 
self into danger for the good order of the House could never 
despise its Master. Had He acted as He did from hypocrisy, 
He should only have advised them ; but to place Himself in 
danger was very daring. For it was no light thing to offer 
2 or^base Himself to the anger of so many market-folk 2 , to excite 
lyopai*- against Himself a most brutal mob of petty dealers by His 
»w reproaches and His blows, this was not the action of a 
pretender, but of one choosing to suffer every thing for the 
order of the House. 

And therefore not by His actions only, but by His words, 
3 tV He shews His agreement with the Father 3 ; for He saith not 
l£l u " the Holy House," but, My Fathers House. See, He even 
συμψω- calls Him, Father, and they are not wroth; they thought 
Γ^ λώ$ He spoke in a general way 4 ; but when He went on and spoke 
more plainly, so as to set before them the idea of His Equality, 
then they become angry. 

And what say they? What sign shewest Tliou unto us, 
seeing that Thou docst these tilings? Alas for their utter 
madness ! Was there need of a sign before they could cease 
their evil doings, and free the house of God from such dis- 
honour? and was it not the greatest sign of His Excellence 
that lie had gotten such zeal for that House ? In fact, the 

Sign refused: dark sayings given. 195 

well disposed 1 were distinguished by this very thing, for They, John 

1 7—22. 

His disciples, it says, 

Ver. 17. Remembered that it is written, The zeal of thine 
house hath eaten me up. ^ oves 

But the Jews did not remember the Prophecy, and said, 
What sign shewest Thou unto us? both grieving that their Ps.69,9. 
shameful traffic was cut off, and expecting by these means 
to stop Him, and also desiring to challenge Him to a 
miracle, and to find fault with what He was doing. Where- 
fore He will not give them a sign ; and before, when they 
came and asked Him, He made them the same answer, A Mat. 16, 
wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and 
there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of tliu 
prophet Jonas. Only then the answer was clear, now it is 
more ambiguous. This He doth on account of their extreme 
insensibility; for He Who prevented 2 them without their^ai. 
asking, and gave them signs, would never when they asked jjj^, 
have turned away from them, had He not seen that their 
minds were wicked and false, and their intention trea- 
cherous 3 . Think how full of wickedness the question itself *ΰπον\ον 
was at the outset. When they ought to have applauded Him 
for His earnestness and zeal, when they ought to have been 
astonished that He cared so greatly for the House, they 
reproach Him, saying, that it was lawful to traffic, and unlaw- 
ful for any to stop their traffic, except he should shew them 
a sign. What saith Christ ? 

Ver. 19. Destroy this Temple, and in three days I will raise 
it up. 

Many such sayings He utters which were not intelligible 
to His immediate hearers, but which were to be so to those 
that should come after. And wherefore doth He this ? In 
order that when the accomplishment of His prediction 
should have come to pass, He might be seen to have 
foreknown from the beginning what was to follow; which 
indeed was the case with this prophecy. For, saith the 

Ver. 22. When He was risen from the dead, His disciples 
remembered that He had said this ; and they believed the 
Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. 

But at the time when this was spoken, the Jews were 

ο 2 

1 96 Sign of the Prophet Jonas. 

Homil. perplexed as to what it might mean, and cast about to 

discover, saying, 

Ver. 20. Forty and six years was this Temple in building, 
and wilt thou rear it up in three days? 

Forty and six years they said, referring to the latter 
Ezra 6, building, for the former was finished in twenty years' time. 
[3.] Wherefore then did He not resolve the difficulty and 
say, " I speak not of that temple, but of My flesh ?" Why 
does the Evangelist, writing the Gospel at a later period, 
interpret the saying, and Jesus keep silence at the time ? 
Why did He so keep silence ? Because they would not 
have received His word ; for if not even the disciples were 
able to understand the saying, much less were the multitudes. 
When, saith the Evangelist, He was risen from the dead, 
then they remembered, and believed the Scripture and His 
ι ai. word. There were two things that hindered 1 them for the 
were time, one the fact of the Resurrection, the other, the greater 
posed question whether He was God c that dwelt within; of both 
which things He spake darkly when He said, Destroy this 
Temple, and I will rear it up in three days. And this 
St. Paul declares to be no small proof of His Godhead, when 
Rom. l, he writes, Declared to be the Son of God with power, according 
to the Spirit of holiness, by the Resurrection from the dead. 
But why doth He both there, and here, and every where, 
2 [όταν give this for a sign, at one time saying 2 , When ye have lifted 
Jien. U P l" e ® on °f Man, then ye shall know that I Am ; at 
^, 8 » 28 • another, There shall no sign be given you z but the sign of 
39. ' the prophet Jonas; and again in this place, In three days I 
r αυτ ? Ί will raise it up ? Because what especially shewed that He was 
G. T. not a mere man, was His being able to set up a trophy of 
victory over death, and so quickly to abolish His long 
enduring tyranny, and conclude that difficult war. Where- 
fore He saith, Then ye shall know. Then. When ? When 
after My Resurrection 1 shall draw (all) the world to Me, 
then ye shall know that I did these things as God, and 
Very Son of God, avenging the insult offered to My Father. 

" Why then, instead of saying, ' What need is there of 
signs to check evil deeds ?' did He promise that He would 

e Savile, Ό 0ebs, 'whether He was the One God;' but the article is not 
found in Ben. Morel, or Mss. 

Why the Resurrection was not plainly foretold. 197 

give them a sign?" Because by so doing He would have the John 
more exasperated them ; but in this way He rather astonished II ' 20 ' - 
them. Still they made no answer to this, for He seemed to 
them to say what was incredible, so that they did not stay 
even to question Him upon it, but passed it by as impossible. 
Yet had they been wise, though it seemed to them at the 
time incredible, still when He wrought His many miracles 
they would then have come and questioned Him, would then 
have intreated that the difficulty might be resolved to them; 
but because they were foolish, they gave no heed at all to 
part of what was said, and part they heard with evil frame 
of mind. And therefore Christ spoke to them in an enig- 
matical way. 

The question still remains, u How was it that the disciples 
did not know that He must rise from the dead r" It was, 
because they had not yet been vouchsafed the gift of the 
Spirit; and therefore, though they constantly heard His 
discourses concerning the Resurrection, they understood 
them not, but reasoned with themselves what this might be. 
For very strange and paradoxical was the assertion that one 
could raise himself, and would raise himself in such wise. 
And so Peter was rebuked, when, knowing nothing about 
the Resurrection, he said, Be it far from Thee. And Christ Mat.16, 
did not reveal it clearly to them before the event, that they 22, 
might not be offended at the very outset, being led to 
distrust His words on account of the great improbability of 
the thing, and because they did not yet clearly know Him, 
Who He was. For no one could help believing what was 
proclaimed aloud by facts, while some would probably dis- 
believe what was told to them in words. Therefore He at 
first allowed the meaning of His words to be concealed ; but 
when by their experience He had verified His sayings, He 
after that gave them understanding of His words, and such 
gifts of the Spirit that they received them all at once. He, c.14,26. 
saith Jesus, shall bring all things to your remembrance. 
For they who in a single night cast off all respect for Him, 
and fled from and denied that they even knew Him, would 
scarcely have remembered what He had done and said during 
the whole time, unless they had enjoyed much grace of the 

198 Teaching of Christ brought to mind by The SjArit. 

Homil. " But," says one, " if they were to hear from the Spirit, 

^ X11L w hy needed they to accompany Christ when they would not 

retain His words ?" Because the Spirit taught them not, but 

called to their mind what Christ had said before; and it 

contributes not a little to the glory of Christ, that they 

were referred to the remembrance of the words He had 

spoken to them. At the first then it was of the gift of God 

that the grace of the Spirit lighted upon them so largely and 

abundantly ; but after that, it was of their own virtue that 

they retained the Gift. For they displayed a shining life, 

and much wisdom, and great labours, and despised this 

present life, and thought nothing of earthly things, but were 

above them all ; and like a sort of lightwinged eagle, soaring 

^al. were high by their works, reached 1 to heaven itself, and by these 

away possessed the unspeakable grace of the Spirit. 

Let us then imitate them, and not quench our lamps, but 
keep them bright by alms-doing, for so is the light of this 
fire preserved. Let us collect the oil into our vessels whilst 
we are here, for we cannot buy it when we have departed to 
that other place, nor can we procure it elsewhere, save only 
at the hands of the poor. Let us therefore collect it thence 
very abundantly, if, at least, we desire to enter in with the 
Bridegroom. But if we do not this, we must remain without 
the bridechamber, for it is impossible, it is impossible, though 
we perform ten thousand other good deeds, to enter the 
portals of the Kingdom without alms-doing. Let us then 
shew forth this very abundantly, that we may enjoy those 
ineffable blessings ; which may it come to pass that we all 
attain, by the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost be 
glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 


John ii. 23. 

Now when He was in Jerusalem at the Passover, in the 
feast, many believed on Him, 

Of the inen of that time some clang to their error, others 
laid hold on the truth, while of these last, some having 
retained it for a little while again fell off from it. Alluding to 
these, Christ compared them to seeds not deeply sown, but 
having their roots upon the surface of the earth ; and He 
said that they should quickly perish. 'And these the Evan- 
gelist has here pointed out to us, saying, 

When He teas in Jerusalem, at the Passover, in the/east, 
many believed on Him 1 , when they saw the miracles which 1 * 15 T *> 

He did. Zbrov 

Ver. 24. But Jesus did not commit Himself unto them. G - T - 
For they were the more perfect 2 among His disciples, 2 ^pi- 
who came to Him not only because of His miracles, but a] 6 ^^ 04 
through His teaching also. The grosser sort the miracles *«ψ"λ- 
attracted, but the belter reasoners His prophecies and doc- 6(rTe/JOt 
trines ; and so they who were taken by His teaching were 
more stedfast than those attracted by His miracles. And 
Christ also called them blessed, saying, Blessed are they that ' 20 ) 29 • 
have not seen, and yet have believed. But that these here 
mentioned were not real disciples, the following passage 
shew T s, for it saith, Jesus did not commit Himself unto them. 
Wherefore ? 

Because He knew all things 3 , 3 πάντα 

Ver. 25. And needed not that any should testify ofman,™ 1 ^™ 
for He knew what tvas in man. 

The meaning is of this kind. " He who dwells in men's 
hearts, and enters into their thoughts, took no heed of out- 

200 -ZVo need of signs to the faithful. 

Homil. ward words; and knowing well that their warmth was but 

XXlV ' for a season, He placed not confidence in them as in perfect 

disciples, nor committed all His doctrines to them as though 

thev had already become firm believers." Now, to know 

Ps. 32, w h a t i s in the heart of men belongs to God alone, Who hath 

ι Kings fashioned hearts one by one, for, saith Solomon, Thou 9 even 

8» 39. tj, ou nJy, knowest the hearts; He therefore needed not 

witnesses to learn the thoughts of His own creatures, and 

so He felt no confidence in them because of their mere 

temporary belief. Men, who know neither the present nor 

the future, often tell and entrust all without any reserve to 

persons who approach them deceitfully and who shortly will 

fall off from them ; but Christ did not so, for well He knew 

all their secret thoughts. 

And many such now there are, who have indeed the name 
, . i_ of faith, but are unstable 1 , and easily led away; wherefore 
πιστοί neither now doth Christ commit Himself to them, but con- 
cealeth from them many things ; and just as we do not place 
confidence in mere acquaintances but in real friends, so also 
c • 15 > doth Christ. Hear what He saith to His disciples, Hence- 
forth I call you not servants, ye are My friends. Whence 
is this and why? Because all tilings that I have heard of 
My Father I have made known unto you. And therefore 
He gave no signs to the Jews who asked for them, because 
they asked tempting Him. Indeed the asking for signs is a 
practice of tempters both then and now ; for even now there 
are some that seek them and say, " Why do not miracles 
take place also at this present time ?" If thou art faithful, 
as thou oughtest to be, and lovest Christ as thou oughtest to 
love Him, thou hast no need of signs, they are given to the 
unbelievers. " How then," asks one, " were they not given 
to the Jews ?" Given they certainly were ; and if there were 
times when though they asked they did not receive them, 
it was because they asked them not that they might be 
delivered from their unbelief, but in order the more to 
confirm their wickedness. 

Chap. iii. 1, 2. And there was a man of the Pharisees, 
named Nicodemus. The same came to Jesus by night. 
This man appears also in the middle of the Gospel, 
c 7, 51. making defence for Christ; for he saith, Our law judgeth no 

Infirmity of Nicodemus» 201 

man* before it hear him; and the Jews in anger replied to John 
him, Search and look, for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet. l * 1 ' 2 ' 
Again after the Crucifixion he bestowed great care upon the 
Burial of the Lord's Body: There came also, saith thee. 19,39. 
Evangelist, Nicodemiis, which came to the Lord 1 by night, v hi<row t 
and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an ' ' 
hundred pound weight. And even now he was disposed 
towards Christ 2 , but not as he ought, nor with proper 2 ™ P l 
sentiments respecting Him, for he was as yet entangled in * 
Jewish infirmity. Wherefore he came by night, because he 
feared to do so by day. Yet not for this did the merciful 
God reject or rebuke him, or deprive him of His instruction, 
but even with much kindness conversed with him, and dis- 
closed to him very exalted doctrines, enigmatically indeed, 
but nevertheless He disclosed them. For far more deserving 
of pardon was he than those who acted thus through 
wickedness. They are entirely without excuse; but he, 
though he was liable to condemnation, yet was not so to 
an equal degree. " How 7 then does ' the Evangelist say 
nothing of the kind concerning him ?" He has said in 
another place, that of the rulers also many believed on Him, c.12,42. 
but because of the Jews 3 they did not confess (Him), lest 3 φαρι . 
they should be put out of the synagogue; but here he has™ 1 '™ 5 » 
implied the whole by mentioning his coming by night. What 
then saith Nicodemus ? 

Rabbi, we know that Thou art a Teacher come from God: 
for no man can do the miracles that Thou doest, except God 
be with him. 

[2.] Nicodemus yet lingers 4 below, has yet human thoughts 4 στρ4- 
concerning Him, and speaks of Him as of a Prophet, ^ eT£tl 
imagining nothing great from His miracles. We know, he 
says, that Thou art a Teacher come from God. "Why then 
comest thou by night and secretly, to Him that speaketh the 
things of God, to Him Who cometh from God ? Why con- 
versest thou not with Him openly ?" But Jesus said nothing 
like this to him, nor did He rebuke him; for, saith the 
Prophet, A bruised reed shall He not break, and smoking Is. 42, 
flax shall He not quench : He shall not strive nor cry: and q u ted 

a μ* δ νόμοι ημών κ. τ. λ. G. Τ. Π)?20. 2 ' 

202 • Christ doth all with authority. 

Homil. again He saitli Himself, / came not to condemn the world. 


λ, ' but to save the world. 

c. 1 2 47 

No man can do these miracles, except God be with him. 

Still here Nicodemus speaks like the heretics, in saying, 

1 ^ 6 P- that He hath a power working within Him 1 , and hath need of 

vlTab- the aid of others to do as He did. What then saith Chiist? 

Ti " / Observe His exceeding condescension. He refrained for 

a while from saying, " I need not the help of others, but do 

all things with power, for I am the Very Son of God, and 

have the same power as My Father," because this would 

have been too hard for His hearer; for I say now what 

I am always saying, that what Christ desired was, not so 

much for a while to reveal His own Dignity, as to persuade 

men that He did nothing contrary to His Father. And 

therefore in many places He appears in words confined by 

*μ*τρι- limits 2 , but in His actions He doth not so. For when He 

Matt. 8, worketh a miracle, He doth all with power, saying, / will, be 

^; . . thou clean. Tali t ha, arise. Stretch forth thy hand. Thy 

4i. [not' sins be forgiven thee. Peace, be still. Take up thy bed, 

quoted!] and go unto thine house. Thou foul spirit, I say unto thee, 

Mark 3, come out of him. Be it unto thee even as thou wilt. Jf any 

Matt. 9 one say {aught) unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need 

?; , , of him. This day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise. Ye 

Mark 4, J y . 

39. have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou 
Matt. 9, s ] ia i t noi fan . fat j sa y uni0 y 0u ^ ina t w ]io S oever is angry 

Mark 9, with his brother without a cause, shall be in danger of the 

25 r n ot 

verbally judgment. Come ye after Me, and I will make you fishers 
quoted.] f men> And every where we observe that His authority is 

Mat. lo, ^ J J 

28. great ; for in His actions no one could find fault with what 

ij a 3. was done. How was it possible ? Had His words not come 

Luke23,to pass, nor been accomplished as He commanded, any one 

Matt. 5, might have said that they were the commands of a madman ; 

Μ• ΐ Ί k ut since they did come to pass, the reality of their ac- 

17. ' complishment stopped men's mouths even against their will. 

But with regard to His discourses, they might often in their 

insolence charge Him with madness. Wherefore now in the 

case of Nicodemus, He utters nothing openly, but by dark 

sayings leads him up from his low thoughts, teaching him, 

that He has sufficient power in Himself to shew forth 

Nicodemus led to enquiry. 203 

miracles; for that His Father begat Him Perfect and All- John 

. Ill 3 

sufficient, and without any imperfection. 

But let us see how He effects this. Nicodemus saith, 
Rabbi, we know that Thou art a Teacher come from God, 
for no man can do the miracles that Thou doest, except 
God be with him. He thought he had said something great 
when he had spoken thus of Christ. What then saith 
Christ ? To shew that he had not yet set foot even on the 
threshold of right knowledge, nor stood in the porch, but 
was yet wandering somewhere without the palace, both he 
and whoever else should say the like, and that he had not so 
much as glanced towards true knowledge when he held such 
an opinion of the Only-Begotten, what saith He? 

Ver. 3. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be 
born again, he cannot see the Kingdom of God. 

That is, " Unless thou art born again and receivest the 
right doctrines, thou art wandering somewhere without, and 
art far from the Kingdom of heaven." But He does not 
speak so plainly as this. In order to make the saying less 
hard to bear, He does not plainly direct it at him, but speaks 
indefinitely, Except a man be born again: all but saying, 
" both thou, and any other, who may have such opinions 
concerning Me, art somewhere without the Kingdom." Had 
He not spoken from a desire to establish this, His answer 
would have been suitable to what had been said. Now the 
Jews, if these words had been addressed to them, would have 
derided Him and departed ; but Nicodemus shews here also 
his desire of instruction 1 . And this is why in many places * al. < of 
Christ speaks obscurely, because He wishes to rouse His 
hearers to ask questions, and to render them more attentive. 
For that which is said plainly often escapes the hearer, but 
what is obscure renders him more active and zealous. Now 
what He saith, is something like this : " If thou art not born 
again, if thou partakest not of the Spirit which is by the 
washing 2 of Regeneration, thou canst not have a rights or, 
opinion of Mejfor the opinion which thou hast is not T ^ V g r 5# 
spiritual, but carnal \" But He did not speak thus, as 
refusing to confound 3 one who had brought such as he had, 3 or, 
and who had spoken to the best of his ability; and He leads' stnke 

b ψυχίκή, ' belonging to the natural life,' opposed in N. T. to πνζυματικ-η. 

oq4 Perplexity of Nicodemus, 

HoMiL.him unsuspectedly up to greater knowledge, saying, Except 

ΜΓΊΓ α man ^ e ^ orn α $ αιη ' The wor( * a<jai?i\ in this place, 

(< again' some understand to mean " from heaven," others, " from the 

awT beginning." " It is impossible," saith Christ, " for one not 

so born to see the Kingdom of God ;" in this pointing to 

Himself, and declaring that there is another beside the 

natural sight, and that we have need of other eyes to behold 

Christ. Having heard this, 

Ver. 4. Nicodemus saith, Hoiv can a man be bom when he 
is old? 

Callest thou Him Master, sayest thou that He is come from 
God, and yet receivest thou not His words, but usest to thy 
9 Ht. Teacher a manner of speaking which expresses 2 much per- 
toc™' plexity? For the How, is the doubting question of those 
who have no strong belief, but who are yet of the earth. 
Therefore Sarah laughed when she had said, How? And 
many others having asked this question, have fallen from the 

[3.] And thus heretics continue in their heresy, because 

they frequently make this enquiry, saying, some of them, 

Ben. " How was He begotten ?" others, " How was He made 

trans- ^ eg | l γ» an( j SUD j ec ting that Infinite Essence to the weak- 

the ness of their own reasonings. Knowing which, we ought to 

avoid this unseasonable curiosity, for they who search into 

these matters shall, without learning the " How," fall away 

from the right faith. On this account Nicodemus, being in 

doubt, enquires the manner in which this can be, (for he 

understood that the words spoken referred to himself,) is 

3 ίλιγγια confused, and dizzy 3 , and in perplexity, having come as to 

a man, and hearing more than man's words, and such as no 

one ever yet had heard ; and for a while he rouses himself 

at the sublimity of the sayings, but yet is in darkness, and 

unstable, borne about in every direction, and continually 

falling away from the faith. And therefore he perseveres in 

proving the impossibility, so as to provoke Him to clearer 


Can a man, he saith, enter into his mother's womb, and 
be bom ? 

Seest thou how when one commits spiritual things to his 
own reasonings, he speaks ridiculously, seems to be trifling, 

Evils of curiosity. 205 

or to be drunken, when he pries into what has been said John 
beyond what seems good to God, and admits not the sub- IIL 4 •_ 
mission of faith ? Nicodemus heard of the spiritual Birth, 
yet perceived it not as spiritual, but dragged down the 
words to the lowness of the flesh, and made a doctrine so 
great and high depend upon physical consequence. And so 
he invents frivolities, and ridiculous difficulties. Wherefore 
Paul said, The natural 1 man receiveth not the things of the ι Cor. 2, 
Spirit. Yet even in this he preserved his reverence forj^ t » 
Christ, for he did not mock at what had been said, but, 
deeming it impossible, held his peace. There were two 
difficulties ; a Birth of this kind, and the Kingdom ; for 
neither had the name of the Kingdom ever been heard 
among the Jews, nor of a Birth like this. But he stops for 
a while at the first, which most astonished 2 his mind. 2 at. 

Let us then, knowing this, not enquire into things relating' shook ' 
to God by reasoning, nor bring heavenly matters under the 
rule of earthly consequences, nor subject them to the neces- 
sity of nature ; but let us think of all reverently, believing as 
the Scriptures have said ; for the busy and curious person 
gains nothing, and besides not finding what he seeks, shall 
suffer extreme punishment. Thou hast heard, that (the 
Father) begat (the Son): believe what thou hast heard; 
but do ask not, " How," and so take away the Generation ; 
to do so would be extreme folly. For if this man, because, on 
hearing of a Generation, not that ineffable Generation, but 
this which is by grace, he conceived nothing great concern- 
ing it, but human and earthly thoughts, w T as therefore dark- 
ened and in doubt, what punishment must they deserve, who 
are busy and curious about that most awful Generation, 
which transcends all reason and intellect ? For nothing 
causes such dizziness 3 as human reasoning, all whose words 3 a ] # 
are of earth, and which cannot endure to be enlightened from, < j*? a 1" 
above. Earthly reasonings are full of mud, and therefore need ness' 
we streams from heaven, that when the mud has settled, the 
clearer portion may rise and mingle with the heavenly les- 
sons ; and this comes to pass, when we present an honest 
soul and an upright life. For certainly it is possible for the 
intellect to be darkened, not only by unseasonable curiosity, 
but also by corrupt manners; wherefore Paul hath said to 

206 Riches like thorns. 

Homil. the Corinthians, / have fed you with milk, and not with 

^^ lY 'meat ; for hitherto ye were not able to bear it, neither yet 

3, 2. ' now are ye able, for ye are yet carnal; for whereas there is 

among you envying, and strife, and divisions, are ye not 

carnal? And also in the Epistle to the Hebrews, and in 

many places, one may see Paul asserting that this is the 

cause of evil doctrines ; for that the soul possessed by 

εμπαθή passions 1 cannot behold any thing great or noble, but as 

2 κήμης if darkened by a sort of film 2 suffers most grievous dim- 


Let us theu cleanse ourselves, let us kindle the light of 
knowledge, let us not sow among thorns. What the thorns 
are, ye know, though we tell you not ; for often ye have 
Mat.i3, heard Christ call the cares of this present life, and the 
deceitfulness of riches, by this name. And with reason. 
For as thorns are unfruitful, so are these things; as thorns 
tear those that handle them, so do these passions ; as thorns 
are readily caught by the fire, and hateful by the husband- 
man, so too are the things of the world ; as in thorns, wild 
beasts, and snakes, and scorpions hide themselves, so do they 
in the deceitfulness of riches. But let us kindle the fire of 
the Spirit, that we may consume the thorns, and drive away 
the beasts, and make the field clear for the husbandman ; 
and after cleansing it, let us w^ater it with the streams of the 
Spirit, let us plant the fruitful olive, that most kindly of 
trees, the evergreen, the light-giving, the nutritious, the 
wholesome. All these qualities hath almsgiving, which is, as 
3 lit. it were, a seal on 3 those that possess it. This plant not 
' w even death when it comes causes to wither, but ever it 
« vevpa stands enlightening the mind, feeding the sinews 4 of the 
soul, and rendering its strength mightier. And if we con- 
stantly possess it, we shall be able with confidence to behold 
the Bridegroom, and to enter into the bridal chamber ; to 
which may we all attain, through the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the 
Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, for ever and ever. 


John iii. 5. 

Verily I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and 
of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. 

Little children who go daily to their teachers receive 
their lessons, and repeat 1 them, and never cease from this 1 ^- 
kind of acquisition, but sometimes employ nights as well as ' ω<Τί 
days, and this they are compelled 2 to do for perishable and 2 al. [by- 
transient things. Now we do not ask of you who are come you -' 
to age such toil as you require of your children ; for not 
every day, but two days only in the week do we exhort you 
to hearken to our words, and only for a short portion of the 
day, that your task may be an easy one. For the same 
reason also we divide 3 to you in small portions what is3s«x|af~ 
written in Scripture, that you may be able easily to receive" ^ 6 " 
and lay them up in the storehouses of your minds, and take 
such pains to remember them all, as to be able exactly to 
repeat them to others yourselves, unless any one be sleepy, 
and dull, and more idle than a little child. 

Let us now attend to the sequel of what has been before 
said. When Nicodemus fell into error and wrested the words 
of Christ to the earthly birth, and said that it was not possible 
for an old man to be born again, observe how Christ in 
answer more clearly reveals the manner of the Birth, which 
even thus had difficulty for the carnal enquirer, yet still 
was able to raise the hearer from his low opinion of it. 
What saith He ? Verily I say unto thee, Except a man be 
bom of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the 
kingdom of God. What He declares is this: " Thou sayest 
that it is impossible, I say that it is so absolutely possible as 

208 Spiritual things objects of faith. be necessary, and that it is not even possible otherwise to 
xxv • be saved." For necessary things God hath made exceed- 
ingly easy also. The earthly birth which is according to the 
'lit flesh, is of the dust, and therefore heaven 1 is Availed against 
inhea- 8 ^ *° r wliat natn eartn in common wiln heaven? But that 
ve 5 n ' other, which is of the Spirit, easily unfolds to us the arches 2 
3 f. e. aS above. Hear, ye as many as are unilluminated 3 , shudder, 
unbap- g roan fearful is the threat, fearful the sentence 4 . " It is not 

tized σ 

< απόψα- (possible)," He saith, " for one not born of w r ater and the 

ais Spirit, to enter into the Kingdom of heaven ;" because he 

wears the raiment of death, of cursing, of perdition, he hath 

5 σΰμβο -TiOt yet received his Lord's token 5 , he is a stranger and an 

Xov alien, he hath not the royal watchword. Except, He saith, 

a man be bom of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter 

into the Kingdom of heaven. 

Yet even thus Nicodemus did not understand. Nothing is 
worse than to commit spiritual things to argument ; it was 
this that would not suffer him to suppose any thing sublime 
and great. This is why we are called faithful, that having 
e or, left the weakness of human reasonings below 6 , we may 
is below' ascenc ^ to tne ne ^B' nt of faith, and commit most of our bless- 
7 al.'this> m & s to her 7 teaching 3 ; and if Nicodemus had done this, the 
thing would not have been thought by him impossible. 
What then doth Christ? To lead him away from his grovelling 
imagination, and to shew that He speaks not of the earthly 
birth, He saith, Except a man be bom of water and of the 
Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of heaven. This 
He spoke, willing to draw him to the faith by the terror of 
the threat, and to persuade him not to deem tne thing im- 
possible, and taking pains to move him from his imagination 
as to the carnal birth. " I mean," saith He, "another Birth, 
Ο Nicodemus. Why drawest thou down the saying to 
earth? Why subjectest thou the matter to the necessity of 
nature ? This Birth is too high for such pangs as these ; it 
hath nothing in common with you ; it is indeed called * birth,' 
but in name only has it aught in common, in reality it is 
different. Remove thyself from that which is common and 
familiar; a different kind of childbirth bring I into the world; 
in another manner will I have men to be generated : I have 

a i.e. submit to tbe teaching of faith concerning them. 

The old Creation an object of faith. 209 

come to bring a new manner of Creation. I formed (man) John 
of earth and water ; but that which was formed was unprofit- IIL5, 
able, the vessel was wrenched awry 1 ; I will no more form'Sie- 
them of earth and water, but of water and of the Spirit. στρά<ρη 

And if any one asks, " How of water?" I also will ask, How 
of earth ? How was the clay separated into different parts ? 
How was the material uniform, (it was earth only,) and the 
things made from it, various and of every kind ? Whence 
are the bones, and sinews, and arteries, and veins ? Whence 
the membranes, and vessels of the organs, the cartilages, the 
tissues, the liver, spleen, and heart? whence the skin, and 
blood, and mucus, and bile ? whence so great powers, whence 
such varied colours ? These belong not to earth or clay. 
How does the earth, when it receives the seeds, cause them 
to shoot, while the flesh receiving them wastes them ? How 
does the earth nourish what is put into it, while the flesh is 
nourished by these things, and does not nourish them ? The 
earth, for instance, receives water, and makes it wine ; the 
flesh often receives wine, and changes it into water. Whence 
then is it clear that these things are formed of earth, when 
the nature of the earth is, according to what has been said b , 
contrary to that of the body? I cannot discover by reason- 
ing, I accept it by faith only. If then things which take 
place daily, and which we handle, require faith, much more 
do those which are more mysterious and more spiritual 
than these. For as the earth, which is soulless and motion- 
less, was empowered by the will of God, and such wonders 
were worked in it; much more when the Spirit is present 
with the water, do all those things so strange and transcend- 
ing reason, easily take place. 

[2.] Do not then disbelieve these things, because thou 
seest them not; thou dost not see thy soul, and yet thou 
believest that thou hast a soul, and that it is a something 
different besides 2 the body. 2 παρ ^ 

But Christ led him not in by this example, but by another; 
the instance of the soul, though it is incorporeal, He did not 
adduce for that reason, because His heaver's disposition was 
as yet too dull. He sets before him another, which has no 

a κατά. τά εφημένα. This seems to the passage thus: rb σώμα; τα (Ιρη- 
be the best reading, and is found in μένα λογισμέ μεν cvpe7u, κ.τ,Κ. 
Morel. Ben. and Mss. Savile reads 

210 Superiority of the new Creation, 

Homil. connection with the density of solid bodies, yet does not 

xxv • reach so high as to the incorporeal natures; that is, the 

movement of wind. He begins at first with water, which is 

lighter than earth, but denser than air. And as in the 

ύπβκε?- beginning earth was the subject material 1 , but the whole 2 

TO (TTOl- 

was of Him who moulded it; so also now water is the 

2 το παν subject material, and the whole 3 is of the grace of the Spirit: 
fabric β then, man became a living soul, now he becomes a quickening 
of the Spirit. But great is the difference between the two. Soul 

human r a ι ι -ι • • ι • • ^ • • 

body affords not life to any other than him in whom it is ; Spmt not 

3 i.e. th e on ]y ii ves? but affords life to others also. Thus, for instance, 
man. the Apostles even raised the dead. Then, man was formed 
7. en ' ' last, when the creation had been accomplished ; now, on the 

I Cor. contrary, the new man is formed before the new creation ; he 

15 45. 

is born first, and then the world is fashioned anew. And as 

in the beginning He formed him entire, so He creates him 

Gen. 2, en tire now. Then He said, Let us make for him a help, but 

LXX. here He said nothing of the kind. What other help shall he 

need, who has received the gift of the Spirit ? What further 

4 5 T€ ; need of assistance has he, who belongs to 4 the Body of 
τΓσώμα Christ? Then He made man in the image of God, now He 
6 ¥,νωσ€ hath united 5 him with God Himself; then He bade him rule 

over the fishes and beasts, now He hath exalted our first- 
fruits above the heavens ; then He gave him a garden for 

6 δίαπ-αν his abode 6 , now He hath opened heaven to us; then man 

7 ai<Lv was formed on the sixth day, when the world 7 was almost 

finished ; but now on the first, at the very beginning, at the 
time when light was made before. From all which it is plain, 

8 ai. that the things accomplished belonged to 8 another and a 
thefirst- better life, and to a condition 9 having no end. 

fruks of The fi rs t creation then, that of Adam, was from earth; the 
στάσ-εω* next, that of the woman, from his rib; the next, that of Abel, 
10 4<ρ- from seed ; yet we cannot arrive at the comprehension of 10 
ικςσθαι an y one f tnese) nor p rov e the circumstances by argument, 

II παχύ- though they are of a most earthly nature 11 ; how then shall 
™ Ta „ we be able to give account of the unseen 12 generation 13 by 
,3 76ΐ/ι/ή- Baptism, which is far more exalted than these, or to require 
"To- arguments b for that strange and marvellous Birth 14 ? Since 

b Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. l but if it speak concerning the unseen and far 
is impossible to reply to these questions, higher Generation ? or rather, how is it 
how shall it not be more impossible to not superfluous to demand reasons, &c.' 

Baptism a Generation. 211 

even Angels stand by while that Generation takes place, Johk 
but they could not tell the manner of that marvellous work- ΙΠ • 6 • 
ing, they stand by only, not performing any thing, but 
beholding what takes place. The Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost, worketh all. Let us then believe the declaration 
of God ; that is more trustworthy than actual seeing. The 
sight often is in error, it is impossible that God's Word 
should fail ; let us then believe it ; that which called the 
things that were not into existence may well be trusted 
when it speaks of their nature. What then says it ? That 
what is effected is a Generation. If any ask, " How," 
stop his mouth with the declaration of God 1 , which is the'ai.'of 
strongest and a plain proof. If any enquire, " Why is water 
included ?" let us also in return ask, " Wherefore was earth 
employed at the beginning in the creation of man ?" for that 
it was possible for God to make man without earth, is quite 
plain to every one. Be not then over curious. 

That the need of water is absolute and indispensable 2 , you 2 a„ a7 . 
may learn in this way. On one occasion, when the Spirit ? οίο/ία * 
had flown down before the water was applied, the Apostle αίτ-ητο* 
did not stay at this point, but, as though the water were 
necessary and not superfluous, observe what he says; Can Act3l0 
any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, 4 ?• 
which have received the Holy Ghost as well as we ? 

What then is the use of the water ? This too I will tell 
you hereafter, when I reveal to you the hidden mystery 3 . 3 j- as j t j g 
There are also other points of mystical teaching connected allowed 

r J ° me from 

with the matter, but for the present I will mention to you one above] 
out of many. What is this one? In Baptism are fulfilled Morei * 
the pledges of our covenant with God d ; burial and death, 
resurrection and life ; and these take place all at once. 
For when we immerse our heads in the water, the old man 
is buried as in a tomb below, and wholly sunk for ever e ; then 
as we raise them again, the new man rises in its stead \ 4 πάΧίν 
As it is easy for us to dip and to lift our heads again, so 
it is easy for God to bury the old man, and to shew forth the 
new. And this is done thrice, that you may learn that the 

d 6e7a τελείται 4u αύτφ σύμβολα, stant. 9. 9. 

SoinEuseb. Hist. Ecc. x.3. Baptism is e Morel. ' having been immersed 

paid to be σωτηρίου πάθους απόβλητα below, is hidden wholly once for all.' 
σύμβολα. See also Rufinua. de Con- 


212 Spiritual relationship. 

Homil. power of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost fulfiUeth 

L all this. To shew that what we say is no conjecture, hear 

Rom. 6, p au l saying, We ore buried with Him by Baptism into 

death: and again, Our old man is crucified with Him: and 

again, We have been planted together in the likeness of His 

death. And not only is Baptism called a " cross," but the 

" cross" is called " Baptism." With the Baptism, saith 

Mark Christ, that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized: and, 

Luke] 2 I have a Baptism to be baptized with (which ye know not) ; 

50 • for as we easily dip and lift our heads again, so He also 

easily died and rose again when He willed, or rather much 

more easily, though He tarried the three days for the 

dispensation of a certain mystery. 

[3.] Let us then who have been deemed worthy of such 
mysteries shew forth a life worthy of the Gift, that is, a most 

1 ττολι- excellent conversation 1 ; and do ye who have not yet been 
Τ6ια " deemed worthy, do all things that you may be so, that we may 

be one body, that we may be brethren. For as long as we are 
divided in this respect, though a man be father, or son, or 
brother, or aught else, he is no true kinsman, as being cut 
off from that relationship which is from above. What 
advantageth it to be bound by the ties of earthly family, if Ave 
are not joined by those of the spiritual? what profits nearness 
of kin on earth, if we are to be strangers in heaven? For the 
Catechumen is a stranger to the Faithful. He hath not the 
same Head, he hath not the same Father, he hath not the 
same City, nor Food, nor Raiment, nor Table, nor House, 
but all are different; all are on earth to the former, to the 
latter all are in heaven. One has Christ for his King; the 

2 al.' the other, sin and the devil; the food 2 of one is Christ, of the 
eilg t other, that meat which decays and perishes; one has 

worms' work for his raiment, the other the Lord of angels ; 
heaven is the city of one, earth of the other. Since then we 
have nothing in common, in what, tell me, shall we hold 

3 i. e . communion ? Did we remove the same pangs 3 , did we come 
ve forth from the same womb? This has nothing to do with that 


most perfect relationship. Let us then give diligence that we 

may become citizens of the city which is above. How long 

4 unep- do we tarry over the border 4 , when we ought to reclaim our 

opias ancient country? We risk no common danger; for if it 

Danger of delaying Baptism: Alms lent to Christ. 213 

should come to pass, (which God forbid!) that through the John 
sudden arrival of death we depart hence uninitiated 1 , though T IILo • 

. ι -i . 'i.e. un- 

we have ten thousand virtues, our portion will be no other baptized 
than hell, and the venomous worm, and fire unquenchable, 
and bonds indissoluble. But God grant that none of those 
who hear these words experience that punishment ! And 
this will be, if having been deemed worthy of the sacred 
mysteries, we build upon that foundation gold, and silver, 
and precious stones ; for so after our departure hence we 
shall be able to appear in that place rich, when w r e leave not 
our riches here, but transport them to inviolable treasuries 
by the hands of the poor, when we lend to Christ. Many 
are our debts there, not of money, but of sins ; let us then 
lend Him our riches, that we may receive pardon for our 
sins; for He it is that judgeth. Let us not neglect Him here 
when He hungereth, that He may ever feed us there. Here 
let us clothe Him, that He leave us not bare of the safety 
which is from Him. Tf here we give Him drink, we shall 
not with the rich man say, " Send Lazarus, that with the tip 
of his finger he may drop water on my broiling 2 tongue." 2 αποτη- 
If here we receive Him into our house, there He will prepare ya ; p ^ ' 
many mansions for us ; if we go to Him in prison, He too 
will free us from our bonds ; if we take Him in when He is 
a stranger, He will not suffer us to be strangers to the 
Kingdom of heaven, but will give us a portion in the City 
which is above ; if we visit Him when He is sick, He also 
will quickly deliver us from our infirmities. 

Let us then, as receiving great things though we give but 
little, still give the little that we may gain the great. While 
it is yet time, let us sow, that we may reap. When the 
winter overtakes us, when the sea is no longer navigable, we 
are no longer masters of this traffic. But when shall the 
winter be ? When that great and manifest Day is at hand. 
Then we shall cease to sail this great and broad sea, for such 
the present life resembles. Now is the time of sowing, then 
of harvest and of gain. If a man puts not in his seed at seed 
time and sows in harvest, besides that he effects nothing, he 
will be ridiculous. But if the present is seed time, it follows 
that it is a time not for gathering together, but for scattering; 
let us then scatter, that we may gather in, and not seek to 

214 Life a seed-time. 

Homil. gather in now, lest we lose our harvest ; for, as I said, this 
— — -season summons us to sow, and spend, and lay out, not to 
collect and lay by. Let us not then give up the opportunity, 
but let us put in abundant seed, and spare none of our 
stores, that we may receive them again with abundant 
recompense, through the grace and loving-kindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy 
Ghost be glory, world without end. Amen. 


John iii. 6. 

That which is born of the flesh is flesh: and that which is 
bom of the Spirit is spirit. 

Great mysteries are they, of which the Only- begotten 
Son of God has counted us worthy ; great, and such as we 
were not worthy of, but such as it was meet for Him to give. 
For if one reckon our desert, we were not only unworthy of 
the gift, but also liable to punishment and vengeance ; but 
He, because He looked not to this, not only delivered us from 
punishment, but freely gave us a life much more bright 1 l al.'pre- 
than the first, introduced us into another world, made us 
another creature; If any man be in Clirist, saith Paul, he is 2 Cor. 5, 
a new creature. What kind of new creature? Hear Christ 
Himself declare; Except a man be bom of water and of the 
Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. Paradise 
was entrusted to us, and we were shewn unworthy to dwell 
even there, yet He hath exalted us to heaven. In the first 
things we were found unfaithful, and He hath committed to 
us greater ; we could not refrain from a single tree, and He 
hath provided for us the delights 2 above; we kept not our 2 Tp^V 
place in Paradise, and He hath opened to us the doors of 
heaven. Well said Paul, Ο the depth of the riches, both of 'Rom. 
the wisdom and knowledge of God I There is no longer ' ' 
a mother, or pangs, or sleep, or coming together, and em- 
bracings of bodies ; henceforth all the fabric 3 of our nature 3 κατα- 

216 The Birth by water : framed above, of the Holy Ghost and water. The water 

XXV1, is employed, being made the Birth to him who is born; what 
the womb is to the embryo, the water is to the believer; for 
in the water he is fashioned and formed. At first it was said, 

Gen. 1, Let the waters bring forth the creeping things that have life; 

LXX. but fr° m tne ti me that the Lord entered the streams of 
Jordan, the water no longer gives forth the creeping thing 
that hath life, but reasonable and Spirit-bearing souls ; and 

Ps.i8,6. w hat has been said of the sun, that he is as a bridegroom 
coming out of his chamber, we may now rather say of the 
faithful, for they send forth rays far brighter than he. That 
which is fashioned in the womb requires time, not so that in 
water, but all is done in a single moment. Here our life is 
perishable, and takes its origin from the decay of other 
bodies ; that which is to be born comes slowly, (for such is 
the nature of bodies, they acquire perfection by time,) but it 
is not so with spiritual things. And why? Because the 
things made are formed perfect from the beginning. 

When Nicodemus still hearing these things was troubled, 
see how Christ partly opens to him the secret of this mystery, 
and makes that clear which was for a while obscure to him. 
That which is born, saith He, of the flesh is flesh; and that 
which is born of the Spirit is spirit. He leads him away 
from all the things of sense, and suffers him not vainly to 
pry into the mysteries revealed with his fleshly eyes ; " We 
speak not," saith He, " of flesh, but of Spirit, Ο Nicodemus," 
(by this word He directs him heavenward for a while,) " seek 
then nothing relating to things of sense; never can the Spirit 
appear to those eyes, think not that the Spirit bringeth forth 
the flesh." " How then," perhaps one may ask, " was the 
Flesh of the Lord brought forth ?" Not of the Spirit only, 

Gal. 4 Dllt °f flesh ; as Paul declares, when he says, Made of a 

4 • ivoman, made under the Law; for the Spirit fashioned Him 

not indeed out of nothing, (for what need was there then of 
a womb ?) but from the flesh of the Virgin. How, I cannot 
explain unto you ; yet it was done, that no one might 
suppose that what was born is alien to our nature. For if 
even when this has taken place there arc some who dis- 
believe in such a birth, into what impiety would they not 
have fallen had He not partaken of the Virgin's flesh. 

and of the Spirit. 2 1 7 

That which is born 1 of the Spirit is spirit. Seest thou John 
the dignity of the Spirit ? It appears performing the work of — - -' 
God ; for above he said of some, that they were begotten o/'gotten' 
God, here He saith, that the Spirit begetteth them. c * l > 13, 

That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. His meaning 
is of this kind; " He that is born 2 of the Spirit is spiritual." 2 or, <be- 
For the Birth which He speaks of here is not that according gotten 
to essence 3 , but according to honour and grace. ' Now if the 3 ούσίαν 
Son is so born also, in what shall He be superior to men so 
born ? And how is He, On^y-begotten ? For I too am born 
of God, though not of His Essence, and if He also is not of 
His Essence, how in this respect does He differ from us? 
Nay, He will then be found to be inferior to the Spirit; for 
birth of this kind is by the grace of the Spirit. Needs He 
then the help of the Spirit that He may continue a Son ? 
And in what do these differ from Jewish doctrines ? 

Christ then having said, He that is born of the Spirit is 
spirit, when He saw him again confused, leads His discourse 
to an example from sense, saying, 

Ver. 7, 8. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be 
born again 4 . The wind bloweth where it listeth. 4 ? r > 

' from 

For by saying, Marvel not, He indicates the confusion of above' 
his soul, and leads him to something lighter than body. He 
had already led him away from fleshly things, by saying, 
That which is born of the Spirit is spirit; but when 
Nicodemus knew not what that which is born of the Spirit 
is spirit meant, He next carries him to another figure, not 
bringing him to the density of bodies, nor yet speaking of 
things purely incorporeal, (for had he heard he could not 
have received this,) but having found a something between 
what is and what is not body, namely, the motion of the 
wind, He brings him to that next. And He saith of it, 

Thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence 
it cometh, and whither it goeth. 

Though He saith, it bloweth where it listeth, He saith it 
not as if the wind had any power of choice, but declaring 
that its natural motion cannot be hindered, and is with 
power. For Scripture knoweth how to speak thus of things 
without life, as when it saith, The creature teas made subject^ ™- 8 > 
to vanity, not. willingly. The expression therefore, bloiueth 

218 The Spirit compared to wind. 

Homil. where it listeth, is that of one who would shew that it cannot 

XXVI, be restrained, that it is spread abroad every where, and that 

none can hinder its passing hither and thither, but that it 

goes abroad with great might, and none is able to turn aside 

its violence. 

1 <ρων))ν [2.] And thou hearest its voice 1 , (that is, its rustle, its 

noise,) hut canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it 
goeth ; so is every one that is born of the Spirit. 

Here is the conclusion of the whole matter. " If," saith 
He, " thou knowest not how to explain the motion nor the 

2 or, path of this wind 2 which thou perceivest by hearing and 
spin touch, why art thou over-anxious about the working of the 

Divine Spirit, when thou understandest not that of the wind, 
though thou hearest its voice ?" The expression, hloweth 
where it listeth, is also used to establish the power of the 
Comforter ; for if none can hold the wind, but it moveth 
where it listeth, much less will the laws of nature, or limits 
of bodily generation, or any thing of the like kind, be able to 
restrain the operations of the Spirit. 

That the expression, thou hearest its voice, is used re- 
specting the wind, is clear from this circumstance ; He 
would not, when conversing with an unbeliever and one 
unacquainted with the operation of the Spirit, have said, 
Thou hearest its voice. As then the wind is not visible, 
although it utters a sound, so neither is the birth of that 
which is spiritual visible to our bodily eyes ; yet the wind 
is a body, although a very subtle one ; for whatever is the 
object of sense is body. If then you do not complain 
because you cannot see this body, and do not on this 
account disbelieve, why do you, when you hear of the Spirit, 
hesitate, and demand such exact accounts, although you act 

not so in the case of a body ? What then doth Nicodemus ? 

still he continues in his low Jewish opinion, and that too 

when so clear an example has been mentioned to him. 

Wherefore when he again says doubtingly, 

Ver. 9, 10. How can these things be? Christ now speaks 

to him more chidingly ; Art thou a master in Israel, and 

knowest not these things ? 

Observe how He no where accuses the man of wickedness, 

but only of weakness and simplicity. " And what," one may 

Types of the new Birth. 219 

ask, " has this birth in common with Jewish matters ?" Tell John 
me rather what has it that is not in common with them ? — ' — - 
For the first-created man, and the woman formed from his 
side, and the barren women, and the things accomplished by 
water, I mean what relates to the fountain on which Elisha 
made the iron tool to swim, to the Red Sea which the Jews 
passed over, to the pool which the Angel troubled, to Naaman 
the Syrian who was cleansed in Jordan, all these proclaimed 
beforehand, as by a figure, the Birth and the purification 
which were to be. And the words of the Prophet allude to 
the manner of this Birth, as, It shall be announced unto the Vs. 12, 

31 32 

Lord a generation which cometh, and they shall announce lxx*. 

His righteousness unto a people that shall he born, whom the 

Lord hath made ; and, Thy youth shall be renewed as an Ps. 102, 

. 5 LXX 

eagle's ; and, Shine, Ο Jerusalem ; behold, Thy King cometh I is.60 1. 

and, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven. Isaac Wy 

also was a type of this Birth. For tell me, Nicodemus, how see 

was he born ? was it according to the law of nature ? By no ^ ech • 9 ' 

means; the mode of his generation was midway between thisPs.31,1. 

of which we speak and the natural ; the natural, because he 

was begotten by cohabitation ; the other, because he was 

begotten not of blood 1 , (but by the will of God.) I shall * lit. 4 of 

shew that these figures 2 proclaimed beforehand not only this as ° in c ' # 

birth, but also That from the Virgin. For, because no oneJ> ^ 

would easily have believed that a virgin could bear a child, 

barren women first did so, then such as were not only barren, 

but aged also. That a woman should be made from a rib was 

indeed far more wonderful than that the barren should 

conceive; but because that was of early and old time, 

another figure, new and fresh, was given, that of the barren 

women, to prepare the way for belief in the Virgin's travail. 

To remind him then of these things, Jesus said, Art thou a 

master in Israel, and knowest not these things ? 

Ver. 11. We speak that We do know, and testify that We 
have seen, and none receiveth 3 Our witness. 3 ύ\αμ- 

This He added, making His words credible by another ^T' 
argument, and condescending in His speech to the other's 

[3.] And what is this that He saith, We speak that We do 
know, and testify that We have seen ? Because with us the 

220 Gentleness of Christ, 

Homil. sight is the most trustworthy of the senses, and if we desire 
to gain a person's belief, we speak thus, that we saw it with our 
eyes, not that we know it by hearsay; Christ therefore speaks 
to him rather after the manner of men, gaining belief for His 
words by this means also. And that this is so, and that He 
desires to establish nothing else, and refers not to sensual 
vision, is clear from this ; after saying, That which is bom of 
the flesh is flesh ; and that which is born of the Spirit is 
spirit, He adds, We speak that we do know, and testify that 

1 or < be- we have seen. Now this (of the Spirit) was not yet born l ; 

gotten jjow then saith He, what we have seen f Is it not plain that 
He speaks of a knowledge not otherwise than exact? 

And none receiveth our witness. The expression we know, 
He uses then either concerning Himself and His Father, or 
concerning Himself alone ; and no man receiveth, is the 
expression not of one displeased, but of one who declares a 
fact : for He said not, " What can be more senseless than 
you who receive not what is so exactly declared by us ?" but 
displaying all gentleness, both by His works and His words, 
He uttered nothing like this ; mildly and kindly He foretold 
what should come to pass, so guiding us too to all gentleness, 
and teaching us when we converse with any and do not 
persuade them, not to be annoyed or made savage ; for it is 
impossible for one out of temper to accomplish his purpose, 
he must make him to whom he speaks still more incredulous. 
Wherefore we must abstain from anger, and make our words 
in every way credible by avoiding not only wrath, but also 

2 lit. loud speaking 2 ; for loud speaking is the fuel of passion. 

_ shout- £ (et ug t ^ en k' n( j 3 t ^ e ^ 0Γ8Θ? t jj at we ma y subdue t ne 

3 lit. 'tie rider; let us clip the wings of our wrath, so the evil shall no 
f» " more rise to a height. A keen passion is anger, keen, and 

skilful to steal our souls ; therefore we must on all sides 
guard against its entrance. It were strange that we should 
be able to tame wild beasts, and yet should neglect our own 
savage minds. Wrath is a fierce fire, it devours all things ; 
it harms the body, it destroys ihe soul, it makes a man 
Ί^"' deformed 4 and ugly to look upon ; and if it were possible for 
in g ' an angry person to be visible to himself at the time of his 
anger, he would need no other admonition, for nothing is 
more displeasing than an angry countenance. Anger is a 

Evils of anger and clamour. 221 

kind of drunkenness, or rather it is more grievous than John 
drunkenness, and more pitiable than (possession of) a daemon. 11 : 
But if we be careful not to be loud in speech 1 , we shall find ' κράζ™ 
this the best path to sobriety of conduct 2 . And therefore 2 <ρ ιλο - 
Paul would take away clamour as well as anger, when he™^ 1 "" 
says, Let all anger and clamour be put aivay from you. Eph. 4, 
Let us then obey this teacher of all wisdom, and when we 31, 
are wroth with our servants, let us consider our own tres- 
passes, and be ashamed at their forbearance. For when thou 
art insolent, and thy servant bears thy insults in silence, 
when thou actest unseemly, he like a wise man, take this 
instead of any other warning. Though he is thy servant, he 
is still a man, has an immortal soul, and has been honoured 
with the same gifts as thee by your common Lord. And if 
he who is our equal in more important and more spiritual 
things, on account of some poor and trifling human supe- 
riority so meekly bears our injuries, what pardon can we 
deserve, what excuse can we make, who cannot, or rather 
will not, be as wise through fear of Grod, as he is through 
fear of us? Considering then all these things, and calling to 
mind our own transgressions, and the common nature of 
man, let us be careful at all times to speak gently, that 
being humble in heart we may find rest for our souls, both 
that which now is, and that which is to come ; which may 
we all attain, by the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost 
be glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 


John iii. 12, 13. 

If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how 
shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things ? And no 
man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down 
from heaven, even the Son of Man Which is in heaven. 

What I have often said I shall now repeat, and shall not 
cease to say. What is that? It is that Jesus, when about 
to touch on sublime doctrines, often contains Himself by- 
reason of the infirmity of His hearers, and dwells not for a 
continuance on subjects worthy of His greatness, but rather 
on those which partake of condescension. For the sublime 
and great, being but once uttered, is sufficient to establish 
that character, as far as we are able to hear it ; but unless 
J al. more lowly sayings, and such as are nigh to 1 the compre- 
touc hension of the hearers, were continually uttered, the more 
sublime would not readily take hold on a grovelling listener. 
And therefore of the sayings of Christ more are lowly than 
sublime. But yet that this again may not work another 
mischief, by detaining the disciple here below, He does not 
merely set before men His inferior sayings without first 
telling them why He utters them ; as, in fact, He has done 
in this place. For when He had said what He did concern- 
ing Baptism, and the Generation by grace which takes 
*κα.β£ναι place on earth, being desirous to admit 2 them to that His 
own mysterious and incomprehensible Generation, He holds 
it in suspense for a while, and admits them not, and then 
tells them His reason for not admitting them. What is that? 
It is, the dulness and infirmity of His hearers. And referring 

The teaching of Christ received by faith. 223 

to this He added the words, If I have told you earthly John 
things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you ™{ 3 
of heavenly things? so that wherever He saith any thing 
ordinary and humble, we must attribute this to the infirmity 
of His audience. 

The expression earthly things, some say is here used of 
the wind; that is, " If I have given you an example from 
earthly things, and ye did not even so believe, how shall ye 
be able to learn sublimer things ?" And wonder not if He 
here call Baptism an earthly thing, for He calls it so, either 
from its being performed on earth, or so naming it in com- 
parison with that His own most awful Generation. For 
though this Generation of ours is heavenly, yet compared 
with that true Generation which is from the Substance of 
the Father, it is earthly. 

He does not say, " Ye have not understood," but, Ye have 
not believed; for when a man is ill disposed towards those 
things which it is possible to apprehend by the intellect, and 
will not readily receive them, he may justly be charged with 
want of understanding; but when he receives not things 
which cannot be apprehended by reasoning, but only by 
faith, the charge against him is no longer want of under- 
standing, but unbelief. Leading him therefore away from 
enquiring by reasonings into what had been said, He touches 
him more severely by charging him with want of faith. If 
now we must receive our own Generation 1 by faith, what do ι ,•. e . the 
they deserve who are busy with their reasonings about That 5^, 
of the Only-Begotten ? 

But perhaps some may ask, " And if the hearers were 
not to believe these sayings, wherefore were they uttered?" 
Because though they believed not, those who came after 
would believe and profit by them. Touching him therefore 
very severely, Christ goes on to shew that He knoweth not 
these things only, but others also, far more and greater than 
these. And this He declared by what follows, when He 
said, And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that 
came down from heaven, even the Son of Man Which is in 

"And what manner of sequel is this a ?" asks one. The very 
* i. e. how is this connected with what has gone before ? 

224 Connection of Baptism with the Cross. 

Homil. closest, and entirely in unison with what has gone before. For 

V"V""\ r TT . 

since Nicodemus had said, We know that TJiou art a teacher 

come from God, on this very point He sets him right, all but 
saying, " Think Me not a teacher in such manner as were 
the many of the prophets who were of earth, for I am come 
from heaven (but) now. None of the prophets hath ascended 
up thither, but I dwell there. 1 ' Seest thou how even that 
which appears very exalted is utterly unworthy of His 
greatness ? For not in heaven only is He, but every where, 
and He fills all things ; but yet He speaks according to the 
infirmity of His hearer, desiring to lead him up little by 
little. And in this place He called not the flesh Son of Man, 
but He now named, so to speak, His entire Self from the 
inferior substance; indeed this is His wont, to call His 
1 rb nay whole Person l often from His Divinity, and often from His 

Ver. 14. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wil- 
derness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up. 

This again seems to depend upon what has gone before, 
and this too has a very close connection with it. For after 
having spoken of the very great benefaction that had come 
to man by Baptism, He proceeds to mention another bene- 
faction, which was the cause of this, and not inferior to it ; 
namely, that by the Cross. As also Paul arguing with the 
Corinthians sets down these benefits together, when he says, 
Was Paul crucified for you ? or were ye baptized into the 
name of Paul f for these two things most of all declare His 
unspeakable love, that He both suffered for His enemies, and 
that having died for His enemies, He freely gave to them by 
Baptism entire remission of their sins. 

[2.] But wherefore did He not say plainly, " I am about 
to be crucified," instead of referring His hearers to the 
ancient type ? First, that you may learn that old things are 
akin to new, and that the one are not alien to the other; next, 
that you may know that He came not unwillingly to His 
Passion ; and again, besides these reasons, that you may 
2 i.e. of learn that no harm arises to Him from the Fact 2 , and that to 
ΐιοιι as " many there springs from it salvation. For, that none may 
say, " And how is it possible that they who believe on one 
crucified should be saved, when he himself is holden of 

Christ compared to the brazen serpent. -2*25 

leath ?" He leads us to the ancient story. Now if the Jews, Johv 


15, 1G. 

by looking to the brazen image of a serpent, escaped death, 

much rather will they who believe on the Crucified, with 
good reason enjoy a far greater benefit. For this 1 takes' i.e. 
place, not through the weakness of the Crucified, or because c ifj x jon~ 
the Jews are stronger than He, but because God loved 
the world, therefore is His living Temple fastened to the 

Ver. 15. That whosoever believe th in Him should not 
perish, hut have eternal life. 

Seest thou the cause of the Crucifixion, and the salvation 
which is by it? Seest thou the relationship of the type to 
the reality ? there the Jews escaped death, but the temporal, 
here believers the eternal ; there the hanging serpent healed 
the bites of serpents, here the Crucified Jesus cured the 
wounds inflicted by the spiritual 2 dragon; there he who- νοητού 
looked with his bodily eyes was healed, here he who 
beholds with the eyes of his understanding puts off all his 
sins ; there that which hung was brass fashioned into the 
likeness of a serpent, here it was the Lord's Body, builded 
by the Spirit; there a serpent bit and a serpent healed, here 
death destroyed and a Death saved. But the snake 
which destroyed had venom, that which saved was free from 
venom ; and so again was it here, for the death which slew 
us had sin with it, as the serpent had venom ; but the Lord's 
Death was free from all sin, as the brazen serpent from 
venom. For, saith Peter, He did no sin, neither was quite l Pet. 2, 


found in His mouth. And this is what Paul also declares, And c ^ 2 
having spoiled principalities and powers, He made a shew 16 • 
of them openly, triumphing over them in it. For as some 
noble champion by lifting on high and dashing down his 
antagonist, renders his victory more glorious, so Christ, in 
the sight of all the world, cast down the adverse powers, and 
having healed those who were smitten in the wilderness, 
delivered them from all venomous beasts 3 that vexed them, » θηρίωρ 
by being hung upon the Cross. Yet He did not say " must: 28 ct 4 % 
hang", but, must be lifted up; for He used this which seemed 
the milder term, on account of His hearer, and because it was 
proper to the type 4 . * 4yybs 

Ver. 16. God, He saith, so loved the world, that He gave 




•226 Marvellous love of God towards man, 

HoMiL. His Only-bego1ten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him 
XXVII. s j wu i^ no t perish, but have everlasting life. 

What He saith, is of this kind: Marvel not that I am to 
be lifted up that ye may be saved, for this seemeth good to 
the Father, and He bath so loved you as to give His Son for 
slaves, and ungrateful slaves. Yet a man would not do this 
even for a friend, nor readily even for a righteous man ; as 
I?om. 5, p au l has declared when he said, Scarcely for a righteous man 
will one die. Now he spoke at greater length, as speaking 
to believers, but here Christ speaks concisely, because His 
discourse was directed to Nicodemus, but still in a more 
significant manner, for each word has much significance. 
For bv the expression, so loved, and that other, God the 
world, He shews the great strength of His love. Large and 
infinite was the interval between the two. He, the Immortal, 
Who is without beginning, the Infinite Majesty, they but 
dust and ashes, full of ten thousand sins, who, ungrateful, 
luave at all times offended Him ; and these He loved. Again, 
the words which He added after these are alike significant, 
when He saith, that He gave His Only-begotten Son, not a 
servant, not an Angel, not an Archangel. And yet no one 
would shew such anxiety for his own child, as God did for 
His ungrateful servants. 

His Passion then He sets before him not very openly, but 

rather darkly; but the advantage of the Passion He adds in 

1 ai. a clearer manner 1 , saying, that every one that believeth in 

and * Him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For when 

openly' He had said, must be lifted up, and alluded to death, lest the 

hearer should be made downcast by these words, forming 

some mere human opinions concerning Him, and supposing 

- aw- that His death was a ceasing to be 2 , observe how He sets 

Trappy ^. g yjgj^ \yy saying, that He that was given was The Sou of 

God,'dud the cause of life, of everlasting life. He who procured 

life for others by death, would not Himself be continually in 

death; for if they who believe on the Crucified perish not, 

much less doth He perish Who is Crucified. He Who 

taketh away the destitution of others, much more is He free 

from it; He Who giveth life to others, much more to Himself 

dtfth He well forth life. Seest thou that everywhere there is 

need of faith ? For He calls the Cross the fountain of life ; 

Man's ingratitude. 227 

which reason cannot easily allow, as the heathens now by John 
their mocking testify. But faith which goes beyond the — '— '- 
weakness of reasoning, may easily receive and retain it. And 
whence did God so love the world} From no other source 
but only from His goodness. 

[3.] Let us now be abashed at His love, let us be ashamed 
at the excess of His loving- kindness, since He for our sakes 
spared not His Only-begotten Son, yet we spare our wealth 
to our own injury; He for us gave His Own Son, but we for 
Him do not so much as despise money, nor even for our- 
selves. And how can these things deserve pardon ? If we 
see a man submitting to sufferings and death for us, we set 
him before all others, count him among our chief friends, 
place in his hands all that is ours, and deem it rather his 
than ours, and even so do not think that we give him the 
return that he deserves. But towards Christ we do not 
preserve even this degree of right feeling. He laid down 
His life for us, and poured forth His precious Blood for our 
sakes, who were neither well-disposed nor good, while we do 
not pour out even our money for our own sakes, and neglect 
Him Who died for us, when He is naked and a stranger; 
and who shall deliver us from the punishment that is to 
come ? For suppose that it were not God that punishes, but 
that we punished ourselves ; should we not give our vote 
against ourselves ? should we not sentence ourselves to the 
very fire of hell, for allowing Him Who laid down His life 
for us, to pine with hunger? But why speak I of money? 
had we ten thousand lives, ought we not to lay them all 
down for Him ? and yet not even so could we do what His 
benefits deserve. For he who confers a benefit in the first 
instance, gives evident proof of his kindness, but he who has 
received one, whatever return he makes, he repays as a debt, 
and does not bestow as a favour ; especially when he who 
did the first good turn was benefiting his enemies. And he 
who repays both bestows his gifts on a benefactor, and 
himself reaps their fruit besides '. But not even this induces x *<&«' 
us; more foolish are we than any, putting golden necklaces 
about our servants and mules and horses, and neglecting our 
Lord who goes about naked, and passes from door to door, 
and ever stands at our outlets, and stretches forth His Hands 


•228 Folly of fine clothing. 

Homil. to us, but often regarding Him with unpitying eye; yet 

— these very things He unclergoeth for our sake. Gladly 1 

« sweet- doth He hunger that thou may est be fed ; naked doth He 

1 *ύπόθ€ 8° tnat ^ e ma y P rovlc ^ e f° r tnee tne materials 2 for a garment 
σιν of incorruption, yet not even so do ye give up any of your 
own. Some of your garments are molh-eaten, others are a 
load to your coffers, and a needless trouble to their possessors, 
while He Who gave you these and all else that you possess 
goeth naked. 

But perhaps you do not lay them by in your coffers, but 
wear them and make yourselves fine with them. And w r hat 
gain you by this? Is it that the street people may see 
you ? What then ? They will not admire thee who wearest 
such apparel, but the man who supplies garments to the 
needy ; so if you desire to be admired, by clothing others, 
you will the rather get infinite applause. Then too God as 
well as man shall praise thee; now none can praise, but all 
will grudge at thee, seeing thee with a body well arrayed, 
but having a neglected soul. So harlots have adornment, 
and their clothes are often more than usually expensive and 
splendid ; but the adornment of the soul is with those only 
wdio live in virtue. 

These things 1 say continually, and 1 will not cease to 
say them, not so much because I care for the poor, as because 
I care for your souls. For they will have some comfort, if 
not from you, yet from some other quarter; or even if they 
be not comforted, but perish by hunger, the harm to them 
will be no great matter. What did poverty and wasting by 
hunger injure Lazarus! But none can rescue you from 
3 al.' the hell, if you obtain not the help of the poor 3 ; we shall say to 
lgry you what was said to the rich man, who was continually 
broiling, yet gained no comfort. God grant that none ever 
hear those words, but that all may go into the bosom of 
Abraham; by the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


John iii. 17. 

For God sent not His Son Λ to condemn the world, but to t 1 els 

save the world*. rhv K ^ 

μον G. 


Many of the more careless sort of persons, vising the 2 '^" . 
lovingkindness of God to increase the magnitude of their κόσμος 
sins and the excess of their disregard, speak in this way, ^ α ^ ΤΟϋ 
" There is no hell, there is no future punishment, God for- 
gives us all sins." To stop whose mouths a wise man says, 
Say not, His mercy is great, He will be pacified for M^Ecclus. 
midtitude of my sins; for mercy and wrath come from Him, 5 > 6 - 
and His indignation resteth upon sinners: and again, ^4$Ecclus. 
His mercy is great, so is His correction also. " Where 16 > 12 • 
then," saith one, " is His lovingkindness, if we shall receive 
for our sins according to our deserts ?" That we shall indeed 
receive " according to our deserts," hear both the Prophet 
and Paul declare; one says, Thou shalt render to every man Ps 61 
according to his work ; the other, Who will render to every 12 • 
man according to his work. And yet we may see that even Rom. 2, 
so the lovingldndness of God is great; in dividing our 6, 
existence 3 into two periods 4 , the present life and that which 3 τ ά 
is to come, and making the first to be an appointment oi^i T JP a 
trial, the second a place 01 crowning, even in this He hath 
shewn great lovingkindness. 

" How and in what way ?" Because when we had com- 
mitted many and grievous sins, and had not ceased from 
youth to extreme old age to defile our souls with ten thou- 
sand evil deeds, for none of these sins did He demand from 
us a reckoning, but granted 11s remission of them by the 

230 Sin after Baptism: the two Advents of Clirist. 

Homil. washing 1 of Regeneration, and freely gave us Righteousness 

^X5I'and Sanctification. " What then," says one, "if a man 

ver* "who from his earliest age has been deemed worthy of the 

mysteries, after this commits ten thousand sins ?" Such an 

one deserves a severer punishment. For we do not pay the 

same penalties for the same sins, if we do wrong after 

2 ^υστα- Initiation 2 . And this Paul declares, saying, He that despised 

HebTo Moses* law died without mercy under two or three witnesses : 

28. 29. Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be 

thought ivorthy, who hath trodden tenderfoot the Son of God, 

and hath counted the blood of the Covenant an unholy thing, 

and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? Such an 

one then is worthy of severer punishment 3 . Yet even for 

him God hath opened doors of repentance, and hath granted 

him many means for the washing away his transgressions, if 

he will. Think then what proofs of lovingkindness these are; 

by Grace to remit sins, and not to punish him who after grace 

has sinned and deserves punishment, but to give him a season 

and appointed space for his clearing 3 . For all these reasons 

3 irpo0e<r- Christ said to Nicodemus, God sent not His Son to condemn 

*t ia \ the world, but to save the world, 

απολο- y 

yias For there are two Advents of Christ, that which has been, 

and that which is to be; and the two are not for the same 

purpose; the first came to pass not that He might search 

into our actions, but that He might remit; the object of the 

second will be not to remit, but to enquire. Therefore of the 

c 12, 17. first He saith, / came not to condemn the world, but to save 

3ΐ α &4β' ^ w world; but of the second, When the Son shall have come in 

4 7$ ^ the glory cf His Father 4 , He shall set the sheep on His right 

gTt. hand, and the goats on His left. And they shall go, these into 

life ; and these into eternal punishment. Yet His former 

coming was for judgment, according to the rule of justice. 

Why? Because before His coming there was a law of nature, 

and the prophets, and moreover a written Law, and doctrine, 

and ten thousand promises, and manifestations of signs, 

and chastisements, and vengeances, and many other things 

which might have set men right, and it followed that for all 

these things He would demand account ; but, because He is 

merciful, He for a while pardons instead of making enquiry. 

a Morel. ' he then will be more severely punished who has sinned after grace.' 

Unbelievers condemned already. 231 

For had He done so, all would at once have been hurried to John 
perdition. For all, it saith, have sinned, and come short IL ιμ ' 
of the glory of God. Seest thou the unspeakable excess of 23. 
His lovingkindness? 

Ver. 18. He that believeth on the Son 1 , is not judged* : but 1 e« αύ- 
he that believeth not, is judged already, ^orW- 

Yet if He came not to judge the world, how is he that^™^' 
believeth not judged already, if the time of "judgment" has 
not yet arrived ? He either means this, that the very fact of 
disbelieving without repentance is a punishment, (for to be 
without the light, contains in itself a very severe punishment,) 
or He announces beforehand what shall be. For as the 
murderer, though he be not as yet condemned by the decision 
of the judge, is still condemned by the nature of the thing, 
so is it with the unbeliever. Since Adam also died on the 
day that he ate of the tree ; for so ran the decree, In the day Gen. 2, 
that ye eat of the tree, ye shall die; yet he lived. How j χχ 
then died he ? By the decree ; by the very nature of the 
thing; for he who has rendered himself liable to punish- 
ment, is under its penalty, and if for a while not actually so, 
yet he is by the sentence. 

Lest any one on hearing, / came not to judge the world, 
should imagine that he might sin unpuuished, and should so 
become more careless, Christ stops 3 such disregard by 3 lit. 
saying, is judged already; and because the " judgment" g, a s 
was future and not yet at hand, He brings near the dread of 
vengeance, and describes the punishment as already come. 
And this is itself a mark of great loving-kindness, that He 
not only gives His Son, but even delays the time of judg- 
ment, that they who have sinned, and they who believe not, 
may have power to wash away their transgressions. 

He that believeth on the Son, is not judged. He that 
believeth, not he that is over-curious ; he that believeth, not 
the busy body. But what if his life be unclean, and his 
deeds evil ? It is of such as these especially that Paul 
declares, that they are not true believers at all : They profess Titus J, 
that they know God, but in ivorks they deny Him. But here 16 * 
Christ saith, that such an one is not judged in this one 
particular; for his works indeed he shall suffer a severer 

232 Darkness preferred to light. 

Homil. punishment, but having believed once, he is not chastised 

— '- for unbelief. 

[2.] Seest thou how having commenced His discourse 
with fearful things, He has concluded it again with the very 
same ? for at first He saith, Except a man be bom of Water 
and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God: 
and here again, He that believeth not on the Son, is judged 
already. " Think not," He saith, " that the delay advan- 
tageth at all the guilty, except he repent, for he that hath 
not believed, shall be in no belter state than those who are 
already condemned and under punishment." 

Ver. 19. And this is the condemnation, that light is come 
into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light. 

What He saith, is of this kind: "they are punished, 
because they would not leave the darkness, and hasten to 
the light." And hence He goes on to deprive them of all 
excuse for the future: " Had [ come," saith He, " to punish 
and to exact account of their deeds, they might have been 
able to say, ' this is why we started away from thee,' but now 
I am come to free them horn darkness, and to bring them to 
the light; who then could pity one who will not come from 
darkness unto light ? When they have no charge to bring 
against us, but have received ten thousand benefits, they 
start away from us." And this charge He hath brought in 

John 15, another place, where He saith, They hated Me without a 

ιΊ?.*22. cause: anc * again, If I had not come and spoken unto them, 
they had not had sin. For he who in the absence of light 
sitteth in darkness, may perchance receive pardon ; but one 
who after it is come abides by the darkness, produces against 
himself a certain proof of a perverse and contentious dis- 
position. Next, because His assertion would seem incredible 
to most, (for none would prefer darkness to light,) He adds 
the cause of such a feeling in them. What is that ? 

Ver. 19, 20. Because, He saith, their deeds were evil. 
For every one that doeth evil, hateth the light, neither cometh 
to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved. 

Yet He came not to judge or to enquire, but to pardon 
and remit transgressions, and to grant salvation through 
faith. How then fled they 3 ? Had He come and sat in His 
a Morel. * therefore they fled to their own hurt.' 

Wilful continuance in evil. 233 

Judgment seat, what He said might have seemed reasonable; John- 
for he that is conscious to himself of evil deeds, is wont to jg^o. 
fly his judge. But, on the contrary, they who have trans- ~~ 
gressed even run to one who is pardoning. If therefore He 
came to pardon, those would naturally most hasten to Him 
who were conscious to themselves of many transgressions ; 
and indeed this was the case with many, for even publicans 
and sinners sat at meat with Jesus. What then is this which 
He saith ? He saith this of those who choose always to 
remain in wickedness. He indeed came, that He might 
forgive men's former sins, and secure them against those to 
come; but since there are some so relaxed 1 , so powerless l Kt. 
for the toils of virtue, that they desire to abide by wicked- acci 
ness till their latest breath, and never cease from it, He 
speaks in this place reflecting 2 upon these. " For since," Ητισκώ 
He saith, " the profession of Christianity requires besides * των 
right doctrine a sound conversation also, they fear to come 
over to us, because they like not to shew forth a righteous 
life. Him that lives in heathenism none would blame, because 
with gods such as he has, and with rites as foul and ridiculous 
as his gods, he shews forth actions that suit his doctrines; 
but those who belong to the True God, if they live a careless 
life, have all men to call them to account, and to accuse 
them. So greatly do even its enemies admire the truth." 
Observe, then, how exactly He layeth down what He saith. 
His expression is, not " He that hath done evil cometh not 
to the light," but " he that doeth it always, he that desireth 
always to roll himself in the mire of sin, he will not subject 
himself to My laws, but chooses to stay without, and to 
commit fornication without fear, and to do all other forbidden 
things. For if he comes to Me, he becomes manifest as a 
thief in the light, and therefore he avoids My dominion." 
For instance, even now one may hear many heathen say, 
" that they cannot come to our faith, because they cannot 
leave off drunkenness and fornication, and the like dis- 

" Well," says some one, " but are there no Christians that 
do evil, and heathens that live discreetly 3 ?" That there are 3 eV^iAo- 
Christians who do evil, I know; but whether there are . σο ν ι " 
heathens who live a righteous life, I do not yet know 

234 No belief without a -pure intention. 

Homtl. assuredly. For do not speak to me of those who by nature 

■ are good and orderly, (this is not virtue,) but tell ine of the 

man who can endure the exceeding violence of his passions, 

ι φι\οσο• and (yet) be temperate 1 . You cannot. For if the promise 

<ρουντα o £ & Kingdom, and the threat of hell, and so much other 

2 al.'doc• provision 2 , can scarcely keep men in virtue, they will hardly 

nne go after virtue who believe in none of these things. Or, if 

any pretend to do so, they do it for show ; and he who doth 

so for show, will not, when he may escape observation, 

refrain from indulging his evil desires. However, that we 

may not seem to any to be contentious, let us grant that 

there are right livers among the heathen ; for neither doth 

this go against my argument, since I spoke of that which 

occurs in general, not of what happens rarely. 

And observe how in another way He deprives them of all 

excuse, when He saith that, tlie light came into the world. 

" Did they seek it themselves," He saith, " did they toil, 

did they labour to find it? The light itself came to them, 

and not even so would they hasten to it." And if there be 

some Christians who live wickedly, I would argue that He 

doth not say this of those who have been Christians from the 

beginning, and who have inherited true religion from their 

forefathers, (although even these for the most part have 

3 Trope- been shaken from 3 right doctrine by their evil life,) yet still 

Οησαΐ ^ think that He doth not now speak concerning these, but 

concerning the heathen and the Jews who ought to have 

« al. come 4 to the right faith. For He sheweth that no man 

tbem- 6 li y ing in error would choose to come to the truth unless he 

selves'^ before had planned 5 for himself a righteous life, and that 

ψ™ 7 ί\. none would remain in unbelief unless he had previously 

imypa' chosen always to be wicked. 


Do not tell me that a man is temperate, and does not rob; 
these things by themselves are not virtue. For what advan- 
tageth it, if a man has these things, and yet is the slave of 
vain -glory, and remains in his error, from fear of the 
company of his friends ? This is not right living. The 
slave of a reputation 6 is no less a sinner than the fornicator; 
nay, he worketh more and more grievous deeds than he. 
But tell me of any one that is free from all passions and 
from all iniquity, and who remains among the heathen. 

6 or 
< glory' 

Nathanael compared with Nicodemus. 235 

Thou canst not do so ; for even those among them who John• 


have boasted great things, and who have, as they say 1 , 19# 2 *o. 
mastered avarice or gluttony, have been, most of all men, r m, 
the slaves of reputation 3 , and this is the cause of all evils. ^^ 
Thus it is that the Jews also have continued Jews; forJ or » 
which cause Christ rebuked them and said, How can. ye C ?5*L•. 
believe, which receive honour from men? 

" And why, pray, did He not speak on these matters with 
Nathanael, to whom He testified of the truth, nor extend 
His discourse to any length ?" Because even he came not 
with such zeal as did Nicodemus. For Nicodemus made 
this his work 3 , and the season which others used for rest he3j. e . 

made a season for heaving: but Nathanael came at the hls ° ne 

. . great 

instance of another. Yet not even him did Jesus entirely object, 
pass by, for to him He saith, Hereafter ye shall see heaven c. i, 51. 
open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon 
the Son of Man. But to Nicodemus He spake not so, but 
conversed with him on the Dispensation and on eternal life, 
addressing each differently and suitably to the condition of 
his will. It was sufficient for Nathanael, because he knew 
the writings of the prophets, and was not so timid either, to 
hear only thus far; but because Nicodemus was as yet 
possessed by fear, Christ did not indeed clearly reveal to him 
the whole, but shook his mind so as to cast out fear by fear, 
declaring that he who did not believe was being judged 4 , *κρίν*~ 
and that unbelief proceeded from an evil conscience. For^ at 
since he made great account of honour from men, more than 
he did of the punishment; {Many, saith the Evangelist, ofc. 12,42. 
the rulers believed on Him, but because of the Jews they 
did not confess /) on this point Christ toucheth him, saying, 
" It cannot be that he who believeth not on Me disbelieveth 
for any other cause save that he liveth an unclean life." 
Farther on He saith, / am the Light, but here, the IJghlc.8, 12* 
came into the world; for at the beginning He spoke some- 
what darkly, but afterwards more clearly. Yet even so the 
man w r as kept back by regard for the opinion of the many, 
and therefore could not endure to speak boldly as he ought. 
Fly we then vain glory, for this is a passion more tyran- 
nical than any. Hence spring covetousness and love of 
wealth, hence hatred and wars and strifes; for he that 

236 How to obtain glory here and hereafter. 

Homil. desires more than he has, will never be able to stop, and he 

'■ desires from no other cause, but only from his love of vain 

glory. For tell me, why do so many encircle themselves with 
multitudes of eunuchs, and herds of slaves, and much show? 
Not because they need it, but that they may make those who 
meet them witnesses of this unseasonable display. If then 
we cut this off, we shall slay together with the head the 
other members also of wickedness, and there will be nothing 
to hinder us from dwelling on earth as though it were heaven. 
Nor doth this vice merely thrust its captives into wickedness, 
ι παρυ- but is even co-existent 1 with their virtues, and when it is 
4>ecTT7}/ce yj^jg en tirely to cast us out of these, it still cause th us 
much damage in the very exercise of them, forcing us to 
undergo the toil and depriving us of the fruit. For he that 
with an eye to this, fasts, and prays, and shews mercy, has 
his reward. What can be more pitiable than a loss like 
2 κώττ6- this, that it should befal man to bewail 2 himself uselessly and 
σθαι in vain, and to become an object of ridicule, and to lose the 
glory from above? Since he that aims at both can not 
obtain both. It is indeed possible to obtain both, when we 
desire not both, but one only, that from heaven; but he 
cannot obtain both, who longs for both. Wherefore if we 
wish to attain to glory, let us flee from human glory, and 
desire that only which cometh from God; so shall we obtain 
both the one and the other; which may we all enjoy, through 
the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by 
Whom and with Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, 
be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 


John iii. 22. 

And He came and His disciples into the land of Judaea, and 
there He tarried with them [and baptized). 

Nothing can be clearer or mightier Jthan the truth, just as 
nothing is weaker than falsehood, though it be shaded by ten 
thousand veils. For even so it is easily detected, it easily 
melts away. But truth stands forth unveiled for all that will 
behold her beauty ; she seeks no concealment, dreads no 
danger, trembles at no plots, desires not glory from the 
many, is accountable to no mortal thing, but stands above 
them all, is the object of ten thousand secret plots, yet 
remaineth unconquerable, and guards as in a sure fortress 
those who fly to her by her own exceeding might, who 
avoids secret lurking places, and setteth what is hers before 
all men. And this Christ conversing with Pilate declared, 
when He said, / ever taught openly, and in secret have c.i8,2&. 
I said nothing. As He spake then, so He acted now, for, 
After this, saith the Evangelist, He went forth and His 
disciples into the land of Judaea, and there He tarried with 
them, and baptized. At the feasts He went up to the 
City to set forth in the midst of them His doctrines, and the 
help of His miracles; but after the feasts were over, He often 
went to Jordan, because many ran together there. For He 
ever chose the most crowded places, not from any love of 
show or vain-glory, but because He desired to afford His 
help to the greatest number. 

'238 Why Jesus baptized not, and John baptized. 

Hohil. Yet the Evangelist farther on says, that Jesus baptized 
— — —not, but His disciples; whence it is clear that this is his 
meaning here also. And why did Jesus not baptize r\jFhe 
Baptist had said before, He shall baptize you with the Holy 
Spirit and with fire. Now He had not yet given the Spirit, 
and it was therefore with good cause that He did not baptize. 
But His disciples did so, because they desired to bring many 
to the saving doctrineT^ 

" And why, when the disciples of Jesus were baptizing, 
did not John cease to do so ? why did he continue to baptize, 
and that even until he was led to prison ? for to say, 

Ver. 23. John also was baptizing in jEnon ; and to 

Ver. 24. John was not yet cast into prison, was to 
declare that until that time he did not cease to baptize. 
But wherefore did he baptize until then ? For he would 
have made the disciples of Jesus seem more reverend had 
he desisted when they began. Why then did he baptize?" 
It was that he might not excite his disciples to even stronger 
rivalry, and make them more contentious still. For if, 
although he ten thousand times proclaimed Christ, yielded 
to Him the chief place, and made himself so much inferior, 
he still could not persuade them to run to Him ; he would, 
had he added this also, have made them yet more hostile. 
On this account it was that Christ began to preach more 
constantly when John was removed. And moreover, I think 
that the death of John was allowed, and that it happened 
* διάθε- very quickly, in order that the whole attention l of the 
multitude might be shifted to Christ, and that they might no 
longer be divided in their opinions concerning the two. 
rHesides, even while he was baptizing, he did not cease 
continually to exhort them, and to shew them the high 
and awful nature of Jesus. For he baptized them, and told 
them no other thing than that they must believe on Him 
that came after him? Now how would a man who acted 
thus by desisting have made the disciples of Christ seem 
worthy of reverence ? On the contrary, he would have been 
thought to do so through envy and passion. But to continue 
preaching gave a stronger proof; for he desired not glory for 
himself, but sent on his hearers to Christ, and wrought with 


The object of the baptism of John and of the disciples. 239 

Him not less, but rather much more than Christ's own dis- John 
ciples, because his testimony was unsuspected and he was by — — ' 
all men far more highly esteemed than they. And this the 
Evangelist implies, when he says, that " all Judaea and the Matt. 3, 
country round about Jordan went out to him, and were 
baptized." Even when the Disciples were baptizing, yet 
many did not cease to run to him. 

L jfany one should enquire, " And in what was the baptism 
of the disciples better than that of John ?" we will reply, 
if in nothing;" both were alike without the gift of the Spirit, 
both parties alike had one reason for baptizing, and that was, 
to lead the baptized to Christ. For in order that they might 
not be always running about to bring together those that 
should believe, as in Simon's case his brother did, and Philip 
to Nathanael, they instituted baptism, in order by it to bring 
all men to them easily, and to prepare a way for the faith which 
was to bej But that the baptisms had no superiority one 
over the other, is shewn by what follows. What is that? 

Ver. 25. There arose, saith the Evangelist, a question 
(between some) of John's disciples and the Jews about 

For the disciples of John being ever jealously disposed 
towards Christ's disciples and Christ Himself, when they saw 
them baptizing, began to reason with those who were baptized, 
as though their baptism was in a manner superior to that of 
Christ's disciples; and taking one of the baptized, they tried 
to persuade him of this ; but persuaded him not. Hear how 
the Evangelist has given us to understand that it was they 
who attacked him, not he who set on foot the question. He 
doth not say, that " a certain Jew questioned with them," but 
that there arose a questioning from the disciples of John 
with a certain Jew*, concerning purification. 

[2.] And observe, I pray you, the Evangelist's inofTensive- 
ness. He does not speak in the way of invective, but as far 
as he is able softens the charge, merely saying, that a question 
arose; whereas the sequel (which he has also set down in an 
inoffensive manner) makes it plain that what was said was 
said from jealousy. 

a Ιουδαίου rivas. This reading is of the Greek commentators: the plural 
found in the Complut. and in most in G. T., Vulgate, and Latin writers. 

240 Jealousy of John's disciples. 

Homtl. Ver. *26. They came, saith he, unto John, and said unto 

XXIX • him, Rabbi., He that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom 
thou barest witness, behold the same baptizeth, and all men 
come to Him. 

That is, " He whom thou didst baptize ;" for this they 
imply when they say, " to whom thou barest witness," as 
though they had said, " He whom thou didst point out as 
illustrious, and make remarkable, dares to do the same as 
thou." Yet they do not say, " He whom thou didst baptize" 
baptizeth; (for then they would have been obliged to make 
mention of the Voice that came down from heaven, and of 
the descent of the Spirit ;) but what say they ? He that was 
with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness; 
that is, " He who held the rank of a drsciple, who was 
nothing more than we, this man hath separated himself, and 

1 πάρα- baptizeth." For they thought to make him jealous 1 , not 
only by this, but by asserting that their own reputation was 
now diminishing. All, say they, come to Him. Whence it 
is evident, that they did not get the better of the Jew with 
whom they disputed; but they spoke these words because 
they were imperfect in disposition, and were not yet clear 
from a feeling of rivalry. What then doth John ? He did 
not rebuke them severely, fearing lest they should separate 
themselves again from him, and work some other mischief. 
What are his words b ? 

Ver. 27. A man can receive nothing, except it be given 
him from above. 

Marvel not, if he speak of Christ in a lowly strain ; it was 
impossible to teach all at once, and from the very beginning, 
men so preoccupied by passion. But he desires to strike 
them for a while with awe and terror, and to shew them that 
they warred against none other than God Himself, when they 
warred against Christ. And here he secretly establishes 

Acts 5, that truth, which Gamaliel asserted, Ye cannot overthrow it, 
lest haply ye be found even to fight against God. For to 
say, None can receive any thing, except it be given him 
from heaven, was nothing else than declaring that they 
were attempting impossibilities, and so would be found to 
fight against God. " Well, but did not Theudas and his 

b Morel. ' but he speaks in a manner reservedly.' 

The witness of John to Christ. 241 

followers ' receive' from themselves ?" They did, but they John 
straightway were scattered and destroyed, not so what 28 2 ^ 
belonged to Christ. 

By this also he gently consoles them, shewing them that it 
was not a man, but God, Who surpassed them in honour; 
and that therefore they must not wonder if what belonged to 
Him was glorious, and if all men came unto Him. ,• for that 
this was the nature of divine things, and that it was God 
Who brought them to pass, because no man ever yet 
had power to do such deeds. All human things are easily 
seen through, and rotten, and quickly melt away and perish ; 
these were not such, therefore not human. Observe too 
how when they said, to whom thou barest witness, he 
turned against themselves that which they thought they had 
put forward to lower Christ, and silences them after shewing 
that Jesus' glory came not from his testimony ; Λ man cannot, 
he saith, receive any thing of himself , except it be given him 
from heaven. "If ye hold at all to my testimony, and 
believe it to be true, know that by that testimony ye ought 
to prefer not me to Him. but Him to me. For what was it 
that I testified ? I call you yourselves to witness." 

Ver. 28. Ye yourselves bear me witness that I said, I am 
not the Christ, but that I am sent before Him. 

" If then ye hold to my testimony, (and ye even now 
produce it when ye say, to Whom thou barest witness,) He 
is not only not diminished by receiving my witness, but 
rather is increased by it; besides, the testimony was not 
mine, but God's. So that if I seem to you to be trustworthy, 
I said this among other things, that / am sent before Him:' 
Seest thou how he shews little by little that this Voice was 
divine ? For what he saith is of this kind : "lama servant, 
and say the words of Him that sent me, not flattering Christ 
through human favour, but serving His Father Who sent me. 
I gave not the testimony as a gift 1 , but what I was sent to 1 4χαρι- 
speak, I spake. Do not then because of this suppose that Ι σ '""' 
am great, for it shews that He is great. He is Lord of all 
things." This he goes on to declare, and says, 

Ver. 29. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom / hut the 
friend of the bridegroom which standeth and heareth him, 
rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. 

242 The friend of the Bridegroom. 

Homil. " But how doth he who said, whose shoe's latchet I am not 

— 'ivorthy to unloose, now call himself His friend?'''' It is not to 

exalt himself, nor boastingly, that he saith this, but from 
desire to shew that he too most forwards this, (i. e. the 
exaltation of Christ,) and that these things come to pass not 
against his will or to his grief, but that he desires and is 
eager for them, and that it was with a special view to them 
that all his actions had been performed ; and this he has 
very wisely shewn by the term friend. For on occasions 
like marriages, the servants of the bridegroom are not so 
glad and joyful as his friends. It was not from any desire to 
prove equality of honour, (away with the thought,) but only 
excess of pleasure, and moreover from condescension to 
their weakness that he calleth himself friend. For his service 
^al.'im-he before declared 1 by saying, i" am sent before Him. On 
pie this account, and because they thought that he was vexed at 
what had taken place, he called himself the friend of the 
Bridegroom, to shew that he was not only not vexed, but that 
he even greatly rejoiced. " For," saith he, " I came to 
effect this, and am so far from grieving at what has been 
done, that had it not come to pass, I should then have been 
greatly grieved. Had the bride not come to the Bridegroom, 
then I should have been grieved, but not now, since my task 
2 or, has been accomplished. When His servants 2 are advancing, 
we are they who gain the honour ; for that which we desired 
hath come to pass, and the bride knoweth the Bridegroom, 
and ye are witnesses of it when ye say, All men come unto 
Him. This I earnestly desired, I did all to this end ; and 
now when I see that it has come to pass, I am glad, and 
rejoice, and leap for joy." 

[3.] But what meaneth, He which standeth and heareth 
Him rejoice th greatly, because of the Bridegroom's voice ? 
He transfers the expression from the parable to the subject 
in hand ; for after mentioning the bridegroom and the bride, 
he shews how the bride is brought home, that is, by a Voice 
and teaching. For thus the Church is wedded to God ; and, therefore Paul saith, Faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by 
the Word of God. "At this Voice," saith he, "I rejoice." And 
not without a cause doth he put who standeth, but to shew that 
his office had ceased, that he had given over to Him the 

John a witness of the superiority of Christ. 243 

Bride, and must for the future stand and hear Him ; that John 
he was a servant and minister; that his good hope and — '-^ 
his joy was now accomplished. Therefore he saith, 

This my joy therefore is fulfilled. 

That is to say, " The work is finished which was to be 
done by me, for the future I can do nothing more." Then, 
to prevent increase of jealous feeling, not then only, but for the 
future, he tells them also of what should come to pass, 
confirming this too by what he had already said and done\ 
Therefore he continues, 

Ver. 30. He must increase, but I must decrease. 

That is to say, " What is mine has now come to a stand, 
and has henceforth ceased, but what is His increaseth ; for 
that which ye fear shall not be now only, but much more as 
it advances. And it is this especially which shews what is 
mine the brighter ; for this end I came, and I rejoice that 
what is His hath made so great progress, and that those 
things have come to pass on account of which all that I did 
was done." Seest thou how gently and very wisely he 
softened down their passion, quenched their envy, shewed 
them that they were undertaking impossibilities, a method 
by which wickedness is best checked ? For this purpose it 
was ordained, that these things should take place while 
John was yet alive and baptizing, in order that his disciples 
might have him as a witness of the superiority of Christ, and 
that if they should not believe 1 , they might be without 101 ', 


excuse. For John came not to say these words of his own 
accord, nor in answer to other enquirers, but they asked the 
question themselves, and heard the answer. For if he had 
spoken of himself, their belief would not have been equal to 
the self-condemning 2 judgment which they received when 2 i. e. if 
they heard him answer to their question ; just as the Jews lie ^ d e " 
also, in that they sent to him from their homes, heard what not • 
they did, and yet would not believe, by this especially 
deprived themselves of excuse. 

What then are we taught by this ? That a mad desire of 
glory 3 is the cause of all evils; this led them to jealousy, 3 al. 
and when they had ceased for a little, this roused them to itg^"" 

b So Savile and Mss. Morel's reading has the same sense, but is less clear 
and concise. 


244 The evils of vain-glory : 

Homtl. again. Wherefore they come to Jesus, and say, Why do Thy 

XXI ^i• disciples fast not ? Let us then, beloved, avoid this passion ; 

14. ' 'for if we avoid this we shall escape hell. For this vice 

specially kindles the fire of hell, and everywhere extends its 

1 αξίαν rule, and tyrannically occupies every age and every rank 1 . 

This hath turned churches upside down, this is mischievous 
in state matters, hath subverted houses, and cities, and 
peoples, and nations. Why marvellest thou ? It hath even 
gone forth into the desert, and manifested even there its 
great power. For men who have bidden an entire farewell 
to riches and all the show of the world, who converse with 
no one, who have gained the mastery over the more im- 
perious desires after the flesh, these very men, made captives 
by vain-glory, have often lost all. By reason of this passion, 
one who had laboured much went away worse off than one who 
had not laboured at all, but on the contrary had committed 
ten thousand sins ; the Pharisee than the Publican. However, 
to condemn the passion is easy enough, (all agree in doing 
that,) but the question is, how to get the better of it. How 
can we do this ? By setting honour against honour. For as 
we despise the riches of earth when we look to the other 
riches, as we contemn this life when we think of that far 
better than this, so we shall be enabled to spit on this world's 
glory, when we know of another far more august than it, 
which is glory indeed. One is a thing vain and empty, has 
the name without the reality ; but that other, which is from 
heaven, is true, and has to give its praise Angels, and Arch- 
angels, and the Lord of Archangels, or rather I should say 
that it has men as well. Now if thou lookest to that theatre, 
learnest what crowns are there, transportest thyself into the 
applauses which come thence, never will earthly things be 
able to hold thee, nor when they come wilt thou deem them 
great, nor when they are away seek after them. For even in 
earthly palaces none of the guards who stand around the 
king, neglecting to please him that wears the diadem and 
sits upon the throne, troubles himself about the voices of daws, 
or the noise of flies and gnats flying and buzzing about him ; 
and good report from men is no better than these. Knowing 

2 ai. 'of then the worthlessness of human things 2 , let us collect our 


c Ben. ' so does it every where extend.' 

and how to avoid it. 245 

all into treasuries that cannot be spoiled, let us seek that John 

. III. 30 

glory which is abiding and immoveable ; which may we all — '- — ' 
attain, through the grace and loving-kindness of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom to the Father and 
the Holy Spirit be glory, now and ever, and world without 
end. Amen. 


John iii. 31. 

He that Cometh from above is above all; he that is of the 
earth is earthly ', and speaketh of the earth, 

A dreadful thing is the love of glory, dreadful and full of 

many evils; it is a thorn hard to be extracted, a wild beast 

untameable and many headed, arming itself against those 

that feed it ; for as the worm eats through the wood from 

which it is born, as rust wastes the iron whence it comes 

forth, and moths the fleeces, so vainglory destroys the soul 

which nourishes it ; and therefore we need great diligence to 

remove the passion. Observe here how long a charm John 

1 'όσα uses over * the disciples affected by it, and can scarcely 

^£rav- P aci fy them. For he softens 2 them with other words besides 

τλ€*. those already mentioned. And what are these others ? He 

merits' that cometh from above, he saith, is above all; he that is of 

the earth, is earthly, and speaketh of the earth. Since you 

3 &μω κα\ make much ado with my testimony 3 , and in this way say that 

στρ 4, I am more worthy of credit than He, you needs must know 

<P* T€ this, that it is impossible for One Who cometh from heaven 

to have His credit strengthened by one that inhabiteth 


And what means, above all, what is the expression 
intended to shew to us? That Christ hath need of nothing, 
but is Himself sufficient for Himself, and incomparably 
greater than all ; of himself John speaks as being of the earth, 
and speaking of the earth. Not that he spake of his own 
mind, but as Christ said, If I have told you of earthly things 
and ye believe not, so calling Baptism, not because it was an 

The credibility of Christ* 247 

earthly thing, but because He compared it when He spake John 
with His own Ineffable Generation, so here John said that he Ιπ • 3ΐ • 
spake of earth, comparing his own with Christ's teaching. 
For the speaking of earth means nothing else than this, 
" My things are little and low and poor compared with His, 
and such as it was probable that an earthly nature would 
receive. In Him are hid all the treasures of wisdom" ThatCol.2,5. 
he speaks not of human reasonings is plain from this. He 
that is of the earth, saith he, is earthly. Yet not all in him 
was earthly, but the higher parts were heavenly, for he had a 
soul, and was partaker of a Spirit which was not of earth. How 
then saith he that he is earthly? Seest thou not that he means 
only, " I am small and of no esteem, going on the ground 
and born in the earth; but Christ came to us from above." 
Having by all these means quenched their passion, he after- 
wards speaks more openly of Christ ; for before this it was 
useless to utter words which could never have gained a 
place in the understanding of his hearers : but when he hath 
pulled up the thorns, he then boldly casts in the seed, 

Ver. 31, 32. He that cometh from above is above all. And 
what He hath heard He speaketh, and what He hath seen 
He testijieth 1 ; and no man receiveth His testimony. 1 % kap. 

Having uttered something great and sublime concerning κα \^ κ - 
Him, he again brings down his discourse to a humbler G. T. 
strain. For the expression, what He hath heard and seen, 
is suited rather to a mere man. What He knew He knew 
not from having learned it by sight, or from having heard it, 
but He included the whole in His Nature, having come forth 
perfect from the Bosom of His Father, and needing none to 
teach Him. For, As the Father, He saith, knoweth iHb,,io. 
even so know I the Father. What then means, He speaketh 
that He haih heard, and testifieth that He hath seen ? Since 
by these senses we gain correct knowledge of every thing, 
and are deemed worthy of credit when we teach on matters 
which our eyes have embraced and our ears have taken in, 
as not in such cases inventing or speaking falsehoods, John 
desiring here to establish this point 3 , said, What He hath* i.e. the 
heard and seen: that is, " nothing that cometh from Him is bility" of 
false, but all is true." Thus we when we are making curious Christ. 

248 Christ refers to the Father. 

Homil. enquiry into any thing, often ask, " Didst thou hear it ?" 
— — : " Didst thou see it ?" And if this be proved, the testimony 
c 5, 30. is indubitable, and so when Christ Himself saith, As I hear, 
c.15,15. 1 judge; and, What I have heard from My Father, that 1 

1 iyva- speak 1 ; and, We speak 2 that We have seen; and whatsoever 
J"? other sayings He uttereth of the kind, are uttered not that we 
G. T. might imagine that He saith what He doth being taught of 

2 μαρτυ- any, (it were extreme folly to think this,) but in order that 
ροΰμεν no thing of what is said may be suspected by the shame- 
less Jews. For because they had not yet a right opinion 
concerning Him, He continually betakes Himself to His 
Father, and hence makes His sayings credible. 

[2.] And why wonderest thou if He betake Himself to the 
Father, when He often resorts to the Prophets and the 
c 5, 39. Scriptures? as when He saith, They are they that testify of 
Me. Shall we then say that He is inferior to the Prophets, 
because He draws testimonies from them ? Away with the 
thought. It is because of the infirmity of His hearers that 
He so orders His discourse, and saith that He spake what 
He spake having heard it from the Father, not because He 
needed a teacher, but that they might believe that nothing 
that He said was false. John's meaning is of this kind: " I 
desire to hear what He saith, for He cometh from above, 
bringing thence those tidings which none but He knoweth 
rightly; for what He hath seen and heard, is the expression 
of one who declareth this. 

And no man receiveth His testimony. Yet He had dis- 
ciples, and many besides gave heed to His words. How 
then saith John, No man? He saith, no man, instead of 
" few men," for had he meant " no man at all," how could he 
have added, 

Ver. 33. He that hath received His testimony, hath set to 
his seal that God is true. 

Here he touches his own disciples, as not being likely for 
a time to be firm believers. And that they did not even 
after this believe in Him, is clear from what is said afterwards; 
for John even when dwelling in the prison sent them thence 
to Christ, that he might the more bind them to Him. Yet 
even then they scarcely believed, to which Christ alluded 
Mat. u, when He said, And blessed is he whosoever shall not be 


Belief in Christ is belief in the Father. 249 

offended in Me. And therefore now he said, And no man John 
receiveth His testimony, to make sure his own disciples ; all IIL 34 • 
but saying, " Do not, because for a time few shall believe 
on Him, therefore deem that His words are false ; for, He 
speaketh that He hath seen. Moreover he saith this to 
touch also the insensibility of the Jews. A charge which 
the Evangelist at commencing l brought against them, say- 1 or, ' at 
ing, He came unto His own. and His own received Him not. the 

. . comm. 

For this is no reproach against Him, but an accusation of of the 

those who received Him not. ?T p lV 

c. 1, 11. 

He that hath received His testimony hath set to his seal 
that God is true. Here he terrifies them also by shewing 
that he who believeth not on Him, disbelieveth not Him 
alone, but the Father also; wherefore he adds: 

Ver. 34. He Whom God hath sent speaketh the words of 

Since then He speaketh His words, he that believeth and 
he that believeth not, believeth or believeth not God. Hath 
set to his seal, that is, " hath declared.'" Then, to increase 
their dread, he saith, that God is true; thus shewing, that 
no man could disbelieve Christ without making God Who 
sent Him guilty of a falsehood. Because, since He saith 
nothing save what is from The Father, but all that He saith 
is His, he that heareth not Him, heareth not Him that sent 
Him. See how by these words again he strikes them with 
fear. As yet they thought it no great thing not to hearken 
to Christ; and therefore he held so great a danger above 
the heads of the unbelievers, that they might learn that they 
hearken not to God Himself, who hearken not to Christ. 
Then he proceeds with the discourse, descending to the 
measure of their infirmity, and saying, 

For God giveth not the Spirit by measure. 

Again, as I said, he brings down his discourse to lower 
ground, varying it and making it suitable to be received by 
those who heard it then ; otherwise he could not have raised 
them and increased their fear. For had he spoken any thing 
great and sublime concerning Jesus Himself, they would not 
have believed, but might even have despised Him. There- 
fore he leads up all to the Father, speaking for a while of 
Christ as of a man. ι But what is it that he saith, God giveth 

250 Reserve of John in speaking of Christ. 

Homil. not the Spirit by measure? He would shew that we all 

have received the operation of the Spirit by measure, (for 

in this place he means by Spirit the operation of the Spirit, 

for this it is that is divided,) but that Christ hath all Its 

operation unmeasured and entire. Now if His operations 

be unmeasured, much more His Essence. Seest thou too 

that the Spirit is Infinite? How then can He Who hath 

received all the operation of the Spirit, Who knoweth the 

c 3, 11. things of God, Who saith, We speak that We have heard, 

and testify that We have seen, be rightly suspected? He 

saith nothing which is not of God, or which is not of the 

Spirit. And for a while he uttereth nothing concerning 

1 του God the Word 1 , but maketh all his doctrine credible by 

Aoyov (reference to) the Father and the Spirit. For that there is 

a God they knew, and that there is a Spirit they knew, (even 

though they held not a right opinion concerning Him,) but 

that there is a Son, they knew not. It is for this reason that 

he ever has recourse to the Father and the Spirit, thence 

confirming his words. For if any one should take no 

account of this reason, and examine his language by itself, 

2 or' he' it 8 would fall very far short of the Dignity of Christ. Christ 

was not therefore worthy of their faith, because He had the 

operation of the Spirit, (for He needeth not aid from thence,) 

but is Himself Self-sufficient; only for a while the Baptist 

3 άτ6λ6- speaks to the understanding of the simpler 3 sort, desiring to 

ττβρων ra - se t nem U p by degrees from their low notions^) 

And this I say, that we may not carelessly passoy what is 
contained in the Scriptures, but may fully consider the 
object of the speaker, and the infirmity of the hearers, and 
many other points in them. For teachers do not say all as 
they themselves would wish, but generally as the state of 
ι Cor. their weak (hearers) requires. Wherefore Paul saith, I could 
9 ' ' not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but as unto carnal : I 
have fed you with milk, and not with meat. He means, " I 
desired indeed to speak unto you as unto spiritual, but could 
not;" not because he was unable, but because they were not 
able so to hear. So too John desired to teach some great 
things to the disciples, but they could not yet bear to receive 
them, and therefore he dwells for the most part on that 
which is lowlier. 

Scripture useless unless carefully studied. 251 

It behoves us therefore to explore all carefully. For the John 
words of the Scriptures are our spiritual weapons; but if we — : — ' 
know not how to fit those weapons and to arm our scholars 
rightly, they keep indeed their proper power, but cannot 
help those who receive them. For let us suppose there to be 
a strong corslet, and helm, and shield, and spear; and let 
one take this armour and put the corslet about his feet, the 
helmet over his eyes instead of on his head, let him not put 
the shield before his breast, but perversely tie it to his legs : 
will he be able to gain any advantage from the armour? will he 
not rather be harmed? It is plain to any one that he will. 
Yet not on account of the weakness of the weapons, but on 
account of the unskilfulness of the man who knows not how 
to use them well. So with the Scriptures, if we confound 
their order ; they will even so retain their proper force, yet 
will do us no good. Although I am always telling you this 
both in private and in public, I effect nothing, but see you 
all your time nailed to the things of this life, and not so 
much as dreaming a of spiritual matters. • Therefore our lives 
are careless, and we who strive for truth have but little 
power, and are become a laughing stock to Greeks and Jews 
and Heretics. Had ye been careless in other matters, and 
exhibited in this place the same indifference as elsewhere, 
not even so could your doings have been defended ; but 
now in matters of this life, every one of you, artizan and 
politician alike, is keener than a sword, while in necessary 
and spiritual things we are duller than any ; m akin g^by- work 
business, and not deeming that which we ought to have 
esteemed more pressing than any business, to be by-work 
even. Know ye not that the Scriptures were written not for 
the first of mankind alone, but for our sakes also? Hearest 
thou not Paul say, that they are written for our admonition, ι Cor. 
upon whom the ends of the world are come; that we through Ilo ' mi * 
patience and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope? 15 , 4 - 
I know that I speak in vain, yet will I not cease to speak, 
for thus I shall clear myself 1 before God, though there be ' απολο- 
none to hear me. He that speaketh to them that give heed 7 ^ " 
hath this at least to cheer his speech, the persuasion of his 
hearers ; but he that speaks continually and is not listened 

a ουδέ όναρ μςτέχορταε, al. οΰδενα \6yov ποιούμενους. 

252 No loss to the preacher from his hearers indifference., and yet ceaseth not to speak, may be worthy of greater 
xxx - jinnnnv than the other, because he fulfils the will of God, 
even though none give heed unto him, to the best of his 
power. Still, though our reward will be greater owing to 
your disobedience, we rather desire that it be diminished, 
and that your salvation be advanced, thinking that your 
1 cvdoici- being well approved of 1 is a great reward. And we now 
μ7](Τιν say this not to make our discourse painful and burden- 
some to you, but to shew to you the grief which we feel by 
reason of your indifference. God grant that we may be 
all of us delivered from this, that we may cling to spiritual 
zeal and obtain the blessings of heaven, through the grace 
and loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom 
to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, for ever and 
ever. Amen» 


John iii. 35, 36. 

The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into 
His hand. He that helieveth on the Son hath everlasting 
life, and he that helieveth not the Son shall not see life ; 
hut the wrath of God ahideth on him. 

Great is shewn to be in all things the gain of humility 1 . | lit. 
Thus it is that we have brought arts to perfection, not by sc c °°_ e " 
learning them all at once from our teachers ; it is thus that we sion.' 
have built cities, putting them together slowly, little by 
little ; it is thus that we maintain 2 our life. And marvel not if 2 Βιακρα- 
the thing has so much power in matters pertaining to this™ 1 ^ 
life, when in spiritual things one may find that great is the 
power of this wisdom. For so the Jews were enabled to be 
delivered from their idolatry, being led on gently and little 
by little, and hearing from the first nothing sublime con- 
cerning either doctrine or life. So after the coming of 
Christ, when it was the time for higher doctrines, the Apo- 
stles brought over all men without at first uttering any thing 
sublime. And so Christ appears to have spoken to most at 
the beginning, and so John did now, speaking of Him as of 
some wonderful man, and darkly introducing high matter. 

For instance, when commencing he spake thus: A man 
cannot receive anything of himself 3 : then after adding a ^.3,27. 
high expression, and saying, He that cometh from heaven 4 ^/' 1 
is above all, he again brings down his discourse to whatii£r£] 
lowly, and besides many other things saith this, that God ^J^ 
givelii not the Spirit by measure. Then he proceeds to say, <*• T. 
Vie Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into 

254 Faith unavailing without a holy life. 

XXXl' His Hand ' And after tnat > know ing that great is the force 

r a ].< f' of punishment 1 , and that the many are not so much led by 

themen-the promise of good things as hf the threat of the terrible, 

punish- ne concludes his discourse with these words; He that 

meat.' believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: but he that 

helieveth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of 

God abideth on him. Here again he refers the account of 

punishment to the Father, for he saith not " the wrath of 

the Son," (yet He is the Judge,) but sets over them the 

Father, desiring so the more to terrify them. 

" Is it then enough," saith one, " to believe on the Son, 
that one may have eternal life ?" By no means. And hear 
Mat. 7, Christ Himself declaring this, and saying, Not every one 
that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom 
of heaven; and the blasphemy against the Spirit is enough 
of itself to cast a man into hell. But why speak I of a portion 
of doctrine ? Though a man believe rightly on the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, yet if he lead not a right life, 
his faith will avail nothing towards his salvation. There- 
c 17, 3. fore when He saith, This is life eternal, that they may know 
TJiee the only true God, let us not suppose that the (know- 
ledge) spoken of is sufficient for our salvation; we need 
besides this a most exact life and conversation. Since though 
he has said here, He that believeth on the Son hath eternal 
life, and in the same place something even stronger, 
(for he weaves his discourse not of blessings only, but of 
their contraries also, speaking thus: He that believeth not the 
Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him ,•) 
yet not even from this do we assert that faith alone is 
sufficient to salvation. And the directions for living given 
in many places of the Gospels shew this. Therefore he did 
not say, " This by itself is eternal life," nor, " He that doth 
but believe on the Son hath eternal life," but by both 
2 i.e. expressions he declared this, that the thing 2 doth contain 
behev- ] ife5 yel t j iat if a rig]lt coriversai i on f n ow ηο ^ there will 

follow a heavy punishment. And he did not say, " awaiteth 
him," but, abideth on him, that is, " shall never remove 
from him." For that thou mayest not think that the 
shall not see life, is a temporary death, but mayest believe 
that the punishment is continual, he hath put this expression 

Importance of the doctrine of the Incarnation. 255 

to shew that it rests 1 upon him continually. And this he John 
has done, by these very words forcing them on 2 to Christ. j_ 3 \ 
Therefore he gave not the admonition to them in particular, Hit. 
but made it universal, the manner which best might bring "„» 
them over. For he did not say, " if ye believe," and, " if ye 2 &θων 
believe not," but made his speech general, so that his words 
might be free from suspicion. And this he has done yet 
more strongly than Christ. For Christ saith, He that be- 
lieveth not is condemned already, but John saith, shall not 
see life, but the wrath of God abideth on him. With good 
cause ; for it was a different thing for a man to speak of 
himself and for another to speak of him. They would have 
thought that Christ spake often of these things from self love, 
and that He was a boaster; but John was clear from all 
suspicion. And if at a later time, Christ also used stronger 
expressions, it was when they had begun to conceive an 
exalted opinion of Him. 

Chap. IV. Ver. 1, 2, 3. When therefore Jesus' 1 knew how*&Kv- 
the Pharisees had heard that Jesus .made and baptized 91 
more disciples than John, (though Jesus Himself baptized 
not but His disciples,) He left Judaa, and departed again 
into Galilee. 

He indeed baptized not, but they who carried the news, 
desiring to excite their hearers to envy, so reported. 
" Wherefore then departed He ?" Not from fear, but to take 
away 3 their malice, and to soften their envy. He was indeed 3 lit. 'cut 
able to restrain them when they came against Him, but this ou 
He would not do continually, that the Dispensation of the 
Flesh might not be disbelieved. For had He often been 
seized and escaped, this would have been suspected by many ; 
therefore for the most part, He rather orders matters after 
the manner of a man. And as He desired it to be believed 
that He was God, sp also that, being God, He bore the flesh ; 
therefore even after the Resurrection, He said to the disciple, 
Handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and 6ort<?s;Luke24, 
therefore also He rebuked Peter when he said, Be it far from Mi t . J6j 
Thee, this shall not be unto Thee. So much was this matter 22 • 
an object of care to Him. t „ 

[2.] For this is no small part of the doctrines of the^ p 
Church ; it is the chief point of the salvation wrought for us 4 ; hn&> 

256 Christ, driven away by the Jews, comes to the Samaritans. which all has been brought to pass, and has had success, 

— for it was thus that the bonds of death were loosed, sin 

taken away, and the curse abolished, and ten thousand 
blessings introduced into our life. And therefore He espe- 
cially desired that the Dispensation should be believed, as 
having been the root and fountain of innumerable goods 
to us. 

1 olnovo- y e t while acting thus in regard of His Humanity 1 , He 
ανθρώτη- did n °t allow His Divinity to be overcast. And so, after His 
va departure He again employed the same language as before. 

2 i. e. For He went not away into Galilee simply 2 , but in order to 
an ob- effect certain important matters, those among the Samaritans ; 
ject,^ nor did jj e dispense these matters simply, but with the 
3 or 'be- wisdom that belonged to 3 Him, and so as not to leave to the 
came j ews ari y pretence even of a shameless excuse for them- 
selves. And to this the Evangelist points when he says, 

Ver. 4. And He must needs go through Samaria. 

Shewing that He made this the bye-work of the journey. 

Which also the Apostles did; for just as they, when persecuted 

by the Jews, came to the Gentiles; so also Christ, when the 

Jews drove Him out, then took the Samaritans in hand, as 

He did also in the case of the Syrophenician woman. And 

this was done that all defence might be cut away from the 

Jews, and that they might not be able to say, " He left us, 

and went to the uncircumcised. v> And therefore the disciples 

Acts 13, excusing themselves said, It was necessary that the Word of 

Mat. 15, God should first have been spoken unto you; but seeing ye 

24. judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo, we turn 

ατ^στά- to the Gentiles. And He saith again Himself, / am not 

ψ ν 1 g. come 4 but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel; and 

5 [βά\- again, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to 

**"]<*• give* it to dogs. But when they drove Him away, they 

opened a door to the Gentiles. Yet did He come to 

the Gentiles expressly, but in passing \ In passing then, 

Ver. 5, 6. He cometh to a city of Samaria, which is called 
Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his 
son Joseph. Now Jacob's well was there. 

Why is the Evangelist exact about the place ? It is, that 

a Morel. ' having thus hinted that which he wished, he again begins, saying, 
Jesus therefore cometh, &e.' 

History of Samaria. 057 

when thou nearest the woman say, " Jacob our father gave John 
us this well," thou mayest not think it strange. For t.his IVj - 3 • 
was the place where Levi and Simeon, being angry because 
of Dinah, wrought that cruel slaughter. And it may be worth 
while to relate from what sources the Samaritans were made 
up; since all this country is called Samaria. Whence then 
did they receive their name? The mountain was called 1 Kings 
" Somor" from its owi\er: as also Esaias saith, and the headof^i 9. 
Ephraim is Somoron, but the inhabitants were termed not LXX • 
" Samaritans" but " Israelites." But as time went on, they 
offended God, and in the reign of Pekah, Tiglath-Pileser2 Kiugs 
came up, and took many cities, and set upon Elah, and having ' " 
slain him, gave the kingdom to Hoshea 3 . Against him Shal-2 Kings 
maneser came and took other cities, and made them subject ' 
and tributary. At first he yielded, but afterwards he revolted 
from the Assyrian rule, and betook himself to the alliance of 
the Ethiopians '. The Assyrian learnt this, and having made l i.e. 'the 
war upon them and destroyed their cities, he no longer ti ^" 
allowed the nation to remain there, because he had such sus-2 Kings 
picions that they would revolt. But he carried them to ' 
Babylon and to the Medes, and having brought thence 
nations from divers places, planted them in Samaria, that 
his dominion for the future might be sure, his own people 
occupying the place. After this, God, desiring to shew 
that He had not given up the Jews through weakness, 
but because of the sins of those who were given up, sent 
lions against the foreigners 2 , who ravaged all their nation. 2 β αρ β&. 
These things were reported to the king, and he sent a p(m 
priest to deliver to them the laws of God. Still not even 
so did they desist wholly from their impiety, but only by 
halves. But as time went on, they in turn abandoned 33 lit. 
their idols, and worshipped God. And when things were in a way ted 
this state, the Jews having returned, ever after entertained a from ' 
jealous feeling towards them as strangers and enemies, and 
called them from the name of the mountain, " Samaritans." 
From this cause also there was no little rivalry between them. 
The Samaritans did not use all the Scriptures, but received 
the writings of Moses only, and made but little account of 

a This account does not agree with the history, (2 Kings xv. 29, 30.) but there 
is no other reading. 


258 Laboriousness of Christ. 

Homil. those of the Prophets. Yet they were eager to thrust them- 
χχχτ • selves into the noble Jewish stock, and prided themselves 
1 regis- upon Abraham, and called 1 him their forefather, as being of 
tered' chaklaea; and Jacob also they called their father, as being 
his descendant. But the Jews abominated them as well as 
all (other nations). Wherefore they reproached Christ with 
c 8, 48. this, saying, Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil. And 
for this reason in the parable of the man that went down 
from Jerusalem to Jericho, Christ makes the man who shewed 
Lukeio,pity upon him to have been a Samaritan, one who by them 
33, was deemed mean, contemptible, and abominable. And in 
the case of the ten lepers, He calls one a stranger on this 
account, (for he was a Samaritan,) and He gave His charge 
Mat. ίο, to the disciples in these words, Go not into the way of 
5 ' the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not. 
[3.] Nor was it merely to describe the place that the 
Evangelist has reminded us of Jacob, but to shew that the 
rejection of the Jews had happened long ago. For during 
the time of their forefathers these Jews possessed the land, 
and not the Samaritans ; and the very possessions which not 
being theirs, their forefathers had gotten, they being theirs, 
2 al. had lost by their sloth and transgressions. So little 2 is the 
link/ advantage of excellent ancestors, if their descendants be not 
like them. Moreover, the foreigners when they had only 
made trial of the lions, straightway returned to the right 
3 eu(re- worship 3 of the Jews, while they, after enduring such in- 
flictions, were not even so brought to a sound mind. 

To this place Christ now came, ever rejecting a sedentary 

4 βάναυ- and soft 4 life, and exhibiting 5 one laborious and active. He 
Vyph* useth no beast to carry Him, but walketh so much on a 

5 j it; • stretch, as even to be wearied with His journeying. And 
during' this He ever teach eth, that a man should work for himself, 

go without superfluities, and not have many wants. Nay, so 
desirous is He that we should be alienated from superfluities, 
that He abridgeth many even of necessary things. Where- 
Mat. 8, fore He said, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have 
nests, but the Son of Man hath not where to lay His Head. 
Therefore He spent most of His time in the mountains, and 
in the deserts, not by day only, but also by night. And this 
Ps. lio, David declared when he said, He shall drink of the brook 

His carelessness of food. 259 

in the way: by this shewing His frugal 1 way of life. This John 
too the Evangelist shews in this place. I v. 6-8. 

' or 

Ver. 6, 7, 8. Jesus therefore, being wearied with His < active* 
journey, sat thus by the well; and it teas about the sixth 
hour. There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. 
Jesus saith unto her, Give Me to drink. For His disciples 
were gone away into the city to buy meat. 

Hence we learn His activity in journeying, His careless- 
ness about food, and how He treated it as a matter of minor 
importance 2 . And so the disciples were taught to use the 2,ra P e 'p- 
like disposition themselves; for they took with them no 
provisions for the road. And this another Evangelist declares, 
saying, that when He spake to them concerning the leave?iMa.t,i6, 
of the Pharisees, they thought that it was because they ' 
carried no bread; and when he introduces them plucking Mat.12, 
the ears of com, and eating, and when he saith that Jesus 
came to the fig-tree by reason of hunger, it is for nothing else Mat. 21, 
but only to instruct us by all these to despise the belly, and 
not to deem that its service is anxiously to be attended to. 
Observe them, for instance, in this place neither bringing any 
thing with them, nor because they brought not any thing, 
caring for this at the very beginning and early part of the 
day, but buying food at the time when all other people were 
taking their meal 3 . Not like us, who the instant we rise 3 <*/>t<r™- 
from our beds attend to this before any thing else, calling ταί s ~ e 
cooks and butlers, and giving our directions with all earnest- on Stat. 


ness, applying ourselves afterwards to other matters, pre- 1. and 
ferring temporal things to spiritual, valuing those things as note ' 
necessary which we ought to have deemed of less importance 4 . 4 πάρερ- 
Therefore all things are in confusion. We ought, on the 70 " 
contrary, making much account of all spiritual things, after 
having accomplished these, then to apply ourselves to the 

And in this place it is not His laboriousness alone that is 
shewn, but also His freedom from pride; not merely by 
His being tired, nor by His sitting by the way-side, but by 
His having been left alone, and His disciples having been 
separated 5 from Him. And yet it was in His power if He * al. 
had willed it, either not to have sent them all away, or when depart? 
they had departed to have had other ministers. But He ed ' 


260 Moderation of the Disciples. 

Homil. would not; for so He accustomed His disciples to tread all 


- pride beneath their feet. 

" And what marvel," saith one, " if they were moderate in 

their wishes, since they were fishermen and tentmakers?" 

Yes ! Fishermen and tentmakers they were ; but they had in 

1 άθροον a moment 1 mounted even to the height of heaven, and had 

become more honourable than all earthly kings, being 

deemed w r orthy to become the companions of the Lord of 

the world, and to follow Him whom all beheld with awe. 

And ye know this too, that those men especially wdio are of 

humble origin, whenever they gain distinction, are the more 

easily lifted up to folly, because they are quite ignorant how 

2 al. 'so to bear their sudden 2 honour. Restraining them therefore 
grea in their present humblemindedness, He taught them always 

3 συν€σ- to be moderate 3 , and never to require any to wait upon 

τάλθαι. xl 


He therefore, saith the Evangelist, being ivearied with 
*hcd- His journey, sat 4 thus at the well 5 . 

ϊΐκαθέ- Seest thou that His sitting was because of weariness ? 
&το] because of the heat? because of His waiting for His dis- 
5 L• τη ciples ? He knew indeed what should take place among the 
π7 >Ύν Samaritans, but it was not for this that He came principally ; 
yet, though He came not for this, it behoved not to reject 
the woman who came to Him, when she manifested such a 
desire to learn. The Jews, when He was even coming to 
them, drove Him away ; they of the Gentiles, when He was 
proceeding in another direction, drew r Him to them. They 
envied, these believed on Him. They were angry with, 
these revered and worshipped Him. What then ? Was He 
to overlook the salvation of so many, to send away such 
noble zeal ? This would have been unworthy of His loving- 
kindness. Therefore He ordered all the matter in hand 
with the Wisdom which became Him. He sat resting His 
body and cooling It by the fountain; for it was the very 
middle of the day, as the Evangelist has declared, when he 

It teas about the sixth hour. 

He sat thus. What meaneth " thus?" Not upon a throne, 
e£s#n/-not upon a cushion, but simply, and as He was 6 , upon the 

Why Christ spoke with the Samaritan. 261 

Ver. 7. There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw John 
water. IV. 7-9. 

[4.] Observe how he declareth that the woman came 
forth for another purpose, in every way silencing the shame- 
less gainsaying of the Jews, that none might say that He 
acted in opposition to His own command, bidding (, 
disciples) not to enter into any city of the Samaritans, yet 5, 
conversing with Samaritans. And therefore the Evangelist 
has put, 

Ver. 8. For His disciples were gone away into the city to 
buy meat". 

Bringing in many reasons for His conversation with her. 
What doth the woman ? When she heard, Give Me to drink*, 
she very wisely makes the speech of Christ an occasion for 
a question, and saith, 

Ver. 9. How is it that thou, being a Jew, ask est drink of 
me, which am a Samaritan? For the Jews have no dealings 
with the Samaritans. 

And whence did she suppose Him to he a Jew? From His 
dress, perhaps, and from His dialect. Observe, I pray you, 
how considerate the woman was. If there was need of 
caution, Jesus needed it, not she. For she doth not say, 
" The Samaritans have no dealings with the Jews," but, 
" The Jews do not admit the Samaritans." Yet still, although 
free herself from blame 1 , when she supposed that another was ι a i. «sin* 
falling into it she would not even so hold her peace, but 
corrected, as she thought, what was done unlawfully. Per- 
haps some one may ask how it was that Jesus asked drink of 
her, when the law 3 did not permit it. If it be answered that* i. e . 
it was because He knew beforehand that she would not give custom 
it, then for this very reason He ought not to have asked. What 
then can we say ? That the rejecting such observances as 
these was now a matter of indifference to Him ; for He Who 
induced others to do them away, would much more Himself 
pass them by. Not that which goeth in, saith He, defileth Mat. 15, 
a man, but that which goeth out. And this conversation 11, 
with the woman would be no slight charge against the Jews. 

c al. had not yet come. tells us, was what Christ said to her. 

d al. being asked for water by Christ; What then saith she? Hoiv is it, 
for, Give Me to drink, the Evangelist fyc. 

262 Worthiness of the woman. 

Homil. For often did He draw them to Himself, both by words and 
XXXI - deeds, but they would not attend ; while observe how she is 
ι al. 'in- detained by a simple request 1 . For He did not as yet enter 
W °* on the prosecution of this business 2 , nor the way 3 , yet if any 
si.e.con- came t0 jjj m He did not prevent them. And to the 


3 i. e. of disciples also He said thus, Into any city of the Samaritans 

ίΓοΓ" enter ye not. He did not say, " And when they come to 

you, reject them;" that would have been very unworthy 

of His loving-kindness. And therefore He answered the 

woman, and said, 

Ver. 10. If thou knewest the gift of God, and Who it is that 
saith to thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldest have asked of 
Him, and He would have given thee living water. 

First, He sheweth that she is worthy to hear and not to be 
overlooked, and then He revealeth Himself. For she, as 
soon as she had learnt Who He was, would straightway 
hearken and attend to Him ; which none can say of the 
Jews, for they, when they had learned, asked nothing of 
Him, nor did they desire to be informed on any profitable 
matter, but insulted and drove Him away. But when the 
woman had heard these words, observe how gently she 
answers : 

Ver. 1 1 . Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well 
is deep ; from whence then hast thou that living water ? 

Already He hath raised her from her low opinion of 
Him, and from deeming that He is a common man. For not 
4 Kupte, without a reason doth she here call Him, "Lord 4 ;" but 
£ Sl ^' assigning to Him high honour. That she spake these words 
to honour Him, is plain from what is said afterwards, since 
she did not laugh nor mock, but doubted for a while. And 
wonder not if she did not at once perceive all, for neither 
did Nicodemus. What saith he ? How can these things be? 
and again, How can a man be born when he is old? and 
again, Can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, 
and be born? But this woman more reverently: Sir, thou 
hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep; from 
whence then hast thou that living water ? Christ said one 
thing, and she imagined another, hearing nothing beyond 
the words, and as yet unable to form any lofty thought. 
Yet, had she spoken hastily, she might have said, " If thou 

Her gentleness. 263 

hadst had that living water, thou wouldest not have asked of John 

IV. 12. 

me, but wouldest rather have provided for thyself. Thou — '- — '- 
art but a boaster." But she said nothing like this ; she 
answers with much gentleness, both at first and afterwards. 
For at first she saith, How is it that thou, being a Jew, 
askest drink of me ? she saith not, as though speaking to an 
alien and an enemy, " Far be it from me to give to thee, 
who art a foe and a stranger to our nation." And afterwards 
again, when she heard Him utter great words, a thing at 
which enemies are most annoyed, she did not mock nor 
deride 1 ; but what saith she ? 1 Si4<npe 

Ver. 12. Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which 
gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, 
and his cattle ? 

Observe how she thrusts herself into the noble stock 
of the Jews. For what she saith is somewhat of this kind : 
" Jacob used this water, and had nothing better to give us." 
And this she said shewing that from the first answer (of 
Christ) she had conceived a great and sublime thought ; for 
by the words, he drank thereof himself, and his children, 
and his cattle, she implies nothing else, than that she had a 
notion of a better Water, but that she 2 never found it, nor «al.* not 
clearly knew it. More clearly to explain what she means to ev 
say, the sense of her words is this : " Thou canst not assert 
that Jacob gave us this well, and used another himself; for 
he and his children drank of this one, which they would not 
have done if they had had another and a better. Now of 
the water of this well it is not in thy power to give me, and 
thou canst not have another and a better, unless thou dost 
confess that thou art greater than Jacob. Whence then hast 
thou that water which thou promisest that thou wilt give 
us ?" The Jews did not converse with Him thus mildly, and 
yet He spake to them on the same subject, making mention 
of the like water, but they profited nothing ; and when He 
made mention of Abraham, they even attempted to stone 
Him. Not so does this woman approach Him; but with 
much gentleness, in the midst of the heat, at noon, she with 
much patience saith and hears all, and does not so much as 
think of what the Jews most probably would have asserted, 
that "This fellow is mad, and beside himself: he hath tied 

thing that is said, but are wearied 3 by it. Not such was that 
woman ; so occupied was she by Jesus' words, that she even 

964 Life a time of preparation ; 

Homil. me to this fount and well, giving me nothing, but using big 

! words ;" no, she endures and perseveres until she has found 

what she seeks. 

[5.] If now a woman of Samaria is so earnest to learn 
something profitable, if she abides by Christ though not as 
yet knowing Him, what pardon shall we obtain, who both 
'al.'hav- knowing 1 Him, and being not by a well, nor in a desert 
n place, nor at noon-day, nor beneath the scorching sun- 
beams, but at morning-tide, and beneath a roof like this, 

2 or > enjoying shade and comfort 2 , yet cannot endure to hear any 


3 άττο- 

T6s, al. called others to hear them. The Jews, on the contrary, not 
α7Γ0 ; only did not call, but even hindered and impeded those who 

Kvovi/res \ m *■ 

4 al. 'to desired to come to Him 4 , saying, See, have any of the rulers 
eDter in b e n eve( % on fti m ? ou i this people, which knowelh not the 
5 o.7 ,49. Law, are cursed 5 . Let us then imitate this woman of 
not this Samaria ; let us commune with Christ. For even now He 
people, standeth in the midst of us, speaking to us by the Prophets 

and Disciples ; let us hear and obey. How long shall we 
live uselessly and in vain ? Because, not to do what is well- 
pleasing to God is to live uselessly, or rather not merely 
uselessly, but to our own hurt ; for when we have spent the 
time which has been given us on no good purpose, we shall 
depart this life to suffer severest punishment for our un- 
seasonable extravagance. For it can never be that a man 
who has received money to trade with, and then has eaten it 
6 ai.'anup, shall have it 6 required at his hands by the man who 
entrusted it to him; and that one who has spent such a life as 
ours to no purpose shall escape punishment. It was not for this 
that God brought us into this present life, and breathed into 
'al.'liveus a soul, that we should make use of the present time only 7 , 
thVpix• 1 - ^ nt ^ iat we snou ^ d° a ^ our business with a regard to the 
Bent,' life which is to come. Things irrational only are useful for 

κατά rh Λ . „ 

„., the present lite ; but we have an immortal soul, that we may 

use every means to prepare ourselves for that other life. For 
if one enquire the use of horses and asses and oxen, and 
other such-like animals, we shall tell him that it is nothing 
else but only to minister to the present life ; but this cannot 
be said of us ; our best condition is that which follows on 

for an immortal state. 265 

our departure hence ; and we must do all that we may shine John 
there, that we may join the choir of Angels, and stand before the — lizl 
King continually, through endless 1 ages. And therefore theUl. <in- 
soul is immortal, and the body shall be immortal too, that we corrupt 
may enjoy the never-ending blessings. But if, when heavenly 
things are proffered thee, thou remainest nailed to earth, 
consider what an insult is offered to thy Benefactor, when 
He holdeth forth to thee things above, and thou, making no 
great account of them, choosest earth instead. And there- 
fore, as despised by thee, He hath threatened thee with hell, 
that thou mayest learn hence of what great blessings thou 
deprivest thyself. God grant that none make trial of that 
punishment, but that having been well-pleasing to Christ, 
we may obtain everlasting blessings, through the grace and 
loving-kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ ; to Whom with 
the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever, and 
world without end. Amen. 


John iv. 13, 14. 

Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this 
water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the 
Water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the 
Water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of 
water springing up into everlasting Life, 

) Scripture calls the grace of the Spirit sometimes Fire, 
sortTetimes Water, shewing that these names are not de- 
scriptive of Its essence, but of Its operation ; for the Spirit, 
being Invisible and Simple, cannot be made up of different 
Mat. 3, substances. Now the one John declares, speaking thus, He 
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with Fire: the 
John 7, other, Christ, Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living 
Water. But this, saith John, spake He of the Spirit, Which 
they should receive. So also conversing with the woman, 
ι al. He calleth the Spirit Water l ; for, Whosoever shall drink of 
thesame^ 6 Water which I shall give him, shall never thirst. So 
now' also He calleth the Spirit by the name of fire, alluding to 
the rousing and warming property of grace, and its power of 
destroying transgressions ; but by that of water, to declare 
the cleansing wrought by it, and the great refreshment which 

2 ^ it affordeth to those minds which receive it. And with good 
'some reason; for it makes the willing soul like some 2 garden 
ing" 8 thick with all manner of trees fruitful and ever-flourishing, 

3 al. ' as allowing it neither to feel despondency nor the plots of 
ing Satan, and quenches 3 all the fiery darts of the wicked oneO 
ni^'Of Anc * observe ' I P ra . v ) T0U > tlie wisdom of Christ 4 ,"Eow 
God' gently He leads on 5 the woman ; for He did not say at first, 
< ieads V t1l0u k newest Who it is that saith to thee, Give Me to 


Christ sheweth Himself greater than the Patriarch. 267 

drink, but when He had given her an occasion of calling John 
Him a Jew, and brought her beneath the charge of having ^\\ 
done so, repelling the accusation He saith, If thou knewest~ 
Who it is that saith to thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldest 
have asked of Him; and having compelled her by His great 
promises to make mention 1 of the Patriarch, He thus alloweth 1 or, 'to 
the woman to look through 2 , and then when she objects, be™ 6111 " 
Art thou greater than our father Jacob? He saith not, 2 ° r /see 
" Yea, I am greater,"' (for He would have seemed but to 
boast, since the proof did not as yet appear,) but by what 
He saith He effecteth this. For He said not simply, "I will 
give thee water," but having first set that given by Jacob 
aside, He exalteth that given by Himself, desiring to shew 
from the nature of the things given, how great is the interval 
and difference between the persons of the givers 3 , and His 3 al. 
own superiority to the Patriarch. "If," saith He, "thougi v( !^ S 
admirest Jacob because he gave thee this water, what wilt 
thou say if I give thee Water far better than this ? Thou 
hast thyself been first to confess that I am greater than 
Jacob, by arguing against Me, and asking, ' Art thou greater 
than Jacob, that thou promisest to give me better water? 7 
If thou receivest that Water, certainly thou wilt confess that 
I am greater." Seest thou the upright judgment of the 
woman, giving her decision from facts, both as to the Patri- 
arch, and as to Christ ? The Jews acted not thus ; when they 
even saw Him casting out devils, they not only did not call 
Him greater than the Patriarch, but even said that He had a 
devil. Not so the woman, she draws her opinion whence 
Christ would have her, from the demonstration afforded by 
His works. For by these He justifieth Himself, saying, Ifc. 10, 
i" do not the works of My Father, believe Me not ; but if 
I do, if ye believe not Me, believe the works. And thus the 
woman is brought over to the faith. 

Wherefore also He, having heard, Art thou greater than 
our father Jacob, leaveth Jacob, and speaketh concerning 
the water, saying, Whosoever shall drink of this water, shall 
thirst again; and He maketh His comparison, not by depre- 
ciating one, but by shewing the excellence of the other; 
for He saith not, that " this water is naught," nor " that 
it is inferior and contemptible," but what even nature 

268 The Samaritan preferred to Nicodemus. 

Homil. testifies that He saith: Whosoever shall drink of this water 
ΧΧΧΠ • shall thirst again; but whosoever shall drink of the Water 
which I shall give him, shall never thirst. The woman 
v. 10. before this had heard of living Water, but had not known its 
meaning. Since because that water is called " living" which 
is perennial and bubbles up unceasingly from uninterrupted 
springs, she thought that this was the water meant. Where- 
fore He points out this more clearly by speaking thus, and 
establishing by a comparison the superiority (of the Water 
which He would give). What then saith He? Whosoever 
shall drink of the Water that I shall give him, shall never 
thirst. This and what was said next especially shewed the 
superiority, for material water possesses none of these 
qualities. And what is it that follows ? It shall be in him a 
well of water springing up into everlasting life. For as 
one that hath a well within him could never be seized by 
thirst, so neither can he that hath this Water. 

The woman straightway believed, shewing herself much wiser 
than Nicodemus, and not only wiser, but more manly. For 
he when he heard ten thousand such things neither invited 
any others to this hearing, nor himself spake forth openly ; 
but she exhibited the actions of an Apostle, preaching the 
Gospel to all, and calling them to Jesus, and drawing a 
whole city forth to Him. Nicodemus when he had heard 
said, How can these things be? And when Christ set before 
him a clear illustration, that of the wind, he did not even so 
receive the Word. But the woman not so; at first she 
doubted, but afterwards receiving the Word not by any 
regular demonstration, but in the form of an assertion, she 
straightway hastened to embrace it. For when Christ said, 
It shall be in him a well of water springing up into ever- 
lasting life, immediately the woman saith, 

Ver. 15. Give me this water, that I thirst not, neither 
come hither to draw. 

Seest thou how little by little she is led up to the highest 
doctrines? First she thought Him some Jew who was 
transgressing the Law; then when He had repelled that 
accusation, (for it was necessary that the person who was to 
κατ teach 1 her such things should not be suspected,) having 
heard of living wafer, she supposed that this was spoken of 

Her right judgment. 269 

material water; afterwards, having learnt that the words John 
were spiritual, she believed that the water could remove 16 j* 9 

the necessity caused by thirst, but knew not yet what this 
could be; she still doubted, deeming it indeed to be 
above material things, but not being exactly informed. But 
here having gained a clearer insight, but not yet fully 
perceiving the whole, (for she saith, Give me this water, that 
I thirst not, neither come hither to draw,) she for the time 
preferreth Him to Jacob. ki For" (saith she) " I need not 
this well if 1 receive from thee that water." Seest thou 
how she setteth Him before the Patriarch ? This is the act 
of a fairly -judging 1 soul. She had shewn how great an 1 ebyva- 
opinion she had of Jacob, she saw One better than he, and /i0I ' 0S 
was not held back by her prepossession. Thus this woman 
was neither of an easy temper, (she did not carelessly receive 
what was said, how can she have done so when she enquired 
with so great exactness 2 ?) nor yet disobedient, nor disputa- 2 al. 
tious, and this she shewed by her petition. Yet to the Jews n g^ *" 
once He said, Whosoever shall eat of My Flesh 6 shall never c. 6, 35. 
hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst ; but 
they not only did not believe, but were offended at Him. 
The woman had no such feeling, she remains and petitions. 
To the Jews He said, He that believeth on Me shall never 
thirst ; not so to the woman, but more grossly, He that 
drinketh of this Water shall never thirst. For the promise 
referred to spiritual and unseen 3 things. Wherefore having 3 al.< not 
raised her mind by His promises, He still lingers among mte 
expressions relating to sense, because she could not as yet 
comprehend the exact expression of spiritual things. Since 
had He said, "If thou believest in Me thou sbalt not thirst," 
she would not have understood His saying, not knowing 
who it could be that spake to her, nor concerning what 
kind of thirst He spake. Wherefore then did He not this 
in the case of the Jews ? Because they had seen many signs, 
while she had seen no sign, but heard these words first. 
For which reason He afterwards reveals His power by 
prophecy, and does not directly introduce His reproof 4 , but ' * Ae 7- 
what saith He? x ° v 

Ver. 16* — 19. Go, call thy husband, and come hither. 

e δ ερχόμενος προς με G. Τ. 

270 Meekness of the Samaritan woman. 

Homil. The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus 

saith unto her, Thou hast well said, J have no husband : 

for thou hast had Jive husbands, and he whom thou now 
hast is not thy husband: in that saidst thou truly. The 
woman saith unto Him, Sir, I perceive that Thou art a 

Ο how great the wisdom of the woman ! how meekly cloth 
she receive the reproof! " How should she not," saith some 
one ? Tell me, why should she ? Did He not often reprove 
the Jews also, and with greater reproofs than these ? (for it 
is not the same to bring forward the hidden thoughts of the 
heart, as to make manifest a thing that was done in secret; 

1 or, « is the first are known to 1 God alone, and none other knoweth 
of ?" cr them but he who hath them in his heart; the second, all who 

were sharers in it know;) but still they when reproved did 
c 1, 19. not bear it patiently. When He said, Why seek ye to kill 
Me? they not only did not admire as the woman did, but 
even mocked at and insulted Him ; yet they had a demon- 
stration from other miracles, she had only heard this speech. 
Still they not only did not admire, but even insulted Him, 
saying, Thou hast a devil, who seeketh to kill thee? While 
she not only doth not insult but admires, and is astonished at 
Him, and supposes Him to be a Prophet. Yet truly this 
rebuke touched the woman more than the other touched 
them ; for her fault was hers alone, theirs was a general one ; 
and we are not so much stung by what is general as by what 
is particular. Besides they thought they should be gaining 
a great object if they could slay Christ, but that which the 
woman had done was allowed by all to be wicked ; yet was 
she not indignant, but was astonished and wondered. And 
Christ did this very same thing in the case of Nathanael. 
He did not at first introduce the prophecy, nor say, I saw 
thee under the fig-tree, but when Nathanael said, Whence 
knowest thou me? then He introduced this. For He 
desired to take the beginnings of His signs and prophecies 
from the very persons who came near to Him, so that they 

2 aim- might be more attached 2 by what was done, and He might 

escape the suspicion of vain-glory. Now this He doth here 
also ; for to have charged her first of all that, " Thou hast 
no husband," would have seemed burdensome and super- 

Connection of the discourse. 271 

fluous, but to take the reason (for speaking) from herself, and John 
then to set right all these points, was very consistent, and — '-^- 
softened the disposition of the hearer. 

" And what kind of connection," saith some one, "is there 
in the saying, Go, call thy husband?''' The discourse was 
concerning a gift and grace surpassing mortal nature : the 
woman was urgent in seeking to receive it. Christ saith, 
Call thy husband, shewing that he also must share in these 
things; but she eager to receive 1 (the gift), and concealing 1 al. « to 
the shamefulness of the circumstances, and supposing that^, 1 
she was conversing with a man, said, i" have no husband. 
Christ having heard this, now seasonably introduces His 
reproof, mentioning accurately both points ; for He enu- 
merated all her former husbands, and reproved her for him 
whom 2 she now would hide. What then did the woman ? 2 al. the 
she was not annoyed, nor did she leave Him and fly, nor^ 1 ^ 
deem the thing an insult, but rather admired Him, and per- 
severed the more. / perceive, saith she, that Thou art a 
Prophet. Observe her prudence ; she did not straightway 
run to Him, but still considers Him, and marvels at Him. 
*For, / "perceive, means, " Thou appearest to me to be a 
Prophet." Then when she suspected this, she asks Him 
nothing concerning this life, not concerning bodily health, 
or possessions, or wealth, but at once concerning doctrines. 
For what saith she ? 

Ver. 20. Our fathers worshipped in this mountain, 
(meaning Abraham and his family, for thither they say 3 κα \ $ μ , 
that he led up his son,) and how say ye 3 that in Jerusalem ^v^*' 
is the place where men ought to worship? 

[3.] Seest thou how much more elevated in mind she 
has become ? She who was anxious that she might not 
be troubled for thirst, now questions concerning doctrines. 
What then doth Christ ? He doth not resolve the question, 
(for to answer simply to men's words was not His care, for 
it was needless 4 ,) but leads the woman on to the greater 4 na P 4\- 
height, and doth not converse with her on these matters, K0V 
until she has confessed that He was a Prophet, so that 
afterwards she might hear His Word with abundant belief; 
for having been persuaded of this, she could no longer 
doubt concerning what should be said to her. 

272 Sanctifying effect of the Scriptures» 

Homil. Let us now after this be ashamed, and blush. A woman 
—^ — L who had had five husbands, and who was of Samaria, was so 
eager concerning doctrines, that neither the time of day, nor 
her having come for another purpose, nor any thing else, led 
her away from enquiring on such matters; but we not only 
do not enquire concerning doctrines, but towards them all 
our dispositions are careless and indifferent. Therefore 
every thing is neglected. For which of you when in his house 
1 πυκτίον takes some Christian book 1 in hand, and goes over its 
contents, and searches the Scriptures ? None can say that 
he does so, but with most we shall find draughts and dice, 
but books no where, except among a few. And even these 
few have the same dispositions as the many ; for they tie up 
their books, and keep them always put away in cases, and 
all their care is for the fineness of the parchments, and 
the beauty of the letters, not for reading them. For they 
have not bought them to obtain advantage and benefit from 
them, but take pains about such matters to shew their wealth 
and pride. Such is the excess of vain-glory. I do not hear 
any one glory that he knows the contents, but that he hath a 
book written in letters of gold. And what gain, tell me, is, 
this ? The Scriptures were not given us for this only, that 
we might have them in books, but that we might engrave 
them on our hearts. For this kind of possession, the keeping 
the commandments merely in letter, belongs to Jewish 
2 ai. i this ambition ; but to us the Law was not so given 2 at all, but 
W asnot ni tne fi^hy tables of our hearts 3 . And this I say, not 
given' to prevent you from procuring Bibles, on the contrary, 
the Day I exhort and earnestly pray that you do this, but I desire 
f P tt~ tna t from those books you convey the letters and sense 
into your understanding, that so it may be purified when it 
4 al.'thereceiveth the meaning of the writing 4 . For if the devil will not 
oTtbe 7 dare t0 approach a house where a Gospel is lying, much less 
matters.' will any evil spirit, or any sinful nature 5 , ever touch or enter 
ture of a soul which bears about with it such sentiments as it con- 
tains. Sanctify then thy soul, sanctify thy body, by having 
these ever in thy heart, and on thy tongue. For if foul 
speech defiles and invites devils, it is clear that spiritual 
6 al.<the rea( ji n g sanctifies and draws down the grace of the Spirit. 
i.e.oftheThe Scriptures 8 are divine charms, let us then apply to 


Spectacle of the spiritual combat. £73 

ourselves and 1 to the passions of our souls the remedies to John 
be derived from them. For if we understand what it is that . * 20 ' 


is read, we shall hear it with much readiness. I am always [let us 
saying this, and will not cease to say it. Is it not strange P re P are J 
that those who sit by the market can tell the names, and 
families, and cities of charioteers, and dancers, and the kinds 
of power possessed by each, and can give exact account of 
the good or bad qualities of the very horses, but that those 
who come hither should know nothing of what is done here, 
but should be ignorant of the number even of the sacred 
Books? If thou pursuest those worldly things for pleasure, 
I will shew thee that here is greater pleasure. Which is 
sweeter, tell me, which more marvellous, to see a man 
wrestling with a man, or a man buffeting with a devil, a 
body closing with an incorporeal power, and him who is 
of thy race victorious ? These wrestlings let us look on, 
these, which also it is seemly and profitable to imitate, 
and which imitating, we may be 2 crowned; but not 2 al. 'it 
those in which emulation brings shame to him who imitates m ^ to 
them. If thou beholdest the one kind of contest, thou be' 
beholdest it with devils ; the other, with Angels and Arch- 
angels, and the Lord of Archangels. Say now, if thou 
wert allowed to sit with governors and kings, and to see and 
enjoy the spectacle, wouldest thou not deem it to be a very 
great honour ? And here when thou art a spectator in 
company with the King of Angels, when thou seest the devil 
grasped by the middle of the back a , striving much to have 
the better, but powerless, dost thou not run and pursue after 
such a sight as this ? " And how can this be ?" saith some 
one. If thou keep the Bible in thy hands ; for in it thou 
shalt see the lists, and the long races, and his grasps b , and the 
skill of the righteous one. For by beholding these things thou 
shalt learn also how to wrestle so thyself, and shalt escape 
clear of devils ; the performances of the heathen are as- 

a Morel, 'beholding the dfcvil shamed place dug out for the exercise, hence 

by means of the Divine oracles, and the exercise itself, δίαυλος, the double 

greatly striving.' Below Morel, reads, course, λαβί?, the gripe of the wrestler. 

1 run to such a sight.' Thus of Job, on Stat. Horn. i. 16 ; of 

b σκάμματα, oiavAovs, λαβα$, terms the Three Children, ib. Horn. iv. 8, 

of the wrestling school, σκάμμα, the &c. 

274 Heathen spectacles to he avoided. 

Homil. semblies of devils, not theatres of men. Wherefore I exhort 
5- — : you to abstain from these Satanic assemblies' 1 ; for if it is not 
lawful to enter into an idol's house, much less to Satan's 
festival. I shall not cease to say these things and weary 
Phil. 3, you, until I see some change ; for to say these things, as 
saith Paul, to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is 
safe. Be not then offended at my exhortation. If any one 
ought to be offended, it is I who often speak and am not 
heard, not you who are always hearing and always disobeying. 
God grant that you be not always liable to this charge, but 
that freed from this shame you be deemed worthy to enjoy 
the spiritual spectacle d , and the glory which is to come, 
through the grace and lovingldndness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, with Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost be 
glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 

c This clause is not found in Ben, d al. { of the Eternal Goods.' 


John i v. 21 j 22. 

Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe 3Ie 9 the hour cometh, 
when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jeru- 
salem, worship the Father, Ye worship ye know not 
what ; we know what we worship, for salvation is of the 

Every where, beloved, we have need of faith, faith the 
mother of blessings, the medicine of salvation ; and without 
this it is impossible to possess any one of the great doctrines. 
Without this, men are like to those who attempt to cross* 
the open sea without a ship, who for a little way hold out by 
swimming, using both hands and feet, but when they have 
advanced farther, are quickly swamped by the waves : in 
like manner they who use their own reasonings, before they 
have learnt any thing, suffer shipwreck ; as also Paul saith, 
Who concerning faith have made shipwreck. That this be ] Tilu • 
not our case, let us hold fast the sacred anchor by which ' 
Christ bringeth over the Samaritan woman now. For when 
she had said, How say ye 1 that Jerusalem is the place in l tyeis 
which men ought to worship? Christ replied, Believe iLfe,^ 7 ,^ 6 ' 
woman, that the hour cometh,when ye shall neither in Jeru- 
salem, nor yet in this mountain, worship the Father. An ex- 
ceedingly great 2 doctrine He revealed to her, and one which 2 ™ λί/ 
He did not mention either to Nicodemus or Nathanael. 
She was eager to prove her own privileges more honourable 
than those of the Jews ; and this she subtly argued from the 
Fathers, but Christ met not this question. For it was for 
the time distracting 3 to speak on the matter, and to shew 3 -4>«* : 
why the Fathers worshipped in the mountain, and why the 

β διαβαλ*7ν, al. SiaAajSeTf, al. dianepny. 


276 Jewish worship preferred to Samaritan: 

Homil. Jews at Jerusalem. Wherefore on this point He was silent, 

— : and having taken away from both places priority in dignity, 

rouses her soul by shewing that neither Jews nor Samaritans 
possessed any thing great in comparison with that which 
was to be given ; and then He introduceth the difference. 
Yet even thus He declared that the Jews w T ere more honour- 
able, not preferring place to place, but giving them the pre- 
cedence because of their intention. As though He had said, 
" About the j)lace of worship ye have no need henceforth 
to dispute, but in the manner the Jews have an advantage 
over you Samaritans, for ye, He saith, worship ye know not 
what ; we know what we worship" 

How then did the Samaritans know not what they 
worshipped ? Because they thought that God was local 
and partial; so at least they served Him, and so they sent to 
2 Kings the Persians, and reported that "the God of this place is 
wroth with us," in this respect forming no higher opinion of 
Him than of their idols. Wherefore they continued to serve 
both Him and devils, joining things which ought not to be 
joined. The Jews, on the contrary, were free from this 
supposition, at least the greater part of them, and knew that 
He was God of the world. Therefore He saith, Ye worship 
ye know not what; we know what we worship. Do not 
wonder that He numbereth Himself among Jews, for He 
speaketh to the woman's opinion of Him as though He were 
a Jewish Prophet, and therefore He putteth, we worship. 
For that He is of the objects of worship is clear to every 
one, because to worship belongs to the creature, but to be 
worshipped to the Lord of the creature. But for a time He 
speaketh as a Jew ; and the expression we in this place 
meaneth " we Jews." Having then exalted what was Jewish, 
He next maketh Himself credible, and persuadeth the woman 
to give the greater heed to His words, by rendering His dis- 
course above suspicion, and shewing that He doth not exalt 

ι «1.' fa- what belongs to them by reason of relationship 1 to those of 
vour' j^ s Qwn tribe> For it is cleM / that Qne Who had made t j jege 

declarations concerning the place on which the Jews most 

prided themselves, and thought that they were superior to all, 

and Who had taken away their high claims, would not after 

t ^ 8 a this 2 speak to get favour of any, but with truth and prophetic 

yet only a type of the true. 277 

power. When therefore He had for a while removed her from John 

TV, 23. 

such reasonings b , saying, Woman, believe Me, and what — ' — '- 
follows, then He addeth, for salvation is of the Jews. What 
He saith is of this kind : either, that blessings to the world 
came from them, (for to know God and condemn idols had its 
beginning from them, and with you the very act of worship, 
although ye do it not rightly, yet received its origin from 
them,) or else, He speaketh of His own Coming. Or rather, 
one would not be wrong in calling both these things salvation 
which He said was of the Jews ; which Paul implied when 
he said, Of whom is Christ according to the flesh, Who is Rom. 9, 
God over all. Seest thou how He commendeth 1 the oldf^. 
Covenant, and sheweth that it is the root of blessings, and «pore? 
that He is throughout not opposed to the Law, since He 
maketh the groundwork 2 of all good things to come from 9 for<f- 

Ί τ θεσιν 

the Jews r 

Ver. 23. But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true 
ivorshippers shall worship the Father. 

" We, Ο woman," He saith, "excel* you in the manner of 
our worship, but even this shall henceforth have an end. 
Not the places only, but even the manner of serving God 
shall be changed. And this change is at your very doors. 
For the hour cometh, and now is" 

[2.] For since what the Prophets said they said long 
before the event, to shew that here it is not so 3 , He saith, 3 lit.'re- 
And now is. " Think not," He saith, " that this is a pro-™ s \ mg 
phecy of such a kind as shall be accomplished after a long 
time, the fulfilment is already at hand and at your very doors, 
when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit 
and in truth. In saying true 4 , He excludeth Jews as welUaL 
as Samaritans; for although the Jews be better Lhan the' truth ' 
Samaritans, yet are they far inferior to those that shall come, 
as inferior as is the type to the reality. But He speaketh of 
the Church, that she 5 is the true worship, and such as is3 r, 
meet for God. 

For the Father seeketh such to worship Him. 

If then He in times past sought such as these, He allowed 
to those others their way of worship, not willingly c , but from 

«• al. ' removed (her) reasoning from the Ms. in Bodl. < not willing them 
such things.' to continue in those ancient (prac- 

c The passage is read differently in tiers). ' 

278 True worship spiritual. 

Homil. condescension, and for this reason 1 , that He might bring 
f**v T ' them in also. Who then are the true worshippers ? Those 

1 al. * by t ■" _ 

these who confine not their service by place, and who serve God 
™aL Μη * n s V irit 5 as P au l saith, Whom I serve in my spirit* in the 
spirit. Gospel of His Son : and again, I beseech you that ye present 
in &c> your bodies a living sacrifice, acceptable unto God, your 
Rom. i, reasonable service. But when He saith, 
12, l. Ver. 24. God is a Spirit, 

He declareth nothing else than His incorporeal Nature. 
Now the service of that which is incorporeal must needs be 
of the same character, and must be offered by that in us 
which is incorporeal, to wit, the soul, and purity of mind. 
Wherefore He saith, They that worship Him, must worship 
Him in spirit and in truth. For because both Samaritans 
and Jews were careless about the soul, but took great pains 
about the body, cleansing it in divers ways, " it is not,' 1 He 
saith, " by purity of body, but by that which is incorporeal 
in us, namely the mind, that the Incorporeal One is served. 
Sacrifice then not sheep and calves, but dedicate thyself to 
the Lord ; make thyself a holocaust, this is to offer a living 
sacrifice. Ye must worship in truth d ; as former things 
were types, such as circumcision, and whole burnt offerings, 
and victims, and incense, they now no longer exist, but all 
is truth. For a man must now circumcise not his flesh, but 
his evil thoughts, and crucify himself, and remove and slay 
his unreasonable desires." The woman was made dizzy by 
3 awvyo- His discourse, and fainted 3 at the sublimity of what He said 3 
peu<re and, in her trouble, hear what she saith : 

Ver. 25, 26. / know that Messias comelh, Which is called 
Christ, when He is come, He will tell us all things. Jesus, 
saith unto her, I am that speak unto thee. 

And whence came the Samaritans to expect the coming of 
Christ, seeing that they received Moses only'? From the 
writings of Moses themselves. For even in the beginning 
Gen. ], He revealed the Son. Let Us make man in Our Image, after 
Our Likeness, was said to the Son. It was He Who talked 
Gen. 18. with Abraham in the tent. And Jacob prophesying con- 
cerning Him said, Λ ruler shall not fail from Judah, nor a 

ά Ms. in Bodl. < this is to worship « Ms. in Bodl. « the law of Moses,' 
in truth.'' 

Why Christ revealed Himself to the woman. 279 

leader from his thighs, until He come for whom it is reserved*, John 
and He is the expectation of nations. And Moses himself rrizr 
saith, The Lord thy Godivill raise up unto you a Prophet qf^ertu 
your brethren like unto me,unlo Him shall ye hearken. And J5 eut * ' 
the circumstances attending the serpent, and the rod of 
Moses, and Isaac, and the sheep, and many other things 
they who chose might select as proclaiming His coming. 

" And why, pray," saith one, " did not Christ lead on the 
woman by these means ? why did He instance the serpent 
to Nicodemus, and mention prophecy to Nathanael, but to 
her say nothing of the kind? For what reason, and why?" 
Because they were men, and were versed in these things, 
she a poor ignorant woman unpractised in the Scriptures. 
Wherefore He doth not speak to her from them, but draweth 
her on by the water and by prophecy, and bringeth her to 
make mention of Christ, and then revealeth Himself; which 
had He at first told the woman when she had not questioned 
Him, He would have seemed to her to trifle and talk idly, 
while as it is by bringing her little by little to mention Him, 
at a fitting time He revealed Himself. To the Jews, who 
continually said, How long dost Thou make us to doubt? telle- 10,24. 
us if Thou art the Christ, to them 2 He gave no clear answer, 2 a l. 
bat to this woman He said plainly, that He is. For the 
woman was more fair-minded than the Jews ; they did not 
enquire to learn, but always to mock at Him, for had they 
desired to learn, the teaching which was by His words, and 
by the Scriptures, and by His miracles would have been 
sufficient. The woman, on the contrary, said what she said 
from an impartial judgment and a simple mind, as is plain 
from what she did afterwards; for she both heard and 
believed, and netted 3 others also, and in every circumstance 3 4σαγή- 
we may observe the carefulness and faith of the woman. 

Ver. 27. And upon this came His disciples, (very season- 
ably did they come when the teaching was finished,) and 
marvelled that He talked with the woman, yet no man 
said, What seekest Thou? or, Why talkest Thou tcith 
her f 

[S.] At what did they marvel? At His want of pride and 
exceeding humility, that looked upon as He was, He endured 
with such lowliness of heart to talk with a woman poor, and 

ορό The beloved disciple to be imitated. 

HoMiL.a Samaritan. Still in their amazement they did not ask 
XXXIII ' Him the reason, so well were they taught to keep the station 
of disciples, so much did they fear and reverence Him. 
For although they did not as yet hold the right opinion 
concerning Him, still they gave heed unto Him as to some 
marvellous one, and paid Him much respect. Yet they fre- 
quently are seen to act confidently; as when John lay upon 
Mat. 18, His bosom, when they came to Him and said, Who is the 
l ' greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven, when the sons of 
Zebedee entreated Him to set one of them on His right 
hand, and the other on His left. Why then did they not 
here question Him? Because since all those instances 
related to themselves, they had need to enquire into them, 
while what here took place was of no such great importance 
to them. And indeed John did that a long time after 
towards the very end, when He enjoyed greater confidence, 
and was bold in the love of Christ; for he it vvas f , he saith, 
whom Jesus loved. What could equal such blessedness ? 

But, beloved, let us not stop at this, the calling the 
Apostle blessed, but let us do all things that we also may be 
of the blessed, let us imitate the Evangelist, and see what it 
was that caused such great love. What then was it ? He 
left his father, his ship, and his net, and followed Jesus. 
Yet this he did in common with his brother, and Peter, and 
Andrew, and the rest of the Apostles. What then was the 
ifaipe special 1 thing which caused this great love? Shall we 
discover it ? He saith nothing of this kind about himself, 
but only that he was beloved ; as to the righteous acts for 
which he was beloved he has modestly been silent. That 
Jesus loved him with an especial love was clear to every 
one; yet John doth not appear conversing with or question- 
ing Jesus privately, as Peter often did, and Philip, and 
Judas, and Thomas, except only when he desired to shew 
kindness and compliance to his fellow Apostle ; for when 
2 /fopu- the chief 2 of the Apostles by beckoning constrained him, 
$ aios then he asked. For these two had great love each for the 
other. Thus, for instance, they are seen going up together 
into the Temple and speaking in common to the people. 

f Ms. in Bodleian, ' for, saith the Evangelist, Peter looks on the disciple.' 


Lowliness the chief virtue. 281 

Yet Peter in many places 1 is moved, and speaks more John 
warmly than John. And at the end he hears Christ say, 1 al ' t al j 
Peter, lovest thou Me more than these? Now it is clear places' 
that he who loved more than these was also beloved. Bute. 21,15. 
this in his case was shewn by loving Jesus, in the case oi^^" 
the other by being beloved by Jesus 8 . G-. T. 

What then was it which caused this especial love ? To 
my thinking, it was that the man displayed great gentleness 
and meekness, for which reason he doth not appear in many 
places speaking openly. And how great a thing this is, is 
plain also from the case of Moses. It was this which made 
him such and so great as he was. There is nothing equal 
to lowliness of mind. For which cause Jesus with this 
began the Beatitudes, and when about to lay as it were the 
foundation and base of a mighty building, He placed first 
lowliness of mind. Without this a man cannot possibly be 
saved ; though he fast, though he pray, though he give 
alms, if it be with a proud spirit, these 2 things are abomi- 2 α } φ < a n> 
nable, if humility be not there; while if*it be, all these things 
are amiable and lovely, and are done with safety. Let us 
then be modest 3 , beloved, let us be modest ; success is easy, 3 μξΤρι . 
if we be sober-minded. For after all what is it, Ο maD,w € " 
that exciteth thee to pride ? Seest thou not the poverty of 
thy nature ? the unsteadiness 4 of thy will ? Consider thine 4τ & €i) . 
end, consider the multitude of thy sins. But perhaps 6\ισθον 
because thou doest many righteous deeds thou art proud. 
By that very pride thou shalt undo them all. Wherefore it 
behoveth not so much him that has sinned 5 as him that s a i. < t hat 
doeth righteousness to take pains to be humble. Why so ? sinneth ' 
Because the sinner is constrained by conscience, while the 
other, except he be very sober, soon caught up as by a 
blast of wind is lifted on high, and made to vanish like the 
Pharisee. Dost thou give to the poor ? What thou givest 
is not thine, but thy Master's, common to thee and thy 
fellow-servants. For which cause thou oughtest especially to 
be humbled, in the calamities of those who are thy kindred 
foreseeing thine own, and taking knowledge of thine own 

s i.e. St. Peter loved his Lo-id, speaks express!), as being the Disciple 
and therefore we infer that he was whom Jesus loved. 
loved of Him ; of St. John Scripture 

282 True honour gained by almsdoing. 

Homil. nature in their cases. We ourselves perhaps are sprung 
! — : — ' from such ancestors ; and if wealth has shifted to you, it is 
probable that it will leave you again. And after all, what is 
^αδρανής wealth ? A vain 1 shadow, dissolving smoke, a flower of the 
grass, or rather something meaner than a flower. Why 
then art thou high-minded over grass? Doth not wealth 
fall to thieves, and effeminates, and harlots, and tomb- 
breakers ? Doth this puff thee up, that thou hast such as 
these to share in thy possession ? or dost thou desire honour? 
Towards gaining honour nothing is more serviceable than 
almsgiving. For the honours arising from wealth and power 
are compulsory, and attended with hatred, but these others 
are from the free will and real feeling of the honourers ; 
and therefore those who pay them can never give them up. 
Now if men shew such reverence for the merciful, and 
invoke all blessings upon them, consider what return, what 
recompense they shall receive from the merciful God. Let 
us then seek this wealth which endure th for ever, and never 
*?"**' deserts 2 us, that, becoming great here and glorious there, we 
may obtain everlasting blessings, through the grace and 
lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to 
the Father and the Holy Spirit be glory, now and ever 2 
and world without end. Amen. 




John iv. 28, 29. 

The woman then left her water pot, and went her way into 
the city, and saith to the men, Come, see a Man which 
told me all tilings that ever I did; is not this the Christ? 

We require much fervour and uproused zeal, for without 
these it is impossible to obtain the blessings promised to us. 
And to shew this, Christ at one time saith, Except a man Mat. 10 
take up his cross and follow Me, he is not worthy ofMe;'^- 
at another, / am come to send fire upon the earth, and what \ αμ βά- 
will I if it he already kindled? by both these desiring to 1 '" 
represent to us a disciple full of heat and fire, and prepared G. T. ' 
for every danger. Such an one was this woman. For so^ 9 uke12 ' 
kindled was she by His words, that she left her water pot 
and the purpose for which she came, ran into the city, and 
drew all the people to Jesus. Come, she saith, see a Man 
which told me all things that ever I did. 

Observe her zeal and wisdom. She came to draw water, 
and when she had lighted upon the true Well, she after that 
despised the material one ; teaching us even by this trifling 
instance when we are listening to spiritual matters to over- 
look the things of this life, and make no account of them. 
For what the Apostles did, that, after her ability, did this 
woman also 2 . They when they were called, left their nets; 2 Ben. 
she of her own accord, without the command of any, leaves her ' . in a 
water pot, and winged by joy 3 performs the office of Evan- degree.' 
relists. And she calls not one or two, as did Andrew and 3al, \ by 


Philip, but having aroused a whole city and people, so 
brought them to Him. 

284 Prudence of the Samaritan woman. 

Homil. Observe too how prudently she speaks ; she said not, 
* XXI [ o * " Come, see the Christ," but with the same condescension ' 
their in- by which Christ had netted her she draws the men to Him ; 
firmity. ^^ g j ie ^^ gee a Jft an jyj w f^ me a u t ] m f ever J fa^ 

She was not ashamed to say that He told me all that ever I 
did. Yet she might have spoken otherwise, " Come, see 
one that prophesieth ;" but when the soul is inflamed with 
holy fire, it looks then to nothing earthly, neither to glory 
nor to shame, but belongs to one thing alone, the flame 
which occupieth it. 

Is not this the Christ? Observe again here the great 
wisdom of the woman ; she neither declared the fact plainly, 
nor w T as she silent, for she desired not to bring them in 
by her own assertion, but to make them to share in this 
opinion by hearing Him; which rendered her words more 
readily acceptable to them. Yet He had not told all her 
life to her, only from what had been said she was persuaded 
(that He was informed) as to the rest. Nor did she say, 
3 al. "Come, believe," but, Come, see; a gentler 2 expression 
than the other, and one which more attracted them. Seest 
thou the wisdom of the woman? She knew, she knew 
certainly that having but tasted that Well, they would be 
affected in the same manner as herself. Yet any one of the 
grosser sort would have concealed the reproof which Jesus 
had given; but she parades her own life, and brings it 
forward before all men, so as to attract and capture all. 

Ver. 31. hi the mean time His disciples asked* Him, 
saying, Master, eat. Asked, here is 6 besought,' in their 
native language; for seeing Him wearied with the journey, 
and the oppressive heat, they entreated Him ; for their request 
concerning food proceeded not from hastiness, but from loving 
affection for their Teacher. What then saith Christ ? 

Ver. 32, 38. / have meat to eat that ye know not of. 
Therefore (saith the Evangelist) said the disciples one to 
another, Hath any man brought Him ought to eat? 

Why now vvonderest thou that the woman when she heard 
of water, still imagined mere water to be meant, when even 
the disciples are in the same case, and as yet suppose nothing 

a ηρώτων. Ε. V. prayed; Ben. and \ovv earl, rrj έ*γχωρίφ αυτών φωνί}. 
Ms. in Bodl. -ηρώτων ενταύθα παρςκα- 

' more 

Disciples led on to enquiry, 285 

spiritual, but are perplexed? though they still shew their ac- John 
customed modesty and reverence toward their Master, con- 34 . 3 ' 5 . 
versing one with the other, but not daring to put any question "~ 
to Him. And this they do in other places, desiring to ask 
Him, but not asking. What then saith Christ? 

Ver. 34. My meat is to do the will of Him that sent Me, 
and to finish His work. 

He here calleth the salvation of men meat, shewing what 
an earnest desire He hath of providing for us b ; for as we 
long for food, so He that we may be saved. And hear how 
in all places He revealeth not all off-hand, but first throweth 
the hearer into perplexity, in order that having begun to 
seek the meaning of what has been said, and then being 
perplexed and in difficulty, he may when what he sought 
appears, receive it the more readily, and be made more 
attentive to listening. For wherefore said He not at once, 
" My meat is to do the will of My Father?" (though not even 
this would have been clear, yet clearer than the other.) But 
what saith He? / have meat to eat that ye know not of ; 
for He desireth, as I said, first to make them more attentive 
through their uncertainty, and by dark sayings like these to 
accustom them to listen to His words. But what is " the 
will of the Father?" He next speaketh of this, and ex- 

Ver. 35. Say ye not, that there are yet four months, and 
then comet h harvest? Beheld, I say unto you, Lift up your 
eyes, and look upon the fields, for they are white already to 

[2.] Behold, He again by familiar words leadeth them up 
to the consideration of greater matters ; for when He spoke 
of meat, He signified nothing else than the salvation of the 
men who should come to Him; and again, the field and the 
harvest signify the very same thing, the multitude of souls 
prepared for the reception of the preaching; and the eyes 
of which He speaketh are those both of the mind and of the 
body ; (for they now beheld the crowd of Samaritans ad- 
vancing;) and the readiness of their will He calleth, fields 
already while. For as the ears of corn, when they have 

b Ms. in Bodl. ' our salvation.' 

286 The spiritual harvest. 

Homil. become white are ready for reaping, so these, He saith, are 
XXSIV • prepared and fitted for salvation. 

And wherefore instead of calling them fields and harvest, 
did He not plainly say, that ' c the men were coming to 
believe and were ready to receive the Word, having been 
instructed by the Prophets, and now bringing forth fruit?" 
What mean these figures used by Him? for this He doth not 
here only, but through all the Gospel ; and the Prophets also 
employ the same method, saying many things in a meta- 
phorical manner. What then may be the cause of this ? for 
the grace of the Spirit did not ordain it to be so without 
a reason, but why and wherefore ? On two accounts ; one, that 
the discourse may be more vivid, and bring what is said more 
clearly before our eyes. For the mind when it has laid hold 
on a familiar image of the matters in hand, is more aroused, 
and beholding them as it were in a picture, is occupied by 
them to a greater degree. This is one reason ; the other is, 
that the statement may be sweetened, and that the memory 
of what is said may be more lasting. For assertion does not 
subdue and bring in an ordinary hearer so much as narration 
by objects, and the representation of experience . Which 
one may here see most wisely effected by the parable. 

Ver. 36. And he that reapeth receive th wages, and gather- 
eth fruit unto life eternal. 

For the fruit of an earthly harvest profiteth not to life 
eternal, but to this which is for a time ; but the spiritual fruit 
to that which hath neither age nor death. Seest thou that 
the expressions are of sense, but the thoughts spiritual, and 
that by the very words themselves He divideth things 
earthly from heavenly ? For when in discoursing of water He 
made this the peculiar property of the heavenly Water, that 
" he who drinketh it shall never thirst,' , so He doth here 
also when He saith, " that this fruit is gathered unto eternal 

That both he that soweth and he that reapeth may rejoice 

Who is he that soweth? Who he that reapeth? The Pro- 

e i. e. given by means of things which are objects of experience, viroypafh 
weipas, al. πείρα. 

One soiceth and another reapeth. 2&7 

phets are they that sowed, but they reaped not, but the John 
Apostles. " Yet not on this account are they deprived of the — '— - 
pleasure and recompense of their labours, but they rejoice 
and are glad with us, although they reap not with us. For 
harvest is not such work as sowing. I therefore have kept 
you for that in which the toil is less and the pleasure greater, 
and not for sowing because in that there is much hardship 
and toil. In harvest the return is large, the labour not so 
great ; nay there is much facility 1 ." By these arguments He ι ^κο\ί α , 
here desireth to prove, that " the wish of the Prophets is, ^^ 
that all men should come to Me." This also the Law was 
engaged in effecting; and for this they sowed, that they 
might produce this fruit 2 . He sheweth moreover that He 2 ai. 'by 
sent them also, and that there was a very intimate connection t 1S 
between the New Covenant and the Old, and all this He 
eflfecteth at once by this parable. He maketh mention also 
of a proverbial expression generally circulated. 

Ver. 37. Herein, He saith, is that % saying true, One 
soweth and another reapeth. 

These words the many used whenever one party had 
supplied toil and another had reaped the fruits; and He 
saith, " that the proverb is in this instance especially true, 
for the Prophets laboured, and ye reap the fruits of their 
labours.'" He said not " the rewards," (for neither did their 
great labour go unrewarded,) but " the fruits." This also 
Daniel did, for he too makes mention of a proverb, Wicked- 
ness proceedeth from the wicked; and David in his lament- 
ing makes mention of a similar proverb d . Therefore He 
said beforehand, that both he that soweth and he thai 
reapeth may rejoice together. For since He was about to 
declare, that " one hath sowed and another reapeth," lest 
any one should deem that the Prophets were deprived of 
their reward, He asserteih something strange and para- 
doxical, such as never chanceth in sensual things, but is 
peculiar to spiritual only. For in things of sense, if it 
chance that one sow and another reap, they do not rejoice 

c There is no authority for a different by David, 1 Sam. xxiv. 13. and the 

reading, but it seems to be rightly con- other passage alluded to may be Dan. 

jectured by Savile and Ben. that the xii. 10. the wicked shall do wickedly. 

names Daniel and David should be Ms. in Bodl. reads, ανομία 4κ βαβνλώνοί 

transposed. The proverb is that used for e£ ανόμων π\•ημμςλ*ία. 

288 Reaping easier than solving. 

Homil. together, but those who sowed are sad, as having laboured 

xxxiv. ^ Qr others, and those who reap alone rejoice. But here it is 

not so, but those who reap not what they sowed rejoice alike 

with those who reap ; whence it is clear that they too share 

the reward. 

Ver. 38. / sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no 
labour; other men laboured, and ye are entered into their 

By this He the more encourageth them; for when it 
seemed a very hard matter to go through all the world 
and preach the Gospel, He sheweth them that it is even 
» al. most 1 easy. The very difficult work was that other, which 
more required great labour, the putting in the seed, and intro- 
ducing the uninitiated soul to the knowledge of God. But 
wherefore utterelh He these sayings ? It is that when He 
sendeth them to preach they may not be confounded, as 
though sent on a difficult task. " For that of the Prophets," 
He saith, " was the more difficult, and the fact witnesseth to 
My word, that ye are come to what is easy ; because as in 
harvest time the fruits are collected with ease, and in one 
2 al. moment the floor is filled with sheaves, which await 2 not the 
revolutions of the seasons, and winter, and spring, and rain, 
so it is now. The facts proclaim it aloud." While He was 
in the midst of saying these things, the Samaritans came 
forth, and the fruit was at once gathered together. On this 
account 6 He said, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields, 
that they are white. Thus He spake, and the fact was 
clear, and the words seen (true) by the event. For saith 
St. John, 

Ver. 39. Many of the Samaritans of that city believed on 
Him for the saying of the woman which testified, He told me 
all that ever I did. 

They perceived f that the woman would not from favour 
have admired One Who had rebuked her sins, nor to gratify 
another have paraded her own course of life. 

[3.] Let us then also imitate this woman, and in the case 
of our own sins not be ashamed of men, but fear, as is meet, 
God Who now beholdeth what is done, and Who hereafter 

e Ms. in Bodl. ' alluding to these.' heard the woman they believed, for 
f Ms. in Bodl. ' ;ts soon as they they,' &c. 

Exhortation to self -judgment. 289 

punisheth those who do not now repent. At present we do John 
the opposite of this, for we fear not Him Who shall judge IY ' 39, 

us, but shudder at those who do not in any thing hurt us, 
and tremble at the shame which comes from them. There- 
fore in the very thing which we fear, in this do we incur 
punishment. For he who now regards only the reproach 
of men, but when God seeth is not ashamed to do any thing 
unseemly, and who will not repent and be converted, in that 
day will be made an example, not only before one or two, 
but in the sight of the whole world. For that a vast 
assembly is seated there to behold righteous actions as well 
as those which are not such, let the parable of the sheep and 
the goats teach thee, as also the blessed Paul when he sailh, 
For we must all appear before the judgment-seat of Christ,' 1 Cor. 5, 
that every one may receive the things done in his body, 
according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad ; 
and again, Who will bring to light the hidden things of dark- 1 Cor. 4, 
ness. Hast thou clone or imagined any evil thing, and dost 
thou hide it from mau ? yet from God thou hiclest it not. But 
for this thou carest nothing; the eyes of men, these are thy 
fear. Think then that thou wilt not be able to escape the 
sight even of men in that day g ; for all things as in a picture 
shall then be set before our very eyes, so that each shall be 
self-condemned. This is clear even from the instance of 
Dives, for the poor man whom he had neglected, Lazarus 
I mean, he saw standing before his eyes, and the finger 
which he had often loathed, he intreats may become a 
comfort to him then. I exhort you therefore, that although no 
one see what we do, yet that each of us enter into his own 
conscience, and set reason for his judge, and bring forward 
his transgressions, and if he desire them not to be exposed 
to public view then in that fearful day, let him now heal las 
wounds, let him apply to them the medicines of repentance. 
For it is in the power, yea, it is in the power of one full of 
ten thousand wounds to go hence whole. For " if ye forgive," Mat. β, 
He saith, "your sins are forgiven unto youV For as sins Jerbally 
buried 1 in Baptism appear no more, so these' also shall quoted.] 


s Ms. in Bodleian reads here, ' and Father will also forgive you, but if ye μ ςνα 
be more careful than thy (present) self.' forgive not, neither will He forgive you. 

h Ms. in Bodl. reads, My Heavenly * i. e. sins done after Baptism. 

290 Effectual repentance: the end is at hand. 

Homil. disappear, if we be willing to repent. And repentance is 
XX * 1V • the not doing the same again ; for he that again puts his 
hand to the same, is like the dog that returneth to his own 
vomit, and like him in the proverb who cards wool into 
the fire k , and draws water into a cask full of holes. Tt 
behoves therefore to depart both in action and in thought 
from what we have dared to do, and having departed, 
to apply to the wounds the remedies which are the con- 
traries of our sins. For instance : hast thou been grasp- 
ing and covetous ? Abstain from rapine, and apply alms- 
giving to the wound. Hast thou been a fornicator? 
Abstain from fornication, and apply chastity to the wound. 
Hast thou spoken ill of thy brother, and injured him? Cease 
ι at. finding fault 1 , and apply kindness. Let us thus act with 
• S i ea ^i' res P ect to eacn P°i n t in which we have offended, and let us 
not carelessly pass by our sins, for there awaiteth us hereafter, 
there awaiteth us a season of account. Wherefore also Paul 
Phil. 4 said, The Lord is at hand: be careful for nothing. But we 
5 • 6 • perhaps must add the contrary of this, " The Lord is at 
hand, be careful." For they might well hear, Be careful for 
nothing, living as they did in afflictiou, and labours, and 
trials ; but they who live by rapine, or in luxury, and who 
shall give a grievous reckoning, would in reason hear not 
this, but that other, " The Lord is at hand, be careful." 
Since no long time now remains until the consummation, 
but the world is hastening to its end ; this the wars declare, 
this the afflictions, this the earthquakes, this the love which 
hath waxed cold. For as the body when in its last gasp 
and near to death, draws to itself ten thousand sufferings; 
and as when a house is about to fall, many portions are wont 
to fall beforehand from the roof and walls ; so is the end of 
the world nigh and at the very doors, and therefore ten 
thousand woes are every where scattered abroad. If the 
Lord was then at hand, much more is He now at hand. 
sal.'fourlf three hundred 2 years ago, when those words were used, 
dred' P alu called that season " the fulness of time," much more 
would he have called the present so. But perhaps for this 
very reason some disbelieve, yet they ought on this account 

k Els πυρ ξαίνοντι. Plat. Legg. vi. p. of Savile. 
750. < And like,' &c. is not in the text 

Suddenness of Christ's coming. 291 

to believe the more. For whence knowcst thou, Ο man, John 
that the end is not at hand, and the words shortly to be — '— 
accomplished ? For as we speak of the end of the year not 
as being the last day, but also the last month, though it has 
thirty days ; so if of so many years I call even four hundred 
years " the end," I shall not be wrong; and so at that time 
Paul spoke of the end by anticipation. Let us then set 
ourselves in order, let us delight in the fear of God; for if 
we live here without fear of Him, His Coming will surprise us 
suddenly, when we are neither careful, nor looking for Him. 
As Christ declared when He said, " For as in the days ofMat.24, 
Noah, and as in the days of Lot, so shall it be at the end of^J^y 
this world." This also Paul declared when he said, For quoted.] 
when they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden de- 5 3. 
stniction cometh upon them, as travail upon a woman with 
child. What means, as travail upon a woman with child f 
Often have pregnant women when sporting, or at their meals, 
or in the bath or market-place, and foreseeing nothing of 
what was coming, been seized in a moment by their pains. 
Now since our case is like theirs, let us ever be prepared, 
for we shall not always hear these things, we shall not always 
have power to do them. In the grave, saith David, whop s .6,&. 
shall give Thee thanks l ? Let us then repent here, that so l or, 
we may find God merciful unto us in the day that is to coitte/ to c £k e e <! S ' 
and be enabled to enjoy abundant forgiveness ; which may 
we all obtain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom be glory and dominion now and 
ever 9 and world without end. Amen. 


John iv. 40—43. 

So when the Samaritans were come unto Him, they besought 
Him that He would tarry with them : and He abode there 
two days. And many more believed because of His own 
Word; and said unto the woman, Now we believe, not 
because of thy saying : for we have heard Him ourselves, 
and know that This is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the 
world. Now after two days He departed thence, and went 
into Galilee. 

Nothing is worse than envy and malice, nothing more 
mischievous than vain-glory ; it is wont to mar ten thousand 
good things. So the Jews, who excelled the Samaritans in 

ι ]it knowledge, and had been always familiar with 1 the Prophets, 

•brought W ere shewn from this cause inferior to them. For these believed 
even on the testimony of the woman, and without having 

2 ai. < to S een any sign, came forth beseeching Christ to tarry 2 with 
them ; but the Jews, when they had beheld His wonders, not 
only did not detain Him among them, but even drove Him 
away, and used every means to cast Him forth from their 

a Ben. land, although His very Coming 3 had been for their sake. 

' th ^ , The Jews expelled Him, but these even entreated Him to 

coming L 

tarry with them. Was it not then rather fitting, tell me, 

that He should receive those who asked and besought Him, 

than that He should wait upon those who plotted against 

and repulsed Him, while to those who loved and desired to 

retain Him He gave not Himself? Surely this would not have 

» κτ)δ€- been worthy of His tender care 4 ; He therefore both accepted 5 

% ou { as them, and tarried with them two days. They desired to 

'elected' keep Him among them continually, (for this the Evangelist 

Truth revealed to the honest soul. 293 

has shewn by saying, that they besought Him that He would John 
tarry with them,) but this He endured not, but stayed with 4 __ 4 * 3< 
them only two days ; and in these many more believed on 
Him. Yet there was no likelihood that these would have 
believed, since they had seen no sign, and had hostile feelings 
towards the Jews ; but still, inasmuch as they gave in 
sincerity their judgment on His words, this stood not in 
their way, but they received a notion which surmounted their 
hindrances, and vied with each other to reverence Him the 
more. For, saith the Evangelist, they said to the woman, 
Now we believe, not because of thy saying : for we have heard 
Him ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the 
Saviour of the world. The scholars overshot their instructress. 
With good reason might they condemn the Jews, both by 
their believing on, and their receiving Him. The Jews, for 
whose sake He had contrived 1 the whole scheme a , continually l al. -id- 
were for stoning Him b , but these, when He was not even in- stltated 
tending to come to them, drew Him to themselves. And they, 
even with signs, remain uncorrected ; 'these, without signs, 
manifested great faith respecting Him, and glory in this very 
thing that they believe without them ; while the others 
ceased not asking 2 for signs and tempting Him. 2 al. 

Such need is there every where of an honest soul ; and ifi ng ' 
truth lay hold on such an one, she easily masters it ; or if 
she master it not, this is owing not to any weakness of truth, 
but to want of candour 3 in the soul itself. Since the sun too, * ayuo)~ 
when he encounters clear eyes, easily enlightens them ; if he μοσυν ^ ν 
enlightens them not, it is the fault of their infirmity, not of 
his weakness. 

Hear then what these say ; We know that this is of a truth 
the Christ, the Saviour of the world. Seest thou how they at 
once understood that He should draw the world to Him, 
that He came to order aright 4 our common salvation, that 4 *■* δί " 
He intended not to confine His care to the Jews, but to sow p ω 
His Word every where ? The Jews did not so, but going 
about to establish their own righteousness, submitted not them- 
selves to the righteousness of God ; while these confess that 
all are deserving of punishment, declaring with the Apostle, 

a i. e. of Redemption, ιτασαν tV b al. '• them,' i. e. the Prophets. 
■τρσ,Ύματζίαν συνςιττήσατο. 

004 Christ the True Saviour. 

HoMiL.that all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God ; 

xxxv • being justified freely by His grace. For by saying that He 

23! I 24. ' was the Saviour of the world, they shewed that it was of a 
lost world % and He not simply a Saviour, but one of the very 
mightiest. For many had come to "save," both Prophets 

Jor'mes-and Angels 1 ; but this, saith one, is the True Saviour, Who 

seDgers 'afFordeth the true salvation, not that which is but for a time. 
This proceeded from pure faith. And in both ways are they 
admirable ; because they believed, and because they did so 
without signs, (whom Christ also calleth "blessed," saying, 

c.20,29. Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed]) 
and because they did so sincerely. Though they had heard 
the woman say doubtfully, Is not this the Christ? they did 

'al/sop-not also say, "we too suspect," or, "we think 2 ," but, we 
know, and not merely, " we know," but, We know that Tltis 
is of a truth the Saviour of the world. They acknowledged 
Christ not as one of the many d , but as the Saviour indeed. 
Yet whom had they seen saved ? They had but heard His 
words, and yet they spake as they would have spoken had 
they beheld many and great marvels. And why do not the 
Evangelists tell us these words, and that He discoursed 
admirably ? That thou mayest learn that they pass by many 
important matters, and yet have declared the whole to us by 
the event. For He persuaded an entire people and a whole 
city by His words. When His hearers are not persuaded, 
then the writers are constrained to mention what was said, 
lest any one from the insensibility of the hearers should give 
a judgment against Him Who addressed them. 

Now after two days He departed thence and went into 

Ver. 44. For Jesus Himself testified that a Prophet hath 
no honour in his own country. 

Wherefore is this added ? Because He departed not unto 
Capernaum, but into Galilee, and thence to Cana. For that 
thou mayest not enquire why He tarried not with His own 
people, but tarried with the Samaritans, the Evangelist puts 
the cause % saying that they gave no heed unto Him; on this 

* Ms. in Bodl. reads, *and wby say e Ms. in Bodl. < and this is, that a 

J of a lost world:' of a world which prophet hath no honour in his own 

pas in evils great exceedingly.' country? 

d i ζ. who had wrought deliverances. 

Christ received by the Galilceans. 295 

account He went not thither, that their condemnation might John 
not be the greater. For I suppose that in this place He 4 - 4 j^ 
speaketh of Capernaum as " His country." Now, to shew ToT - 
that there He received no honour, hear Him say, And thou, Mat.n, 
Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven^ shalt be brought" ' 
down to hell. He calleth it His own country, because there 
He set forth the Word of the Dispensation, and more espe- 
cially dwelt upon it. " What then," saith some one, " do 
we not see many admired among their kindred ?" In the 
first place such judgments must not be formed from rare 
instances; and again, if some have been honoured in their 
own, they would have been much more honoured in a strange 
country, for familiarity is wont to make men easily despised. 

Ver. 45. Then when He was come into Galilee, the Gali- 
leans received Him, having seen all the things that He did 
at Jerusalem at the feast, for they also came unto the feast. 

Seest thou that these men so ill spoken of are found most to 
come to Him ? For one said, Can there any good thing come c. 1, 46. 
out of Nazareth ? and another, Search and look, for out ofc. 7,52. 
Galilee ariseth no prophet. These things they said insulting 
Him, because He was supposed by the many to be of 
Nazareth, and they also reproached Him with being a 
Samaritan ; Thou art a Samaritan, said one, and hast a c . 8, 48. 
devil. Yet behold, both Samaritans and Galilaeans believe, 
to the shame of the Jews, and Samaritans are found better 
than Galileans, for the first received Him through the words 
of the woman, the second when they had seen the miracles 
which He did. 

Ver. 46. So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, where 
He made the water wine. 

The Evangelist reminds the hearer of the miracle to exalt 
the praise of the Samaritans. The men of Cana received 
Him by reason of the miracles which He had done in Jeru- 
salem and in that place ; but not so the Samaritans, they 
received Him through His teaching alone. 

That He came then to Cana, the Evangelist has said, 
but he has not added the cause why He came f . Into Galilee 
He had come because of the envy of the Jews ; but where- 
fore to Cana ? At first He came, being invited to a marriage; 

f Ms. in Bodl. reads, ' and why, saith some one, went He again to Cana ?' 

•290 Request of the nobleman. 

HoMiL.but wherefore now ? Methinks to confirm by His presence 
xxxv • the faith which had been implanted by His miracle, and to 
draw them to Him the more by coming to them self invited, 
by leaving His own country, and by preferring them. 

And there was a certain nobleman whose son was sick at 

Ver. 47. When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaa 
into Galilee, he went unto Him, and besought Him that He 
would come down and heal his son. 

This person certainly was of royal race, or possessed 
some dignity from his office, to which the title " noble" 
was attached. Some indeed think that this is the man 
Matt. 8, mentioned by Matthew, but he is shewn to be a different 
person, not only from his dignity, but also from his faith. 
That other, even when Christ was willing to go to him, 
entreats Him to tarry; this one, when He had made no such 
offer, draws Him to his house. The one saith, / am not 
worthy that Thou shouldest come under my roof; but this 
1 al. other even urges 1 Him, saying, Come down ere my son die. 
nn S s j n that instance He came down from the mountain, and 
entered into Capernaum ; but here, as He came from Samaria, 
and went not into Capernaum but into Cana, this person 
met Him. The servant of the other was possessed by the 
palsy, this one's son by a fever. 

And he came and besought Him that He would heal his 
son : for he was at the point of death. What saith Christ? 

Ver. 48. Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not 

Yet the very coming and beseeching Him was a mark of 
faith. And besides, after this the Evangelist witnesses to 
al. him 2 , declaring that when Jesus said, Go, thy son liveth, he 


neeees believed His word, and went. What then is that which He 

j*-j saith here ? Either He useth the words as approving of 3 

ζ ωι/ the Samaritans because they believed without signs ; or, to 

touch Capernaum which was thought to be His own city, 

and of which this person was. Moreover, another man in 

Luke, who says, Lord, I believe, said besides, help Thou 

mine unbelief. And so if this ruler also believed, yet he 

believed not entirely or soundly, as is clear from his enquiring 

f Mark 9, 24. [not found in St. Luke.] 

His faith imperfect. 297 

(it what hour the fever left him, since he desired to know John 
whether it did so of its own accord, or at the bidding of — : — - 

Christ. When therefore he knew that it was yesterday at 
the seventh hour, then himself believed and his whole house. 
Seest thou that he believed when his servants, not when 
Christ spake ? Therefore He rebuketh the state of mind 
with which he had come to Him, and spoken as he did, (thus 
too He the more drew him on to belief,) because that before 
the miracle he had not believed strongly. That he came and 
entreated was nothing wonderful, for parents in their great 
affection are also wont to resort not only to physicians in 
whom they have confidence, but also to talk with those in 
whom they have no confidence, desiring to omit nothing 
whatever g . Indeed, that he came without any strong pur- 
pose ! appears from this, that when Christ was come into ^«Tap- 
Galilee, then he saw Him, whereas if he had firmly believed €ρ7 ° υ 
in Him, he would not, when his child was on the point of 
death, have hesitated to go into Judaea. Or if he was afraid, 
this is not to be endured either 2 . 2 i. e. in 

Observe how the very words shew the weakness of the believer 
man; when he ought, after Christ had rebuked his state of 
mind, to have imagined something great concerning Him, 
even if he did not so before, listen how he drags along the 

Ver. 49. Sir, he saith, come down ere my child die. 

As though He could not raise him after death, as though 
He knew not what state the child was in. It is for this 
that Christ rebuketh him and toucheth his conscience, to 
shew that His miracles were wrought principally for the 
sake of the soul. For here He healeth the father, sick in 
mind, no less than the son, in order to persuade us to give 
heed to Him, not by reason of His miracles, but of His 
teaching. For miracles are not for the faithful, but for the 
unbelieving and the grosser sort. At that time then, owing to (-3.) 
his emotion, the nobleman gave no great heed to the words, 
or to those only which related to his son h , yet he would 
afterwards recollect what had been said, and draw from 
thence the greatest advantage. As indeed was the case. 

« Ms. in Bodl. adds, ' of thing? be- h Morel. ' and regarded only what 
longing to carefulness.' was taking place concerning his son.' 


ο 98 Need of the miracle. 

Homil. But what can be the reason why in the case of the cen- 

xxxv. turion He by a free offer undertook to come, while here 

though invited, He goeth not? Because in the former case 

faith had been perfected, and therefore He undertook to go, 

that we might learn the right-mindedness of the man ; but 

here the nobleman was imperfect. When therefore he 

ι&νωκα\ continually 1 urged Him, saying, Come down, and knew not 

yet clearly that even when absent He could heal, He sheweth 

that even this was possible unto Him in order that this man 

might gain from Jesus not going, that knowledge which the 

2 οϊκοΘμ centurion had of himself 2 . And so when He saith, Except 

ye see signs and tvonders, ye will not believe, His meaning is, 

" Ye have not yet the right faith, but still feel towards Me as 

towards a Prophet." Therefore to reveal Himself and to 

shew that he ought to have believed even without miracles, 

c. 14,10. He said what He said also to Philip, Believest thou c that the 

and π. Father is in Me and j in tne Father*? Or if not, believe 

Me for the very works" sake. 

Ver. 51 — 53. And as he teas now going down, his servants 
met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth. Then 
enquired he of them the hour when he began to amend. 
And they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hoar the 
fever left him. So the father knew that it was at the same 
hour in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth; and 
him self believed, and his whole house. 

Seest thou how evident the miracle was ? Not simply nor 
in a common way was the child freed from danger, but all at 
once, so that what took place was seen to be the consequence 

livepyti- not of nature, but of the w r orking 3 of Christ. For when he had 
reached the very gates of death, as his father shewed by 
saying, Come down ere my child die; he was all at once 
freed from the disease. A fact which roused the servants 
also, for they perhaps came to meet their master, not only to 
bring him the good news, but also deeming that the coming 
of Jesus was now superfluous, (for they knew that their 
master was gone there,) and so they met him even in the 

'Sii/ci^e way. The man released from his fear, thenceforth escaped 4 

c Ms. in Bodl. reads, « He said this l1 iyeb eV τφ ΠατρΙ καΐ δ Ώατηρ iv 
as (He said) to the disciples, Believe 4μοί. G. Τ. and Btn. 

djflktion a trial of faith. 299 

into faith, being desirous to shew that what had been John 
done was the result of his journey, and thenceforth he is — - — - 
ambitious of appearing not to have exerted himself ■ to n0 !J^ n 
purpose ; so he ascertained all things exactly, and himself 'aroused* 
believed and his whole house. For the evidence was after 
this unquestionable. For they who had not been present 
nor had heard Christ speak nor known the time, when they had 
heard from their master that such and such was the time, 
had incontrovertible demonstration of His power. Where- 
fore they also believed. 

What now are we taught by these things? Not to wait 
for miracles, nor to seek pledges of the Power of God. 1 see 
many persons even now become more pious 2 , when during the' 2 βύλα- 
sufTerings of a child or the sickness of a wife they enjoy any po e ^. Te " 
comfort, yet they ought even if they obtain it not, to persist 
just the same in giving thanks, in glorifying God. Because 
it is the part of right-minded servants, and of those who 
feel such affection 3 and love as they ought for their Master, s al.< are 
not only when pardoned, but also when scourged, to run to 
Him. For these also are effects of the tender care of God ; 
Whom the Lord loveth He chasleneth, and scourgeth, It says, Heb.12, 
every son whom He receiveth. AVhen therefore a man serves 
Him only in the season of ease, he gives proofs of no great 
love, and loves not Christ purely. And why speak I of health, 
or abundant riches, or poverty, or disease ? Shouldest thou 
hear of the fiery pit or of any other dreadful thing, not even 
so must thou cease from speaking good of thy Master, but 
suffer and do all things because of thy love for Him. For 
this is the part of right-minded servants and of an unswerving 
soul ; and he who is disposed after this sort will easily endure 
the present, and obtain good 4 things to come, and enjoy 4 al#<al1 
much confidence in the presence of 5 God ; which may it be t f a o * m , 
that we all obtain through the grace and lovingkindness of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever, and world without end. 


John iv. 54. v. ] . 

Tins is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when He 
was come out of Judcea into Galilee. After this there 
was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jeru- 

As in gold mines one skilful in what relates to them 
would not endure to overlook even the smallest vein as 
producing much wealth, so in the Holy Scriptures it is 
impossible without loss to pass by one jot or one tittle, we 
must search into all. For they all are uttered by the Holy 

1 lit. 'dis- Spirit, and nothing useless 1 is written in them. 

\ώβ' ' Consider, for instance, what the Evangelist in this place 
saith, This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when 
He was come out of Judcea into Galilee. Even the word 
" second" he has added not without cause, but to exalt yet 

2 lit. more the praise 2 of the Samaritans, by shewing that even 
3r when a second miracle had been wrought, they who beheld 
it had not yet reached as high as those who had not seen 

After this there was a feast of the Jews. What feast ? 
Me thinks that of Pentecost. And Jesus went up to Jeru- 
salem. Continually at the feasts He frequenteth the City, 
partly that He might appear to feast with them, partly that 

e *j• , He might attract the multitude that was free from guile; 

* πρόβα- for during these days 3 especially, the more simply disposed 

™\ "°"ran together more than at other times. 

e pa [hA Ver. 2, 3. Now there is at Jerusalem a sheep pool*, called 

G. T.l ™ ^ iG Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches. In 

5 [άσ0€- these lay a great multitude of impotent folk 5 , of halt, blind, 

β.τΓ" withered, waiting for the moving of the water. 

i 'en. 

Types of Baptism . 301 

What manner of cure is this? What mystery doth it John 
signify to us? For these things are not written carelessly, _UL 
or without a purpose, but as by a figure and type they shew- 
in outline 1 things to come, in order that what was exceed- l vwoypd• 
ingly strange might not by coming unexpectedly harm ^ ei '.. al * 
among the many the power of faith \ What then is it that 
they shew in outline ? A Baptism was about to be given, 
possessing much power, and the greatest of gifts, a Baptism 
purgiug all sins, and making men alive instead of dead. 
These things then are foreshewn as in a picture by the 
pool, and by many other circumstances. And first is 
given a water which purges the stains of our bodies, and 
those defilements which are not, but seem to be, as those 
from touching the dead b , those from leprosy, and other 
similar causes ; under the old covenant one may see many 
things done by water on this account. However, let us now 
proceed to the matter in hand. 

First then, as I before said, He causeth defilements of 
our bodies, and afterwards infirmities of different kinds, 
to be done away by water. Because God, desiring to bring 
us nearer to faith in c Baptism, no longer healeth defile- 
ments only, but diseases also. For those figures which came 
nearer [in time] to the reality, both as regarded Baptism, 
and the Passion, and the rest, were plainer than the more 
ancient d ; and as the guards near the person of the prince are 
more splendid than those before 2 , so was it with the types. 2 al. 
And an Angel came down and troubled the water, and <afar ' 
endued it with a healing power, that the Jews might learn 
that much more could the Lord of Angels heal the diseases 3 ^l.'hin- 
of the soul. Yet as here it was not simply the nature of the ran 
water that healed, (for then this would have always taken 
place,) but water joined to the operation of the Angel; so 
in our case, it is not merely the water that worketh, but 
when it hath received the grace of the Spirit, then it putteth 
away 4 all our sins. Around this pool lay a great multitude * λ {, €ι 
of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for the 
moving of the water ; but then infirmity was a hindrance to 

a al. 'harm the faith of the hearers.' more power to lead by the hand than 

b a-Kb κηδεία*, Numb. 5. the archetypes.' 

c lit. c faith of,' al. ' the gift of.' L " iirl rfi ivepycia, al. ' at the coming 

d Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. ' have down.' 

802 Perseverance of the paralytic. 

HoMiL.him who desired to be healed, now each hath power to 
XXXVI : approach, for now it is not an Angel that tronbleth, it is the 
Lord of Angels Who worketh all. The sick man cannot 
now say, / have no man ; he cannot say, While I am coming 
another steppeth down before me ; though the whole world 
should come, the grace is not spent, the power is not 
exhausted, but remaineth equally great as it was before. 
Just as the sun's beams give light every day, yet are not 
exhausted, nor is their light made less by giving so abundant 
a supply ; so, and much more, the power of the Spirit is in 
no way lessened by the numbers of those who enjoy it. 
And this miracle was done in order that men, learning that 
it is possible by water to heal the diseases of the body, and 
being exercised in this for a long time, might more easily 
believe that it can also heal the diseases of the soul. 

But why did Jesus, leaving the rest, come to one who was 
of thirty-eight years standing? And why did He ask him, 
Wilt thou be made whole? Not that He might learn, that was 
'Λ needless; but that He might shew 1 the man's perseverance, 
and that we might know that it was on this account that 
He left the others and came to him. What then saith he? 
"Yea Lord," he saith, but I have no man when the water is 
troubled to put me into the pool, but while I am coming another 
stejipeth down before me. 

It was that we might learn these circumstances that Jesus 
asked, Wilt thou be made whole? and said not, " Wilt thou 
that I heal thee ?" (for as yet the man had formed no exalted 
notions concerning Him,) but Wilt thou be made whole? 
Astonishing was the perseverance of the paralytic, he was 
of thirty and eight years standing, and each year hoping to be 
2 al.'lay freed from his disease, he continued in attendance 2 , and with- 
drew not. Had he not been very persevering, would not the 
future f , if not the past, have been sufficient to lead him from 
the spot? Consider, I pray you, how watchful it was 
likely that the other sick men there would be since the time 
when the water was troubled was uncertain. The lame and 
halt indeed might observe it, but how did the blind see ? 
Perhaps they learnt it from the clamour which arose. 

f i. e. the manifest hopelessness of his being able to go down first into the 

Labour an appointment of God. 303 

[2.] Let us be ashamed then, beloved, let us be ashamed, John 
and groan over our excessive sloth. Thirty and eight years 3 ' 
had that man been waiting without obtaining what he 
desired, and withdrew not. And he had failed not through 
any carelessness of his own, but though being oppressed 
and suffering violence from others, and not even thus did 
he grow dull 1 ; while we if we have persisted for ten days to 1 eWp/ca 
pray for any thing and have not obtained it, are too slothful 
afterwards to employ the same zeal. And on men we wait 
for so long a time, warring and enduring hardships and per- 
forming servile ministrations, and often at last failing in our 
expectation, but on our 2 Master, from Whom we are sure to 2 al. 'the 
obtain a recompense greater than our labours, (for, saith the 
Apostle, Hope maketh not ashamed,) on Him we endure not to Rom. 5, 
wait with becoming diligence. What chastisement doth this 
deserve ! For even though we could receive nothing from 
Him, ought we not to deem the very conversing with Him 
continually the cause of 3 ten thousand blessings? "But 3 al. 
continual prayer is a laborious thing." And what that 
belongs to virtue is not laborious ? " In truth," says some 
one, " this very point is full of great difficulty, that pleasure 
is annexed to vice, and labour to virtue." And many, I think, 
make this a question. What then can be the reason 5 ? God 
gave us at the beginning a life free from care and exempt 
from labour. We used not the gift aright, but were perverted 
by doing nothing 4 , and were banished from Paradise. On 4 apyias 
which account He made our life for the future one of toil, 
assigning as it were His reasons for this to mankind, and 
saying, " I allowed you at the beginning to lead a life of 
enjoyment 5 , but ye were rendered worse by liberty, where- 5 τρυψαν 
fore I commanded that henceforth labour and sweat be 
laid upon you 1 '." And when even this labour did not restrain 
us, He next gave us a law containing many commandments, 
imposing it on us like bits and curbs placed upon an unruly 
horse to restrain his prancings, just as horse breakers do. 
This is why life is laborious, because not to labour is wont 
to be our ruin. For our nature cannot bear to be doing 

g Morel, and Ms. in Boll. ' but hear h Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. c therefore 

also the explanation, for this we will I have done that which remained to do, 

now say for love of you. What then, I have encompassed (or clothed) you 

&c.' with labours and toils.' 

304 Labour inseparable from virtue: 

Hcmil. nothing, but easily turns aside to wickedness. Let us sup- 
XXXVI ' pose that the man who is temperate, and he who rightly per- 
forms the other virtues, has no need of labour, but that they 
do all things in their sleep, still how should we have employed 
our ease ? Would it not have been for pride and boastfulness ? 
"But wherefore," saith some one, "has great pleasure been 
attached to vice, great labour and toil to virtue ?" Why, what 
thanks wouldest thou have had, and for what wouldest thou 
have received a reward, if the matter had not been one of 
difficulty ? Even now I can shew you many who naturally 
hate intercourse with women, and avoid conversation with 
them as impure; shall we then call these chaste, shall we 
crown these, tell me, and proclaim them victors ? By no 
means. Chastity is self-restraint, and the mastering pleasures 
which fight, just as in war the trophies are most honourable 
when the contest is violent, not when no one raises a hand 
against us. Many are by their very nature passionless ; shall we 
call these good tempered ? Not at all. And so the Lord 
Mat. 19, after naming three manners of the eunuch state, leaveth two 
12 • of them uncrowned, and admitteth one into the kingdom of 
heaven. " But what need," saith one, " was there of wicked- 
ness ?" I say this too. " What is it then which made 
wickedness to be ?" W T hat but our wilful negligence ? 
" But," saith one, " there ought to be only good men." 
Well, what is proper to the good man ? Is it to watch and 
be sober, or to sleep and snore ? " And why," saith one, 
ι ai. " seemed 1 it not good that a man should act rightly without 
thought- labouring?" Thou speakest words which become the cattle 
or gluttons, who make their belly their god. For to prove 
that these are the words of folly, answer me this. Suppose 
there were a king and a general, and while the king was 
asleep or drunk, the general should endure hardship and 
erect a trophy, whose would you count the victory to be? 
who would enjoy the pleasure of what was done? Seest 
thou that the soul is more especially disposed towards those 
things for which she hath laboured? and therefore God 
hath joined labours to virtue, wishing to make us attached to 
her. For this cause we admire virtue, even although we act 
not rightly ourselves, while we condemn vice even though it 
be very pleasant. And if thou sayest, " Why do we not 

its origin. 305 

admire those who are good by nature more than those who John 
are so by choice ?" We reply, Because it is just to prefer 

him that laboureth to him that laboureth not. For why is it 
that we labour? It is because thou didst not bear with 
moderation the not labouring. Nay more, if one enquire 
exactly, in other ways also sloth is wont to undo us, and to 
cause us much trouble. Let us, if you will, shut a man up, 
only feeding and pampering him, not allowing him to walk 
nor conducting him forth to work, but let him enjoy table 
and bed, and be in luxury continually ; what could be more 
wretched than such a life? " But," saith one, " to work is one 
thing, to labour is another g ." Yea, but it was in man's power 
then 1 to work without labour. " And is this," saith he, " pos- 1 i• e. 
sible ?" Yea, it is possible; God even desired it, but thou t h e mg 
enduredst it not. Therefore He placed thee to work in the * bode in 
garden, marking out employment, but joining with it no labour, dise 
For had man laboured at the beginning, God would not after- 
wards have put labour by way of punishment. For it is pos- 
sible to work and not to be wearied, as do the angels. To 
prove that they work, hear what David saith; Ye that excel Ps. 102, 
in strength, ije that do His word. Want of strength causeth L ^ x 
much labour now, but then it was not so. For he that hath Heb. 4, 
entered into His rest, hath ceased, saith one, from his works, ' 
as God from His : not meaning here idleness, but the ceasing 
from labour. For God worketh even now, as Christ saith, 
My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. Wherefore I c 0,17. 
exhort you that, laying aside all carelessness, you be zealous 
for virtue. For the pleasure of wickedness is short, but the 
pain lasting ; of virtue, on the contrary, the joy grows not old, 
the labour is but for a season. Virtue even before the crowns 
are distributed animates 2 her workman, and feeds him with 2 or 're- 
hopes ; vice even before the time of vengeance punishes 
him who works for her, wringing and terrifying his conscience, 
and making it apt to imagine all (evils). Are not these 
things worse than any labours, than any toils? And if these 
things were not so, if there were pleasure, what could be 
more worthless than that pleasure ? for as soon as it appears 
it flies away, withering and escaping before it has been 
grasped, whether you speak of the pleasure of beauty, or that of 
ε Some Mss. read, ' was it then meet to work without toil Ρ yea &c.' 

306 Misery of sinful pleasures. 

Homil. luxury, or that of wealth, for they cease not daily to decay. 

XXXVI • But when there is besides (for this pleasure) punishment and 
vengeance, what can be more miserable than those who go 
after it? Knowing then this, let us endure all for virtue, so 
shall we enjoy true pleasure, through the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with Whom to the Father 
and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever, and world 
without end. Amen. 


John v. 6, 7. 

Jesus saitk unto him, Wilt thou be made whole ? The impotent 
man answered Him, Yea, Sir, but I have no man, ivhen the 
water is troubled, to put me into the pool. 

Great is the profit of the divine Scriptures, and all- 
sufficient is the aid which comes from them. And Paul 
declared this when he said, Whatsoever things were written Rom.i 5, 
aforetime, were written aforetime for our admonition wpon\'^ 
whom the ends of the world are come, that we through patience I0 > ll • 
and comfort of the Scriptures might have hope. For the 
divine oracles are a treasury of all manner of medicines, 
so that whether it be needful to quench pride, to lull 
desire to sleep, to tread under foot the love of money, 
to despise pain, to inspire confidence, to gain patience, from 
them one may find abundant resource. For what man 
of those who struggle with long poverty or who are nailed 
to 1 a grievous disease, will not, when he reads the passage ' a1 • 
before us, receive much comfort? Since this man who had 
been paralytic for thirty and eight years, and who saw each 
year others delivered, and himself bound by his disease, 
not even so fell back and despaired, though in truth not 
merely despondency for the past, but also hopelessness 2 or 
for the future, was sufficient to overstrain 2 him. Hear now'. throw 
what he says, and learn the greatness of his sufferings 3 , down' 
For when Christ had said, Wilt thou be made whole? " Yea ,' Mit •'?^ 

' tragedy' 

x 2 

308 Meekness of the paralytic. 

Homil. Lord," he saith, " but / have no man, when the water is 

ΧΧΧΛΙ1 - troubled, to put me into the pool." What can be more 
pitiable than these words ? What more sad than these 

'ai.' en- circumstances? Seest thou a heart 1 crushed through long 
sickness? Seest thou all violence subdued? He uttered no 
blasphemous word, nor such as we hear the many use 
in reverses, he cursed not his day, he was not angry at the 
question, nor did he say, " Art Thou come to make a mock 
and a jest of us, that Thou askest whether 1 desire to be 
made whole?" but replied gently, and with great mild- 
ness, " Yea, Lord ;" yet he knew not. Who it was that 
asked him, nor that He would heal him, but still he mildly 
relates all the circumstances and asks nothing further, as 
though he were speaking to a physician, and desired merely 
to tell the story of his sufferings. Perhaps he hoped that 
Christ might be so far useful to him as to put him into the 
water, and desired to attract Him by these words. What 
then saith Jesus ? 

2 al.'and Ver. 8. Rise, take up thy bed, and walk*. 

thine Now some suppose that this is the man in Matthew 

MatTi w ^° was Φ* η 9 on a ^ed '»' k ut it is not so, as is clear in 

2. ' many ways. First, from his wanting persons to stand for- 
ward for him. That man had many to care for and to 
cany him, this man not a single one; wherefore he said, 
/ have no man. Secondly, from the manner of answering ; 
the other uttered no word, but this man relates his whole 
case. Thirdly, from the season and the time ; this man was 
healed at a feast, and on the Sabbath, that other on a 
different day. The places too were different; one was 
cured in a house, the other by the pool. The manner also 
of the cure was altered; there Christ said, Thy sins be 

Ησ $ ι Ί& fir given thee, but here He braced 3 the body first, and then 
cared for the soul. In that case there was remission of sins, 
(for He saith, Thy sins be forgiven thee,) but in this, warning 

v • 14 • and threats to strengthen the man for the future; Sin no 
more, lest a toorse thing come unto thee. The charges also 
of the Jews are different ; here they object to Jesus His 
working on the Sabbath, there they charge Him with blas- 

Consider now, 1 pray you, the exceeding wisdom of God. 

Completeness of the miracle. 309 

He raised not up the man at once, but first maketh him John 
familiar by questioning, making way for the coming faith ; V ' 8 ' 
nor doth He only raise, but biddeth him take up Iris bed, 
so as to confirm the miracle that had been wrought, and 
that none might suppose what was done to be illusion or a 
piece of acting. For he would not, unless his limbs had been 
firmly and thoroughly compacted, have been able to carry his 
bed. And this Christ often doth, effectually silencing those who 
would fain be insolent. So in the case of the loaves, that no 
one might assert that the men had been merely 3 satisfied, 
and that what was done was an illusion, He caused that 
there should be many relics of the loaves. So to the leper that 
was cleansed He said, Go, shew thyself to the priest ; at Matt. 8, 
once providing most certain proof of the cleansing, and 
stopping the shameless mouths of those who asserted that 
He was legislating in opposition to God. This also He did 
in like manner in the case of the wine ; for He did not 
merely shew it to them, but also caused it to be borne to 
the governor of the feast, in order that dne who knew nothing 
of what had been done, by his confession might bear to Him 
unsuspected testimony ; wherefore the Evangelist saith, that 
the ruler of the feast knew not whence it was, thus shewing 
the impartiality of his testimony. And in another place, 
when He raised the dead, He said, " Give ye him to eat b ;" 
supplying this proof of a real resurrection, and by these 
means persuading even the foolish that He was no deceiver, 
no dealer in illusions 1 , but that He had come for the salva- ' φαν- 
tion of the common nature of mankind. τασωκ - 


[2.] But why did not Jesus require faith of this man, as 
He did in the case of others, saying, " Believest thou that I 
am able to do this e ?" It was because the man did not yet 
clearly know Who He was ; and it is not before, but after the 
working of miracles that He is seen so doing. For persons 
who had beheld His power exerted on others would reasonably 
have this said to them, while of those who had not yet 
learned Who He was, but who were to know afterwards by 
means of signs, it is after the miracles that faith is required. 

a i. e. not by real eating, α.πλώ$. c Morel, and Mss. read, ' as He 

b The reference seems to be to did in the case of the blind men, 

Luke 8, 55. (Matt. 9, 28.) saying, Believe ye, fycS 

310 Faith of the paralytic. 

Homil. And therefore Matthew doth not introduce Christ as having 
EEuElsajd this at the beginning of His miracles, but when He 
had healed many, to the two blind men only. 

Observe however in this way the faith of the paralytic. When 
he had heard d , Take up thy bed, and walk, he did not mock, 
nor say, " What can this mean ? An Angel cometh down 
and troubleth the water, and healeth only one, and dost Thou, 
a man, by a bare command and word hope to be able to do 
greater things than Angels ? This is mere vanity, boasting, 
mockery." But he neither said nor imagined any thing like 
this, but at once he heard and arose, and becoming whole, 
was not disobedient to Him that gave the command 6 ; for 
immediately he was made whole, and took up his bed, and 
walked. What followed was even far more admirable. 
That he believed at first, when no one troubled him, was not 
so marvellous, but that afterwards, when the Jews were full 
of madness and pressed upon him on all sides, accusing f 
and besieging him and saying, // is not lawful for thee to 
take up thy heel, that then he gave no heed to g their madness, 

<\heatre' but m0St bol< % in tlie midst of tbe assembly 1 proclaimed his 
Benefactor and silenced their shameless tongue, this, I say, 
was an act of great courage. For when the Jews arose 
against him, and said in a reproachful and insolent manner 
to him, 

Ver. 10. // is the Sabbath-day, it is not lawful for thee to 
carry thy bed; hear what he saith \ 

Ver. 11. He that made me whole, the Same said unto me, 
Take up thy bed, and tvalk. 

All but saying, " Ye are silly and mad who bid me not to 
take Him for my Teacher Who has delivered me from a long 
and grievous malady, and not to obey whatever He may 
command." Had he chosen to act in an unfair manner, he 
might have spoken differently, as thus, " I do not this of 
my own will, but at the bidding of another ; if this be a 

* Morel and Ms. in Bodl. read, Evangelist «hews by what follows, 

for facing heard that with authority, saying, And on the same day was the 

and as one commanding, He said to Sabbath. The Jews therefore said 

'"'μ 'Τ' ι λτ ι ν u λ n " t0 him that was cured * It is the 

■ Morel and Ms. 'who had com- Sabbath-day , it is not lawful, %e: 

Γ 1 ' f™> J?,' \ « Λ < not only disregarded/ 
f Morel, and Ms. < accusing, as the 

Why Christ concealed Himself. 3 Π 

matter of blame, blame him who gave the order, and I will John 
set down the bed." And he might have concealed the cure, 12 V j 3 
for he well knew that they were vexed not so much at the 
breaking of the sabbath, as at the curing of his infirmity. 
Yet he neither concealed this, nor said that, nor asked for 
pardon, but with loud voice confessed and proclaimed the 
benefit. Thus did the paralytic ; but consider how unfairly 
they acted. For they said not, " Who is it that hath made 
thee whole ?" on this point they w r ere silent, but kept on 
bringing forward the seeming transgression. 

Ver. 12, 13. What man is that which said unto thee, 
Take up thy bed, and walk ? And he that was healed wist 
not Who it icas : for Jesus had conveyed Himself away 1 , a l βξέκλι- 
mullilude being in that place. SLw- 

And why did Jesus conceal Himself? First, that while «rev 
He was absent, the testimony of the man might be un- a ndMor. 
suspected, for he who now felt himself whole was a credible 
witness of the benefit. And in the next place, that He 
might not cause the fury of the Jews to be yet more inflamed, 
for the very sight of one whom they envy is wont to kindle 
not a small spark in malicious persons. On this account He 
retired, and left the deed by itself to plead its cause among 
them, that He might not say any thing in person respecting 
Himself, but that they might do so who had been healed, 
and with them also the accusers. Even these last for 
a while testify to the miracle, for they said not, " Wherefore 
hast thou commanded these things to be done on the 
sabbath day ?" but, " Wherefore doesl thou these things on 
the sabbath day ?" not being displeased at the transgression, 
but envious at the restoration of the paralytic. Yet in 
respect of human labour, what the paralytic did was rather 
a work, for the other 2 was a saying and a word. Here 2 i.e. 
then He commandeth another to break the sabbath, but wh a ich 
elsewhere 3 He doth the same Himself, mixing clay ancH. e f us 
anointing a man's eyes; yet He doth these things not a c . 9. 
transgressing, but going beyond the Law. And on this we 
shall hereafter speak. For He doth not, when accused by 
the Jews respecting the sabbath, always defend Himself in 
the same terms, and this we must carefully observe. 

[3.] But let us consider awhile how great an evil is envy, 

312 Malice vnthout excuse : 

HoMiL.bow it disables the eyes of the soul to the endangering his 

— '- salvation who is possessed by it. For as madmen often 

thrust their swords against their own bodies, so also mali- 

1 al. cious persons looking only to one thing, the injury 1 of him 
pam they envy, care not for their own salvation. Men like these 
are worse than wild beasts; they when wanting food, or 
having first been provoked by us, arm themselves against us; 
but these men when they have received kindness, have often 
repaid their benefactors as though they had wronged them. 
Worse than wild beasts are they, like the devils, or perhaps 
worse than even those; for they against us indeed have 
unceasing hostility, but do not plot against those of their own 
nature, (and so by this Jesus silenced the Jews when they 
said that He cast out devils by Beelzebub,) but these men 
neither respecttheir common nature, nor spare their own selves. 
For before they vex those whom they envy they vex their own 
souls, filling them with all manner of trouble and despond- 
ency, fruitlessly and in vain. For wherefore grievest thou, 
Ο man, at the prosperity of thy neighbour ? We ought to 
grieve at the ills we suffer, not because we see others in good 
repute. Wherefore this sin is stripped of all excuse. The 
fornicator may allege his lust, the thief his poverty, the man- 
slayer his passion, frigid excuses and unreasonable, still they 
have these to allege. But what reason, tell me, wilt thou 
name ? None other at all, but that of intense wickedness. 
If we are commanded to love our enemies, what punishment 
shall we suffer if we hate our very friends? And if he who 
loveth those that love him will be in no better a state than 
the heathen, what excuse, what palliation shall he have who 
injures those that have done him no wrong? Hear Paul what 

l^Cor. he saith, Though I give my body to be burned, and have not 
charily, it prqfiieth me nothing; now it is clear to every one 
that where envy and malice are, there charity is not. This 
feeling is worse than fornication and adultery, for these 
go no farther than him who doeth them, but the tyranny 
of envy hath overturned entire Churches, and hath de- 
stroyed the whole world. Envy is the mother of murder. 
Through this Cain slew Abel his brother; through this Esau 
(would have slain) Jacob, and his brethren Joseph, through 
this the devil all mankind. Thou indeed now killest not, 

and hard to heal. 313 

but thou dost many things worse than murder, desiring that John 
thy brother may act unseemly, laying snares for him on all 12 {g 
sides, paralysing his labours on the side of virtue, grieving - 
that he pleaseth the Master of the world. Yet thou warrest 
not with thy brother, but with Him whom he serves, Him 
thou insultest when thou preferrest thy glory to His. And 
w r hat is in truth worst of all, is that this sin seems to be an 
unimportant one, while in fact it is more grievous than any 
other; for though thou shewest mercy and watchest and 
fastest, thou art more accursed than any if thou enviest thy 
brother. As is clear from this circumstance also. A man of 
the Corinthians was once guilty of adultery, yet he was charged 
with his sin and soon restored to righteousness; Cain envied 
Abel ; but he was not healed, and although God Himself 
continually charmed 1 the wound, he became more pained and «εττάδοι/- 
wave-tossed, and was hurried on to murder. Thus this passion T0S 
is worse than that other, and doth not easily permit itself to 
be cured except we give heed. Let us then by all means 
tear it up by the roots, considering this, that as we offend 
God when we waste with envy at other men's blessings, 
so when we rejoice with them we are well pleasing to Him, 
and render ourselves partakers of the good things laid up for 
the righteous. Therefore Paul exhorteth us to Rejoice with Rom. 12, 
them that do rejoice, and iveep with them that weep, that on 
either hand we may reap great profit. 

Considering then that even when w T e labour not, by rejoic- 
ing with him that laboureth, we become sharers of his crown, 
let us cast aside all envy, and implant charity in our souls, 
that by applauding those of our brethren who are well 
pleasing unto God, we may obtain both present and future 
good things, through the grace and lovingkindness of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with Whom, to the Father 
and the Holy Ghost, be glory, now and ever, and world 
without end. Amen. 


John v. 14. 

Afterward Jesus findeth him in the Temple, and said unto 
him, Behold, thou art made ivholc; sin no more, lest a 
worse thing come unto thee. 

A fearful thing is sin, fearful, and the ruin of the soul, 
and the mischief oftentimes through its excess has over- 
flowed and attacked men's bodies also. For since for the 
most part when the soul is diseased we feel no pain, but if 
the body receive though but a little hurt, we use every 
exertion to free it from its infirmity, because we are 
sensible of the infirmity 3 , therefore God oftentimes pu- 
nisheth the body for the transgressions of the soul, so that 
by means of the scourging of the inferior part, the better 
part also may receive some healing. Thus too among the 
Corinthians Paul restored the adulterer, checking the disease 
ι Cor. of the soul by the destruction of the flesh, and having 
applied the knife to the body, so repressed the evil ; like 
some excellent physician employing external cautery for 
dropsy or spleen, when they refuse to yield to internal 
remedies. This also Christ did in the case of the paralytic ; 
as He shewed when He said, Behold, thou art made whole) 
sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee. 

Now what do we learn from this ? First, that his disease 
had been produced by his sins; secondly, that the accounts 
of hell fire are to be believed; thirdly, that the punishment 
is long, nay endless. Where now are those who say, " I mur- 
dered in an hour, I committed adultery in a little moment of 
a Sav. omits < because we are sensible of the iofirmitv.' 

Punishment of sin : danger of relapse. 315 

time, and am 1 eternally punished ?" For behold this man j OHN 
had not sinned for so many years as he suffered, for he had v • u - 
spent a whole lifetime in the length of his punishment; and 
sins are not judged by time, but by the nature of the trans- 
gressions. Besides this, we may see 1 another thing, that though } a i. 
we have suffered severely for former sins, if we afterwards ' learn ' 
fall into the same, we shall suffer much more severely. And 
with good reason ; for he who is not made better even by 
punishment, is afterwards led as insensible and a despiser 
to still heavier chastisement. The fault should of itself be 
sufficient to check and to render more sober the man who 
once has slipped, but when not even the addition of punish- 
ment effects this, he naturally requires more bitter torments \ 
Now if even in this world when after punishment 2 we falli a ] # 
into the same sins, we are chastised yet more severely than' have 

ι r ι ι r • • ι ι been pu- 

beiore, ought we not when aiter sinning we have not been n ished 
punished at all, to be then 3 very exceedingly afraid and toj 1 ^ 6 ' 
tremble, as being about to endure something irreparable ? this' 
" And wherefore," saith some one," are not all thus punished? 
for we see many bad men well in body, vigorous, and enjoy- 
ing great prosperity." But let us not be confident, let us 
mourn for them in this case most of all, since their having 
suffered nothing here, helps them on c to a severer vengeance 
hereafter 4 . As Paul declares when he saith, But now that*\\t, 
we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should'.^™' 
not be condemned with the world; for the punishments here Π, 32. 
are for warning, there for vengeance. 

" What then," saith one, 4< do all diseases proceed from 
sin?" Not all, but most of them ; and some proceed from 
different kinds of loose living 5 , since gluttony, intemperance^ a i. 
and sloth, produce such like sufferings. But the one rule?" ™ 
we have to observe, is to bear every stroke thankfully; for they living, 
are sent because of our sins, as in the Kings we see one attacked J"^'" 
by gout; they are sent also to make us approved, as the 15 > 23. 
Lord saith to Job, Thinkest thou that L have spoken to thee, Job 40, 
save that thou mighlest appear righteous ? ξ• 

b Ben. and Ms. in Bodi. read the things, such an one will reasonably 

passage thus: For the chastisement was suffer some penalty, calling this as he 

of itself sufficient .... but when not does upon his own self.' 
being sobered by the application of pu- c 4φόδιον yiyj/erai. so Euseb. Η. E. 

nishment, he again claret the same viii. 10. i<p. rfjs us την ζωην ξϊσόδου. 

316 Of the sins of the paralytic. 

Homil. But why is it that in the case of these paralytics Christ 

νννγτττ * • 

bringeth forward their sins? For He saith also to him in 

Matt. 9, Matthew who lay on a bed, Son, be of good cheer, thy sins 
are forgiven thee: and to this man, Behold, thou art made 
seep, whole; sin no more. I know that some slander this 
paralytic, asserting that he was an accuser of Christ, and 
that therefore this speech was addressed to him ; what then 
shall we say of the other in Matthew, who heard nearly the 
same words? for Christ saith to him also, Thy sins be 
forgiven thee. Whence it is clear, that neither was this 
man thus addressed on the account which they allege. 

Inothe! 11 Alld this We may See niore c]earl > r from what follows 1 ; for, 

reason' saith the Evangelist, Afterwards Jesus findeth him in the 

Temple, which is an indication of his great piety ; for he 

departed not into the market places and walks, nor gave 

himself up to luxury and ease, but remained in the Temple, 

although about to sustain so violent an attack and to be 

■ al. harassed by all there 2 . Yet none of these things persuaded 

thence hlm to depart from the Temple. Moreover Christ having 

»>y all• 5 found him, even after he had conversed with the Jews, 

implied nothing of the kind. For had He desired to charge 

him with this, He would have said to him, " Art thou again 

attempting the same sins as before, art thou not made better 

by thy cure ?" Yet He said nothing of the kind, but merely 

secureth him for the future. 

[2.] Why then, when He had cured the halt and maimed, did 
He not in any instance make mention of the like? Methinks 
that the diseases of these (the paralytic) arose from acts of sin, 
those of the others from natural infirmity. Or if this be not 
so, then by means of these men, and by the words spoken 
to them, He hath spoken to the rest also. For since this 
disease is more grievous than any other, by the greater He 
correcteth also the less. And as when He had healed a 
certain other He charged him to give glory to God, 
addressing this exhortation not to him only but through 
him to all, so He adclresseth to these, and by these to all 
the rest of mankind, that exhortation and advice which was 
given to them by word of mouth. Besides this we may also 
say, that Jesus perceived great endurance in his soul, and 
addressed the exhortation to him as to one who was able to 

Right use of 'chastisement, and of God's mercy. 317 

receive His command, keeping him to health both by the J°hn 
benefit, and by the fear of future ills. V. is* 

And observe the absence of boasting. He said not, 
" Behold, I have made thee whole," but, Thou art made 
whole; sin no more. And again, not, " lest Τ punish thee," 
but, lest a worse thing come unto thee; putting both ex- 
pressions not personally d , and shewing that the cure was 
rather of grace than of merit. For He declared not to him 
that he was delivered after suffering the deserved amount of 
punishment, but that through lovingkindness he was made 
whole. Had this not been the case, He would have said, 
" Behold, thou hast suffered a sufficient punishment for thy 
sins, be thou stedfast for the future." But now He spake 
not so, but how? Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more. 
Let us continually repeat these words to ourselves, and if 
after having been chastised we have been delivered, let each 
say to himself, Behold, thou art made whole ; sin no more. 
But if we suffer not punishment though continuing in the 
same courses, let us use for our charm that word of the 
Apostle, The goodness of God leadeth us to repentance, bitt Rom. 2, 
after our hardness and impenitent heart, we treasure up unto 4 ' 5 * 
ourselves wrath. 

And not only by strengthening 1 the sick man's body, butW7£«* 
also in another way, did He afford him a strong proof of 
His Divinity; for by saying, Sin no more, He shewed that 
He knew all the transgressions that had formerly been com- 
mitted by him ; and by this He would gain his belief as to 
the future. 

Ver. 15. The man departed, and told the Jews that it was 
Jesus that had made him whole. 

Again observe him continuing in the same right feeling. 
He saith not, " This is he who said, Take up thy bed," but 
when they continually advanced this seeming charge, he 
continually puts forward the defence, again declaring his 
Healer, and seeking to attract and attach others to Him. 
For he was not so unfeeling as after such a benefit and 
charge to betray his Benefactor, and to speak as he did 
with an evil intention. Had he been a wild beast, had he 
been something unlike a man and of stone, the benefit and 

d ά-προσώποος, i. e. not referring to Himself. 

318 Christ declareth His Equality with the Father. 

Homil. the fear would have been enough to restrain him, since, 

*** vxl i• having the threat lodged within, he would have dreaded 
lest he should suffer a worse thing, having already received 

1 aL the greatest pledges 1 of the power of his Physician. Besides, 
pr0 ° s had he wished to slander Him, he would have said nothing 
about his own cure, but would have mentioned and urged 
against Him the breach of the Sabbath. But this is not the 
case, surely it is not ; the words are words of great boldness 
and candour ; he proclaims his Benefactor no less than the 

c 9, 6. blind man did. For what said he ? He made clay, and 
anointed mine eyes; and so this man of whom we now 
speak, " It is Jesus Who made me whole." 

Ver. 16. Therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and 
sought to slay Him, because He had done these things on 
the Sabbath-day. What then saith Christ ? 

Ver. 1 7. My Father worketh hitherto, and I work. 
When there was need to make excuse for the Disciples, 
He brought forward David their fellow servant, saying, 

Mat. 12, Have ye not read what David did when he was an hun- 
gered? But when excuse was to be made for Himself, He 
betook Himself to the Father, shewing in two ways His 

2 Ιδιάζον- Equality, by calling God His Father peculiarly 2 , and by 
doing the same things which He did. u And wherefore did 
He not mention what took place at Jericho e ?" Because He 
wished to raise them up from earth that they might no 
longer attend to Him as to a man, but as to God, and as to 
one Who ought to legislate: since had He not been The 
Very Son and of the same Essence, the defence would have 
been worse than the charge. For if a viceroy who had 
altered a royal law should, when charged with so doing, 
excuse himself in this manner, and say, " Yea, for the king 
also has annulled laws," he would not be able to escape, but 
would thus increase the weight of the charge. But in this 
instance, since the dignity is equal, the defence is made 
perfect on most secure grounds. " From the charges," saith 
He, " from which ye absolve God, absolve Me also." And 
therefore He said first, My Father, that He might persuade 
them even against their will to allow to Him the same, 
through reverence of His clearly asserted Sonship. 
β Jericho was taken on the seventh day by command of God. Josh. 6, 4. 15. 

Of the manner in which the Father worheth. 319 

If any one say, " And how doth the Father work, Who John 
ceased on the seventh day from all His works ?" let him Y ' 11 ' 
learn the manner in which He worketh. What then is the 
manner of His working? He careth for, He holdeth f 
together all that hath been made. Therefore when thou 
beholdest the sun «sing and the moon running in her path, 
the lakes, and fountains, and rivers, and rains, the course of 
nature in the seeds and in our own bodies and those of 
irrational beings, and all the rest by means of which this 
universe is made up, then learn the ceaseless working of the 
Father. For He maketh His sun to rise upon the evil and Matt. 5, 
the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. °* 
And again ; If God so clothe the grass of the field, which Matt. 6, 
to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the fir e^ ; and speaking f°\ 
of the birds He said, Your Heavenly Father feedeth them, κκίβα- 

[3.] In that place 2 then He did all on the Sabbath day2°M a tt.° 
by words only, and added nothing more, but refuted their 12 • 
charges by what was done in the temple and from their own 
practice. But here where He commanded a work to be 
done, the taking up a bed, (a thing of no great importance 
as regarded the miracle 3 , though by it He shewed one» πράγμα 
point, a manifest violation of the Sabbath,) He leads up 
His discourse to something greater, desiring the more to awe 
them by reference to the dignity of the Father, and to lead 
them up to higher thought. Therefore when His discourse is 
concerning the Sabbath, He maketh not His defence as man 
only, or as God only, but sometimes in one way, some- 
times in the other; because He desired to persuade them 
both of the condescension of the Dispensation, and the 
Dignity of His Godhead. Therefore He now defendeth 
Himself as God, since had He always conversed with them 
merely as a man, they would have continued in the same low 
condition. Wherefore that this may not be, He bringeth 
forward the Father. Yet the creation itself worketh on the 
Sabbath, (for the sun runneth, rivers flow, fountains bubble, 
women bear,) but that thou mayest learn that He is not of 
creation, He said not, ςί Yea, I work, for creation worketh," 
but, " Yea, I work, for My Father worketh." 

f Lit. ■ weldeth.' συγκροτεί. Sav. not uncommon for holding together a 
conjectures συγκρατεί, but the word is system. 

320 Christ truly made Himself Equal with the Father. 

Homil. Ver. 18. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill Him, 
^^ because He not only had broken the Sabbath, but said also 
that God was His Father, making Himself equal with God. 
And this He asserted not by words merely, but by deeds, 
for not in speech alone, but also yet often er by actions He 
declared it. Why so? Because they might object to His 
words and charge Him with arrogance, but when they saw 
the truth of His actions proved by results, and His power 
proclaimed by works, after that they could say nothing 
against Him. 

But they who will not receive these words in a right mind 
assert, that " Christ made not Himself equal to God, but 
that the Jews suspected this." Come then let us go over 
what has been said from the beginning. Tell me, did the 
Jews persecute Him, or did they not ? It is clear to every 
one that they did. Did they persecute Him for this or for 
something else ? It is again allowed that it was for this. 
Did He then break the Sabbath, or did He not ? Against 
the fact that He did, no one can have any thing to say. 
Did He call God His Father, or did He not call Him so ? 
This too is true. Then the rest also follows by the same 
consequence ; for as to call God His Father, to break the 
Sabbath, and to be persecuted by the Jews for the former 
and more especially for the latter reason, belonged not to a 
false imagination, but to actual fact, so to make Himself 
equal to God was a declaration of the same meaning 8 . 

And this one may see more clearly from what He had 
before said, for My Father worketh, and I work, is the 
expression of One declaring Himself equal to God. For in 
'1w these word s He has marked 1 no difference. He said not, 
" He worketh, and I minister," but, " As He worketh, so 
work I ;" and hath declared absolute Equality. But if He 
had not wished to establish this, and the Jews had supposed 
so without reason, He would not have allowed their minds 
to be deceived, but would have corrected this. Besides, 
the Evangelist would not have been silent on the subject, 
but would have plainly said that the Jews supposed so, but 

\Λ^Γ*Γ,ΙΧ ώμ7] * ά 7> ασ £'. 1 • •; as ^rts a truth which had before been 
equal to the Father, the Evangelist and saying that God was His Father. 

Misapprehensions often corrected. 321 

that Jesus did not make Himself equal to God. As in John 
another place he doth this very thing, when he percciveth — : — - 
that something was said in one way, and understood in 
another; as, Destroy this Temple, said Christ, and in three c. 2, 19. 
days I will raise It up; speaking of His Flesh. But the 
Jews, not understanding this, and supposing that the words 
were spoken of the Jewish temple, said, Forty and si:v years 
was this temple in building, and wilt Thou rear it up in 
three days? Since then He said one thing, and they imagined 
another, (for He spake of His Flesh, and they thought that 
the words were spoken of their temple,) the Evangelist re- 
marking on this, or rather correcting their imagination, goes 
on to say, But He spake of the Temple of His Body. So 
that here also, if Christ had not made Himself equal with 
God, had not wished to establish this, and yet the Jews had 
imagined that He did, the writer would here also have 
corrected their supposition, and would have said, " The 
Jew r s thought that He made Himself equal to God, but 
indeed He spake not of equality." And• this is done not in 
this place only, nor by this Evangelist only, but again 
elsewhere another Evangelist is seen to do the same. For 
when Christ warned His disciples, saying, Beware of the M&tAG, 
leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees, and they reasoned ' 
among themselves, saying, // is because we have taken no bread, 
and He spake of one thing, calling their doctrine leaven, but 
the disciples imagined another, supposing that the words 
were said of bread; it is not now the Evangelist who setteth 
them right, but Christ Himself, speaking thus, How is it 
that ye do not understand, that I spake not to you concerning 
bread ? But here there is nothing of the kind. 

" But," saith some one, " to remove this very thought 
Christ has added," 

Ver. 19. The Son can do nothing of Himself 
Man ! He doth the contrary, He saith this not to take 
away, but to confirm 1 , His Equality. But attend carefully, 1 lit. 'to 

. mi r ττ• clench 

for this is no common question, Hie expression of tiim- 
self is found in many places of Scripture, with reference 
both to Christ and to the Holy Ghost, and we must 
learn the force of the expression, that we may not fall 
into the greatest errors; for if one take it separately by 


32-2 The Son not without power to act, but, 

Homil. itself in the way in which it is obvious to take it, consider 
xxxvin.^^ g Tea t an absurdity will follow. He said not that He 
could do some things of Himself and that others He could 
not, but universally, 

[4.] The Son can do nothing of Himself . 

I ask then my opponent, " Can the Son do nothing of 

Himself, tell me ?" If he reply, " that He can do nothing," 

we will say, that He hath done of Himself the very greatest 

Phil. 2, of all goods. As Paul cries aloud, saying, Who being in 

6 " 7 ' the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with 

God, but made Himself of no reputation, and took upon 

Him the form of a servant. And again, Christ Himself in 

c 10,18. another place saith, I have power to lay down My life, and 

I have power to take it again : and, No man taketh it from 

Me, but I lay it down of Myself . Seest thou that He hath 

power over life and death, and that He wrought of Himself 

so mighty a Dispensation ? And why speak I concerning 

Christ, when even we, than whom nothing can be meaner, 

do many things of ourselves ? Of ourselves we choose 

vice, of ourselves we go after virtue, and if we do it 

not of ourselves, and not having power, we shall neither 

suffer hell if we do wrong, nor enjoy the Kingdom if we do 


What then meaneth, Can do nothing of Himself? That 

He can do nothing in opposition to the Father, nothing 

ι i. e. alien from, nothing strange to Him 1 , which is especially 

A, 0t H- ng - tne assertion of One declaring an Equality and entire 

self. agreement. 

But wherefore said He not, that " He doeth nothing 

contrary," instead of, He cannot do ? Tt was that from this 

again He might shew the invariableness and exactness of 

the Equality, for the expression imputes not weakness to 

2 al.'tes- Him, but even shews 2 His great power; since in another 

Heb β place Paul δΣη1η °f tne Father, That by two immutable 

] 8. tilings in which it teas impossible for God to lie: and again, 

2Tim.2, // we deny Him — He abideth faithful, for He cannot deny 

12 ' 13, Himself. And in truth this expression, " impossible," is not 

declaratory of weakness, but power, power unspeakable. 

For what He saith is of this kind, that " that Essence 

admitteth not such things as these." For just as when 

inseparable in action from the Father. 828 

we also say, " it is impossible for God to do wrong," we John 
do not impute to Him any weakness, but confess in Him 

an unutterable power; so when He also saith, I can ofx. 30. 
Mine own Self do nothing, His meaning is, that " it is im- 
possible, nature admits not 1 , that I should do any thingiai/ey- 
contrary to the Father." And that you may learn that this Χ ώ Μ ταν 
is really what is said, let us, going over what follows, see 
whether Christ agreeth with what is said by us, or among 
you. Thou sayest, that the expression does away with His 
Power and His proper Authority, and shews His might to be 
but weak; but I say, that this proves His Equality, His 
unvarying Likeness 2 , (to the Father,) and the fact that all is 2 ^ 
done as it were by one Will 3 and Power and Might. Let"™f^" 
us then enquire of Christ Himself, and see by what He 3 7"^ 
next saith whether He interpreteth these words accord- 
ing to thy supposition or according to ours. What then 
saith He ? 
For what things soever the Father 4 doelh, these also doeth 4 'z^- 

J vosG.T. 

the Son likewise. 

Seest thou how He hath taken away your assertion by the 
root, and confirmed what is said by us? since, if Christ doeth 
nothing of Himself, neither will the Father do any thing of 
Himself, if so be that Christ doeth all things in like manner 
to Him h . If this be not the case, another strange conclusion 
will follow. For He said not, that " whatsoever things He 
saw the Feather do, He did," but, " except He see the Father 
doing any thing, He doeth it not;" extending His words to 
all time ; now He will, according to you, be continually learn- 
ing the same things. Seest thou how exalted is the idea, 
and that the very humility of the expression compelleth even 
the most shameless and unwilling to avoid grovelling thoughts, 
and such as are unsuited to His dignity? For who so 
wretched and miserable as to assert, that the Son learneth 
day by day what He must do ? and how can that be true, 
Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail? or that P». 102, 
other, All things were made by Him, and without Him was^ 3 . 
not any thing made ; if the Father doeth certain things, and 
the Son seeth and imitateth Him ? Seest thou that from 

» Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. £ that the likewise (rh ομοίως) may remain.' 

γ -2 

3-24 Why our Lord used lowly expressions. 

HomL.wbat was asserted above, and from what was said afterwards, 

λΧΧλ '" 'proof is given of His independent Power? and if He bringeth 

forward some expressions in lowly manner, marvel not, for 

since they persecuted Him when they had heard His exalted 

* καθυ- saym g Sj and deemed Him to be an enemy of God, sinking 1 

a little in expression alone, He again leadeth His discourse 

up to the sublimer doctrines, then in turn to the lower, 

varying His teaching that it might be easy of acceptance 

n -kyva- even to the indisposed 2 . Observe, after saying, My Father 

μοσι worketh, and I work ; and after declaring Himself equal with 

God, He addeth, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but 

ivhat He seeth the Father do. Then again in a higher strain, 

What things soever the Father doeth, these also doeth the Son 

likewise. Then in a lower, 

Ver. 20. The Father loveth the Son, and sheweth Him all 
things that Himself doeth ; and He will shew Him greater 
works than these. 

Seest thou how great is the humility of this ? And with 
reason ; for what I said before, what I shall not cease to say, 
I will now repeat, that when He uttereth any thing low or 
humble, He putteth it in excess, that the very poverty of the 
expression may persuade even the indisposed to receive the 
notions with pious understanding. Since, if it be not so, see 
how absurd a thing is asserted, making the trial from the 
words themselves. For when He saith, And shall shew Him 
greater works than these, He will be found not to have yet 
learned many things, which cannot be said even of the 
Apostles; for they when they had once received the grace of 
the Spirit, in a moment both knew and were able to do all 
things which it was needful that they should know and have 
power to do, while Christ will be found to have not yet 
learned many things which He needed to know. And what 
can be more absurd than this ? 

What then is His meaning? It w T as because He had 
strengthened the paralytic, and was about to raise the 
dead, that He thus spake, all but saying, " Wonder ye that 
I have strengthened the paralysed ? Ye shall see greater 
things than these." But He spake not thus, but proceeded 
somehow in a humbler strain, in order that He might 

He joins with them such as imply His Godhead. 3*25 

soothe l their madness. And that thou mayest learn that John 
shall sheio is not used absolutely, listen again to what,^.'-^- 
followeth. <he'al' 

\ r er. 21. For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and 
quickeneth them, even so the Son quiche net h whom He 

Yet can do nothing of Himself is opposed to whom He 
will: since if He quickeneth whom He will, He can do 
something of Himself, (for to will implies power,) but if He 
can do nothing of Himself, then He cannot quicken whom 
He will. For the expression, as the Father raiseth up, 
sheweth unvarying resemblance in Power, and whom He 
will, Equality of Authority. Seest thou therefore that 
cannot do any tiling of Himself is the expression of One not 
taking away His (own) authority, but declaring the unvarying 
resemblance of His Power and Will (to those of the Father)? 
In this sense also understand the words, shall shew to Film; 
for in another place He saith, / will raise him up at the e. 6,40. 
last Day. And again, to shew that 'He doth it not by 
receiving an inward power 2 from above, He saith, I am the~ive P - 
Resurrection and the Life, Then that thou mayest not 7€ \Ύ η . 

J J c. 11,2ο. 

assert that He raiseth what dead He will and quickeneth 
them, but that He doth not other things in such manuer, He 
anticipateth and preventeth every objection of the kind by 
saying, What things soever He doeth, these also doeth the 
Son likewise, thus declaring that He doeth all things which 
the Father doeth, and as the Father doeth them; whether 
thou speakest of the raising of the dead, or the fashioning 3 3 5ίάπλα• 
of bodies, or the remission of sins, or any other matter ^ 
whatever, He worketh in like manner to Him who begat 

[5.] But men careless of their salvation give heed to none 
of these things; so great an evil is it to be in love with 
precedence. This has been the mother of heresies, this has 
confirmed the impiety of the heathen 4 . For God desired 4 lit. 


that His invisible things should be understood by the 
creation of this world, but they having left these and Rom. 1, 
refused to come by this mode of teaching, cut out for them- 20 * 
selves another way, and so were cast out from the true 5 . s T ^ s 
And the Jews believed not because they received honour J^^. 

326 Fully of seeking the praise of men. 

HoMiL.from one another, and sought not the honour which is from 



"'God. But let us, beloved, avoid this disease exceedingly 

and with all earnestness; for though we have ten thousand 
good qualities, this plague of vain glory is sufficient to bring 
them all to nought. If therefore we desire praise, let us 
seek the praise which is from God, for the praise of men 
of what kind soever it be, as soon as it has appeared has 
perished, or if it perish not, brings to us no profit, and often 
proceeds from a corrupt judgment. And what is there to 
be admired in the honour which is from men ? which young 
dancers enjoy, and abandoned women, and covetous and 
rapacious men ? But he who is approved of God, is approved 
not with these, but with those holy men the Prophets and 
Apostles, who have shewn forth an angelic life. If we 
feel any desire to lead multitudes about with us or be looked 
at by them, let us consider the matter apart by itself, and we 
shall find that it is utterly worthless. In fine, if thou art fond 
of crowds, draw to thyself the host of angels, and become 
terrible to the devils, then shalt thou care nothing for mortal 
things, but shalt tread all that is splendid underfoot as mire 
and clay; and shalt clearly see that nothing so fits a soul 
for shame as the passion for glory ; for it cannot, it cannot 
be, that the man who desires this should live the crucified 
life, as on the other hand it is not possible that the man who 
hath trodden this underfoot should not tread down most 
other passions ; for he who masters this will get the better 
of envy and covetousness, and all the grievous maladies. 
' c And how," saith some one, " shall we get the better of it?" 
If we look to the other glory which is from heaven, and from 
which this kind strives to cast us out. For that heavenly glory 
both makes us honoured here, and passes with us into the 
life which is to come, and delivers us from all fleshly slavery 
which we now most miserably serve, giving up ourselves 
entirely to earth and the things of earth. For if you go into 
the forum, if you enter into a house, into the streets, into the 
soldiers' quarters, into inns, taverns, ships, islands, palaces, 
courts of justice, council chambers, you shall every where 
find anxiety for things present and belonging to this life, 
and each man labouring for these things, whether gone or 
coming, travelling or staying at home, voyaging, tilling 

Danger of Christians living for this world. 327 

lands, in the fields, in the cities, in a word, all What hope John 
then of salvation have we, when inhabiting Gods earth we_ 
care not for the things of God, when bidden to be aliens 
from earthly things we are aliens from heaven and citizens 
of earth i What can be worse than this insensibility, when 
hearing each day of the Judgment and of the Kingdom we 
imitate the men in the days of Noah, and those of Sodom, 
waiting to learn all by actual experience? Yet for this 
purpose were all those things written, that if any one believe 
not that which is to come, he may, from what has already 
been, get certain proof of what shall be. Considering there- 
fore these things, both the past and the future, let ns at least 
take breath a little from this hard slavery, and make some 
account of our souls also', that we may obtain both present 
and future blessings; through the grace and W-mdnes. 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, to Whom, with the Father and the 
Holy Ghost, be glory, now and ever, and world without end. 

i i. e. as well as of earthly things. 


John v. 23, 24. 

For My Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judg- 
ment to the Son; that all men should honour the Son, even as 
they honour the Father. 

Beloved, we need great diligence in all things, for we 

shall render account of and undergo a strict enquiry both of 

words and works. Our interests stop not with what now is, 

but a certain other condition of life shall receive us after this, 

2 Cor. 5, and we shall be brought before a fearful tribunal. For we 

must appear before the Judgment-seat of Christ, that every one 

may receive the things done in his body, according to that he 

hath done, whether it be good or bad. Let us ever bear in 

mind this tribunal, that we may thus be enabled at all times 

to continue in virtue; for as he who has cast out from his 

soul that day, rushes like a horse that has burst his bridle to 

Ps. io, precipices, (for his ways are always defiled 1 , and then assign- 

1 βΦν i»g the reason the Psalmist hath added, He putteth Thy judg- 

**"« merits far away out of his sight;) so he that always retains 

Kcclus. this fear will walk soberly. Remember, saith one, thy last 

things, and thou shall never do amiss. For He who now hath 

reunited our sins, will then sit in judgment; He who hath 

died for our sake will then appear again to judge all man- 

ΦύΖ kim]2 • Unl ° them that look for Him, saith the Apostle, 

anarrau. shall He appear the second time without sin unto salvation. 

28t ' » Wherefore in this place also He saith, My Father judgeth 

The Son is as the Father in all save in His being Son. 329 

no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son ; John 
that all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the 23.24. 


" Shall we then," saith some one, " also call Him Father? 1 ' 
Away with the thought. He useth the word Son that we 
may honour Him still remaining a Son, as we honour the 
Father; but he who calleth Him " Father" doth not honour 
the Son as the Father, but has confounded the whole. 
Moreover as men are not so much brought to by being 
benefitted as by being punished, on this account He hath 
spoken thus terribly 3 , that even fear may draw them to 
honour Him. And when He saith all, His meaning is this, 
that He hath power to punish and to hononr, and doeth 
either as He will b . The expression hath given, is used that 
thou may est not suppose Him not to have been Begotten, and 
so think that there are two Fathers. For ail that the Father 
is, this the Son is also c , Begotten, and remaining a Son. 
And that thou may est learn that hath given is the same as 
"hath begotten," hear this very thing declared by another 
place. As, saith Christ, the Father hath life in Himself, so v . 26. 
hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself. " What 
then ? Did He first beget and then give Him life ? For he 
who giveth, giveth to some thing which is. Was He then 
begotten without life ?" Not even the devils could imagine 
this, for it is very foolish as well as impious. As then " hath 
given life" is " hath begotten Him Who is Life," so, " hath 
given judgment" is " hath begotten Him Who shall be 

That thou mayest not when thou hearest that He hath the 
Father for His cause imagine any difference 1 of essence or ι*αραλ- 
inferiority of honour, He cometh to judge thee, by this Xayr}V ' 
proving His Equality 2 . For He who hath authority tojal. 
punish and to honour whom He will, hath the same Power Bi |f h> , 
with the Father. Since, if this be not the case, if having 
been begotten He afterwards received the honour, how came 
it that He was afterwards [thus] honoured, by what mode 

a al. ' since men being benefitted ε re b ' al. to punish and honour all whom- 

not so sensible of it, He saith hath soever He will.' 

given all judgment to Him, in order c al. < all things which belong to the 

that ' &c. Father, belong also to the Son.' 

330 The lower expressions were to avoid offence to the Jews, 

HoMiL.of advancement reached He so far as to receive and be 
* — appointed to this dignity ? Are ye not ashamed thus im- 

1 άκ-ηρά- pudently to apply to that Pare 1 Nature which admitteth of 

no addition these carnal and mean imaginations ? 

" Why then," saith some one, " doth Christ so speak ?" 
That His words may be readily received, and to clear the 
way for sublime sayings ; therefore He mixeth these with 
those, and those with these. And observe how (He doth it) ; 
ch. 5,17. for it is good to see this from the beginning. He said, My 
Father worketh, and I work: declaring by this their Equality 
and Equal honour. But they sought to kill Him. What 
doth He then? He lowereth His form of speech indeed, 
but putteth the same meaning when He saith, The Son can 
do nothing of Himself. Then again He raiseth His discourse 
to high matters, saying, What things soever the Father doeth, 
these also doeth the Son likewise. Then He returneth to 
what is lower, For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth 
Him all things that Himself doeth ; and He will shew Him 
greater things than these. Then He riseth higher, For as 
the Father raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them, even so 
the Son quickeneth whom He will. After this again He 
joineth the high and the low together, For neither doth the 
Father judge any one, but hath given all judgment to the 
Son; then riseth again, That all men should honour the Son, 
even as they honour the Father. Seest thou how He varieth 
the discourse, weaving it both of high and low words and 
expressions, in order that it might be acceptable to the men 
of that time, and that those who should come after might 
receive no injury, gaining from the higher part a right 
opinion of the rest? For if this be not the case, if these 
sayings were not uttered through condescension, wherefore 
were the high expressions added ? Because one who is 
entitled to utter great words concerning himself, hath, 
when he saith any thing mean and low, this reasonable 

2 οίκονο- excuse, that he doth it for some prudential purpose 2 ; but 
^" s 7l if one who ought to speak meanly of himself saith any thing 

great, on what account doth he utter words which surpass 
his nature ? This is not for any purpose at all, but an act of 
' J 1 • extreme impiety 3 . 

' lolly.' 

[2.] We are therefore able to assign a reason for the 

the higher to guard us from heresy. 331 

lowly expressions, a reason sufficient, and becoming to God, Jobn 


namely, His condescension, His teaching us to be moderate, 

and the salvation which is thus wrought for us. To declare ~~ 
which He said Himself in another place, These things I say 
that ye might be saved. For when He left His own witness, 
and betook Himself to that of John, (a thing unworthy of 
His greatness,) He putteth the reason of such lowliness of 
language, and saith, These things I say that ye might be 
saved. And ye who assert that He hath not the same 
authority and power with Him Who begat Him, what can 
ye say when ye hear Him utter words by which He declareth 
His Authority and Power and Glory equal in respect of the 
Father? Wherefore, if He be as ye assert very inferior, 
doth He claim the same honour ? Nor doth He stop even 
here, but goeth on to say, 

He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the Father 
whieh hath sent Him. "Seest thou how the honour of the 
Son is connected with that of the Father? " What of that ?" 
saith one. " We see the same in the case of the Apostles ; 
He, saith Christ, who receiveth you receiveth Me" But, 
that place He speaketh so, because He maketh the concerns 40 ' 
of His servants His own ; here, because the Essence and the 
Glory is One (with that of the Father). Therefore 1 it is not^al.'Be- 
said of the Apostles " that they may honour," but rightly Fie 
saith, He that honoureth not the Son honoureth not the 
Father. For where there are two kings, if one is insulted 
the other is insulted also, and especially when he that is 
insulted is a son. He is insulted even when one of his 
soldiers is maltreated ; not in the same way as in this case, 
but as it were in the person of another 2 , while here it is as it 2 Sio^e- 
were in his own. Wherefore He beforehand said, That they v 
should honour the Son even as they honour the Father, in 
order that when He should say, He that honoureth not the 
Son honoureth not the Father, thou mightest understand 
that the honour is the same. For He saith not merely, " he 
that honoureth not the Son," but " he that honoureth Him 
not so as I have said" honoureth not the Father. 

" And how," saith one, " can he that sendeth and he that 
is sent be of the same essence ?" Again, thou bringest down 
the argument to carnal things, and perceivest not that all 

332 Our Lord's words adapted to earthly apprehensions. 
Homil. this lias been said for no other purpose, but that we might 

know Him to be The Cause 1 , and not fall into the error 2 of 


1 τον 

αίτιον Sabellius, and that in this manner the infirmity of the Jews 

2 νόσον mjght be healed, so that He might not be deemed an enemy 
c. 9, 16. of God d ; for they said, This man is not of God, " This man 

bath not come from God." Now to remove this suspicion, 
high sayings did not contribute so much as the lowly, and 
therefore continually aud every where He said that He had 
been sent ; not that thou mightest suppose that expression to 
be e any lessening of His greatness, but in order to stop their 
mouths. And for this cause also He constantly betaketh 
Himself to the Father, interposing moreover mention of His 
3 al.'ab-own high Parentage 3 . For had He said all in proportion to 
power' His dignity» tne J ews would not have received His words, 
since because of a few such expressions they persecuted and 
oftentimes stoned Him ; and if looking wholly to them He 
had used none but low expressions, many in after times 
might have been harmed. Wherefore He mingleth and 
blendeth f His teaching, both by these lowly sayings 
stopping, as I said, the mouths of the Jews, and also by 
4 al.'cor- expressions suited to His dignity banishing 4 from men of 
ing sense any mean notion of what He had said, and proving 
that such a notion did not in any wise apply to Him 
at all. 

The expression "having been sent" denoteth change of 
place— but God is every where present. Wherefore then 
ταχύ- saith He that He was sent? He speaketh in an eartldy 5 
ways, declaring His unanimity with the Father. At least 
He shapeth His succeeding words with a desire to effect 

Ver. 24. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth 
My word, and believetk on Him that sent Me, hath ever- 
lasting life. 

Scest thou how continually He putteth the same thing to 
cure that feeling of suspicion, both in this place and in what 
follows by fear and by promises of blessings removing their 

d For from their extreme senseless- f κιρνά, generally of mixing wine 

ness He was counted among them an with water. 

enemy of God. Morel. B Morel, reads: 'for this reason He 

;il. not that He might by this shew doth not decline to use a more earthly 

any lessening, &e.' expression, declaring, etc.' 


Believers in Him are led on to the Father. 833 

jealousy of Him, and then again condescending greatly in John 
words ? For He said not, " he that heareth My words, and 24 V 2 * 5 
believeth on Me," since they would have certainly deemed ~ 
that to be pride, and a superfluous pomp of words ; because, 
if after a very long time, and ten thousand miracles, they 
suspected this when He spake after this manner, much more 
would they have done so then. It was on this account that 
at that later period 1 they said to Him, Abraham is dead, and 1 TOTe 
the prophets are dead, howsayesl Thou 2 , If a man keep My*lrb\i' 
saying, he shall never taste of death ? In order therefore £ €i5 ' 
that they may not here also become furious, see what He 
saith, He that heareth My word, and believeth on Him that 
sent Me, hath everlasting life. This had no small effect in 
making His discourse acceptable, when they learned that 
those who hear Him believe in the Father also ; for after 
having received this with readiness, they would more easily 
receive the rest. So that the very speaking in a humble 
manner contributed and led the way to higher things ; for 
after saying, hath everlasting life, He addeth, 

And cometh not into judgment, bat is passed from death 
unto life. 

By these two things He maketh His discourse acceptable; 
first, because it is the Father Who is believed on, and then, 
because the believer enjoyeth many blessings. And the 
cometh not into judgment meaneth, " is not punished," for 
He speaketh not of death here, but of death eternal, as also 
of the other life which is deathless. 

Ver. 25. Verily, verily, I say unto you, the hour cometh, 
and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the S071 of 
God : and they that have heard shall live. 

Having said the words, He speaketh also of the proof by 
deeds h . For when He had said, As the Father raiseth up 
the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth 
whom He will, that the thing may not seem to be mere 
boasting and pride, He affordeth proof 3 by works, saying, J al. 
The hour cometh; then, that thou mayest not deem that the ' truth 
time is long, He addeth, and now is, when the dead shall 

h Morel reads : ' He spate those desireth to prove them by works also, 
great things in words, afterwards He 

334 Our Lord offered proof in what He would soon do. 

Homil. hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that have heard 

* —shall live. Seest thou here His absolute and unutterable 

authority ? For as it shall be in the Resurrection, even so, 

He saith, it shall be now. Then too when we hear His 

voice commanding us we are raised ; for, saith the Apostle, 

1 1 These." a t the command of God the dead shall arise 1 ." "And 

4 J5 # 

[not v'er- whence," perhaps some one will ask, " is it clear that the 
quoLn worc ^ s are not mere b°ast?" From what He hath added, 
.. and now is; because had His promises referred only to 
some future time, His discourse would have been suspected 
by them, but now He supplieth them with a proof: " While 
I," saith He, " am tarrying among you, this thing shall 
come to pass ;" and He would not, had He not possessed 
the power, have promised for that time, lest through the 
promise He should incur the greater ridicule. Then too 
He addeth an argument demonstrative of His assertions, 

Ver. 26. For as the Father hath life in Himself so hath 
He given to the Son to have life in Himself. 

[3.] Seest thou that this declareth a perfect likeness save 
in one 1 point, which is the One being a Father, and the 
Other a Son ? for the expression hath given, merely intro- 
duceth this distinction, but declareth that all the rest is 
equal and exactly alike. Whence it is clear that the Son 
doeth all things with as much authority and power as the 
Father, and that He is not empowered from some other 
source, for He hath life so as the Father hath. And on this 
account, what comes after is straightway added, that from 
this we may understand the other also. What is this then ? 
It is, 

Ver. 27. Hath given Him authority to execute judgment 
-6.νωκα\ And wherefore doth He continually 2 dwell upon resur- 
rection and judgment? For He saith, As the Father raiselh 
tip the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son quick- 
eneih whom He will: and again, the Father judgeth no man, 
hut hath committed all judgment to the Son: and again, As 
the Father hath life in Himself so hath He given to the Son 
to have life in Himself; and again, They that have heard 

1 rh ατταράλλακτον καϊ ev\ μ6νφ ττ)ν διαφοράν έμφαΐρον. 

He made way for the inference of His Godhead. 385 

[the Voice of the Son of God] shall live; and here again, John 
Hath given to Him authority to execute judgment. Where- 28 V 2 9i 
fore doth He dwell on these things continually? I mean, on ~ 
judgment, and life, and resurrection? It is because these 
subjects are able most of any to attract even the obstinate 
hearer. For the man who is persuaded that he shall both 
rise again and shall give account to Christ 1 of his transgres- ! τούτψ 
sions, even though he have seen no other sign, yet having 
admitted this, will surely run to Him to propitiate his Judge. 

That He is the Son of Man, (v. 28.) marvel not at this. 

Paul of Samosata rendereth it not so ; but how ? " Hath 
given Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the 
Son of Man 2 ." Now the passage thus read is inconsequent, 2 as in 
for He did not receive judgment because He was man,^ th 
(since then what hindered all men from being judges,) but Version, 
because He is the Son of that Ineffable Essence, therefore 
is He Judge. So we must read , That He is the Son of Man, 
marvel not at this. For when what He said seemed to the 
hearers inconsistent, and they deemed Him nothing more 
than mere man, while His words were greater than suited 
man, yea or even angel, and were proper to God only, to 
solve this objection He addeth, 

Ver. 28, 29. Marvel not [that He is the Son of Man 3 ,] for z ™vro 
the hour is coming in the which they 4 that are in the tombs* nav' T es 
shall hear His voice and shall go forth, they that have done G - τ • 
good to the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil 
to the resurrection of judgment. 

And wherefore said He not, " Marvel not that He is the 
Son of Man, for He is also the Son of God," but rather 
mentioned the resurrection? He did indeed put this above, 
by saying, shall hear the Voice of the Son of God. And if 
here He is silent on the matter, wonder not ; for after men- 
tioning a work which was proper to God, He then permitteth 
His hearers to collect from it that He was God, and the Son 
of God. For had this been continually asserted by Himself, 
it would at that time have offended them, but when proved 
by the argument of miracles, it rendered His doctrine less 
burdensome. So they who put together syllogisms, when 
having laid down their premises 5 they have fairly 6 proved 5 rft/tj» 
the point in question, frequently do not draw the conclusion J™ 1 

336 The doctrine of Judgment carefully propounded. 

Homil. themselves, but to render their hearers more fairly disposed, 
— ~—^ and to make their victory more evident, cause the opponent him- 
self to give the verdict, so that the by-standers may the rather 
agree with them when their opponents decide in their favour. 
When therefore He mentioned the resurrection of Lazarus, 
He spake not of the Judgment (for it was not for this 
that Lazarus arose) ; but when He spake generally He also 
added, that they that have done good shall go forth unto the 
resurrection of life, and they that have done evil unto the 
resurrection of judgment. Thus also John led on his hearers 

c 3, 36. by speaking of the Judgment, and that he that believeth not on 
the Son shall not see life, hut the wrath of God abideth on 

<•• 3, M-him: so too Himself led on Nicodemus: He that believeth on 
the Son, He said to him, is not judged, hut he that believeth 
not is judged already; and so here He mentioneth the 

\*ζΖ~ Jud S ment - seatl a » d the punishment which shall follow upon 
evil deeds. For because He had said above, He that 
heareth My words and believeth on Him that sent Me, " is 
not judged," lest any one should imagine that this alone is 
sufficient for salvation, He addeth also the result of man's 

loufiL^' declariD S lhat tlie y u ' hich ί*<™* done good shall come 
' forth unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done 
evil unto the resurrection of judgment. Since then He had 
said that all the world should render account to Him, and 
that all at His Voice should rise again, a thing new and 
strange and even now disbelieved by many who seem to 
have believed, not to say by the Jews at that time, hear how 
He goeth to prove it, again condescending to the infirmity of 
His hearers. 

Ver. 30. I can of Mine own self do nothing; as I hear I 

t m j^ge, and My judgment is just, because I seek not Mine own 

uZ V p hs Ml > hut the wiU of Him" Which sent Me. 

*&. ο Allhou S h He liad but laie] y g^en no trifling proof of the 
Resurrection by bracing- the paralytic; on which account 
also He had not spoken of the Resurrection before He had 
done what fell little short of resurrection. And the Judg- 
ment He hinted at after He had braced the body, by saying, 
Behold, thou art made whole, sin no more, lest a worse thing 
come unto thee; yet still He proclaimed beforehand the 
resurrection of Lazarus and of the world. And when He 

Christ condescendeth to the weakness of the Jews. 837 

had spoken of these two, that of Lazarus which should come John 
to pass almost immediately, and that of the inhabited world Y ' 30, 
which should be long after, He confirineth the first by the 
paralytic and by the nearness of the time, saying, Tlie hour 
cometh and now is; the other by the raising of Lazarus, by 
what had already come to pass bringing before their sight 
what had not yet clone so. And this we may observe Him 
do every where, putting (forth) two or three predictions, and 
always confirming the future by the past. 

[4.] Yet after saying and doing so much, since they still 
were very weak 1 He is not content, but by other expressions > al. 
calms their disputatious temper 2 , saying, I can of Myself do \ζΙ™ 
nothing; as I hear I judge, and My judgment is just, because gross' 
I seek not Mine own will, but the will of Him which sent Me. t sVame- 
For since He appeared to make some assertions strange and lessness ' 
varying from those of the Prophets, (for they said that it is 
God Who judgeth all the earth, that is, the human race; and 
this truth David every where loudly proclaimed, He shall judge Ps • 96 > 
the people in righteousness, and, God is a righteous Judge, strong η, \\. 
and patient; as did all the Prophets and Moses; but Christ LXX • 
said, The Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all 
judgment to the Son 4 ; an expression which was sufficient to 4a1 • l 
perplex a Jew who heard it, and to make him in turn suspect who 
Christ of being an enemy of God,) He here greatly con-J ud g e 
descendeth in His speech, and as far as their infirmity 
requireth, in order to pluck up by the roots this per- 
nicious opinion, and saith, I can of Myself do nothing; that 
is, "nothing strange, or unlike 5 , or what the Father desireth 5 παρηλ- 
not will ye see done or hear said by Me." And having ν ^ μξ 
before declared that He was the Son of Man, and because 
they k supposed Him to be a man at that time, so also He 
putteth [His expressions] here. As then when He said 
above, We speak that we have heard, and testify that we 
have seen; and when John said, What He hath seen He c - 3 i 32 • 
testifieth, and no man reeeivelh His testimony; both ex- 
pressions are used respecting exact knowledge, not concern- 
ing hearing and seeing merely ; so in this place when He 
speaketh of hearing, He declareth nothing else than that it 
is impossible for Him to desire any thing, save what the 

k So Morel, and Ms. in Bodl. Savile reads, ' having shewn that they &c* 


338 The Will of Christ one with that of the Father. 

Homil. Father desireth. Still He said not so plainly, (for they 

XXXIX . w0l jfl not as vet la&yQ a t once received it on hearing it thus 

asserted ;) but how ? in a manner very condescending and 

befitting a mere man, As I hear I judge. Again He useth 

these words in this place, not with reference to instruction, 

(for He said not, "as I am taught," but, as I hear ;) nor as 

though He needed to listen, (for not only did He not require 

to be taught, but He needed not even to listen ;) but it was 

to declare the Unanimity and Identity of [His and the 

Father's] decision, as though He had said, " So I judge, as if 

it were the Father Himself that judged." Then He addeth, 

and I know that My judgment is just, because I seek not 

Mine own will, but the will of Him that sent Me. What 

say est Thou? Hast Thou a will different from that of the 

c 17,21. Father ? Yet in another place He saith, As I and Thou are 

bally ΘΓ " )ie > (speaking of will and unanimity,) grant to these also 

quoted] that they may be one in Us ; that is, " in faith concerning 

Us." Seest thou that the words which seem most humble 

are those which conceal a high meaning? For what He 

implieth is of this kind : not that the will of the Father is 

one, and His own another ; but that, " as one will in one 

mind, so is Mine own will and My Father's." 

And marvel not that He hath asserted so close a conjunc- 
tion ; for with reference to the Spirit also Paul hath used this 
illustration: What man knoweth the things of a man, save 
the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God 
knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Thus Christ's 
meaning is no other than this : " I have not a will different 
and apart from that of the Father 1 , but if He desireth any 
thing, then I also ; if I, then He also. As therefore none 
could object to the Father judging, so neither may any to 
J A Me, for the sentence of Each 1 is given from the same 
sen. Mind." And if He uttereth these words rather as a man, 
tence' marve l not, seeing that they still deemed Him to be mere 
man. Therefore in passages like these it is necessary not 
merely to enquire into the meaning of the words, but also to 
take into account the suspicion of the hearers, and listen to 
what is said as being addressed to that suspicion. Other- 

1 According to Savile's conjectural -πάρα του Π. for which there is also Ms. 
reading, παρά, το του Π. in place of authority. 

How Christ sought not His own Will. 339 

wise many difficulties will follow. Consider for instance, John 
He saith, / seek not Mine own will : according to this then * 3Q ' 
His will is different (from that of the Father), is imperfect, 
nay, not merely imperfect, but even unprofitable. " For if it 
be saving, if it agree with that of the Father, wherefore dost 
Thou not seek it? Mortals might with reason say so because 
they have many wills contrary to what seemeth good to the 
Father, but Thou, wherefore sayest Thou this, Who art in all 
things like the Father? for this none would say is the language 
even of a man made perfect and crucified. For if Paul so 
blended himself 1 with the will of God as to say, / live, yet^i^pa^ 
no longer I, but Christ liveth in me, how saith the Lord of 20 2 ' 
all, / seek not Mine own will, but the will of Him that sent 
3Ie, as though that will were different? What then is His 
meaning? He applieth 2 His discourse as if the case were * ai. 
that of a mere man, and suiteth His language to the sus-l o br,ng ^ 
picion of His hearers. For when He had, by what had gone 
before, given proof of His sayings, speaking partly as God, 
partly as a mere man, He again as a man endeavoureth to 
establish 3 the same, and saith, My judgment is just. And 3 κατα- 
whence is this seen ? Because I seek not Mine own will, (TKeva ^ t 
but the will of Him that sent Me. " For as in the case of 
men, he that is free from selfishness cannot be justly charged 
with having given an unfair decision, so neither will ye now 
be able to accuse Me. He that desireth to establish his 
own, may perhaps by many be suspected of corrupting 
justice with this intent ; but he that looketh not to his own, 
what reason can he have for not deciding justly ? Apply 
now this reasoning to My case. Had I said that I was not 
sent by the Father, had I not referred to Him the glory of 
what was done, some of you might perhaps have suspected 
that desiring to gain honour for Myself, I said the thing that 
is not ; but if I impute and refer what is done to another, 
wherefore and whence can ye have cause to suspect My 
words ?" Seest thou how He confirmed His discourse, and 
asserted that His judgment was just by an argument which 
any common man might have used in defending himself? 
Seest thou bow what I have often said is clearly visible ? 
What is that ? It is that the exceeding humility of the 
expressions most persuadeth men of sense not to receive the 

ζ 2 

340 We must forgive that we may be forgiven. 

Homtl. words off hand 1 and then fall down [into low thoughts], but 
XXXIX • rather to take pains that they reach to the height of their 


° meaning; this humility too with much ease then raiseth up 

those who were once grovelling on the ground. 

Now bearing all this in mind, let us not, I exhort you, 
carelessly pass by Christ's words, but enquire closely into 
them all, every where considering the reason of what has 
been said ; and let us not deem that ignorance and sim- 
plicity will be sufficient to excuse us, for He hath bidden 
Mat. 10, us not merely to be harmless, but wise. Let us therefore 
1G ' practise wisdom with simplicity, both as to doctrines, and 

2 κατορ- the right actions 2 of our lives; let us judge ourselves here, 
θωμάτων^ t ^ t con d errmec i with the world hereafter 3 ; let us 

3 τότε _ 7 

act towards our fellow- servants as we desire our Master to 

Matt. 6, act towards us: for (we say), Forgive us our debts, as we 

l2, forgive our debtors. I know that the smitten soul endure th 

not meekly, but if we consider that by so doing we do a 

kindness not to him who hath grieved us but to ourselves, 

we shall soon let go the venom of our wrath ; for he who 

Mat. 18, forgave not the hundred pence to him who had transgressed 

30—34. a g ams t him, wronged not his fellow-servant but himself, 

by rendering himself liable for the ten thousand talents of 

which he had before received forgiveness. When therefore 

we forgive not others, we forgive not ourselves. And so let 

us not merely say to God, " remember not our offences ;" 

but let each also say to himself, " let us not remember the 

offences of our fellow-servants done against us." For thou 

first givest judgment on thine own sins, and God judgeth 

4 eWat after 4 ; thou proposest the law concerning remission and 

punishment, thou declarest thy decision on these matters, 
and therefore whether God shall or shall not remember, 
rests with thee. For which cause Paul biddeth us forgive, 
Col. 3, if any one hath cause of complaint against any, and not 
simply forgive, but so that not even any remnants be left 
behind. Since Christ not only did not publish our trans- 
gressions, but did not put us the transgressors in mind of 
them, nor say, "in such and such things hast thou offended," 
Col. 2, but remitted and blotted out the handwriting, not reckoning 
14 • J our offences, as Paul hath also declared. Let us too do this; 
let us wipe away all [trespasses against us] from our minds ; 

Love of our neighbour the way to eternal life. 341 

and if any good thing hath -been done to us by him that hath John 
grieved us, let us only reckon that; but if any thing grievous — : — - 
and hard to bear, let us cast it forth and blot it out, so that 
not even a vestige of it remain. And if no good has been 
done us by him, so much the greater recompense and higher 
credit will be ours if we forgive. Others by watching, by 
making the earth their bed, by ten thousand hardships, wipe 
away their sins, but thou by an easier way, I mean by not 
remembering wrongs, mayest cause all thy trespasses to 
disappear. Why then thrustest thou the sword against 
thyself, as do mad and frantic men, and banishest thyself 
from the life which is to come, when thou oughtest to use 
every means to attain unto it ? For if this present life be so 
desirable, what can one say of that other from which pain, 
and grief, and mourning, have fled away ? There it needs 
not to fear death, nor imagine any end to those good things. 
Blessed, thrice blessed, yea, and this many times over, are 
they who enjoy that blessed rest, while they are miserable, 
thrice miserable, yea, ten thousand times miserable, who 
have cast themselves forth from that blessedness. "And 
what," saith some one, " is it that maketh us to enjoy that 
life?" Hear the Judge Himself conversing with a certain 
young man on this matter. When the young man said, 
What shall I do to inherit eternal life? Christ after Mat. 19, 
repeating to him the other commandments, ended with the 
love of his neighbour. Perhaps like that rich man some of 
my hearers will say, " that we also have kept these, for we 
neither have robbed, nor killed, nor committed adultery ;" 
yet assuredly thou wilt not be able to say this, that thou 
hast loved thy neighbour as thou oughtest to have loved 
him. For if a man hath envied or spoken evil of another, 
if he hath not helped him when injured, or not imparted 
to him of his substance, then neither hath he loved him. 
Now Christ hath commanded not only this, but something 
besides. What then is this ? Sell, He saith, thai thou hast, Mat. 19, 
and give to the poor; and come follow Me: terming the 
imitating Him in our actipns following Him, What learn 
we hence ? First, that he who hath not all these things 
cannot attain unto the chief places in that rest. For after 
the young man had said, « All these things have 1 done, 

34*2 Abiding honour purchased by alms-doing. 

XXXIX CIllist > as tnou gh som e great thing were wanting to his being 

perfectly approved, replied, If thou unit be perfect, sell 

that thou hast, and give to the poor: and come, follow Me. 
First then we may learn this; secondly, that Christ 
rebuked the man for his vain boast ; for one who lived in 
such superfluity, and regarded not others living in poverty, 
how could he love his neighbour ? So that neither in this 
matter did he speak truly. But let us do both the one and 
the other of these things ; let us be eager to empt out our 
substance, and to purchase heaven. Since if for worldly 
honour men have often expended their whole possessions, 
an honour which was to stay here below, and even here not to 
stay by us long, (for many even much before their deaths have 
been stripped of their supremacy, and others because of it 
have often lost their lives, and yet, although aware of this, 
they expend all for its sake ;) if now they do so much for 
this kind of honour, what can be more wretched than we if 
for the sake of that honour which abideth and which cannot 
be taken from us we will not give up even a little, nor 
supply to others those things which in a short time while yet 
here we shall leave ? What madness must it be, when it is 
in our power voluntarily to give to others, and so to take 
with us those things of which we shall even against our will 
be deprived, to refuse to do so ? Yet if a man were being 
led to death, and it were proposed to him to give up all his 
goods and so go free, we should think a favour was conferred 
upon him ; and shall we, who are being led on the way to 
the pit, shall we, when it is allowed us to give up half and 
be free, prefer to be punished, and uselessly to retain what is 
not ours even to the losing what is so ? What excuse shall 
we have, what claim for pardon, who, when so easy a road 
has been cut for us unto life, rush down precipices, and 
travel along an unprofitable path, depriving ourselves of all 
things both here and hereafter, when we might enjoy both in 
security ? If then we did not so before, let us at least stop 
now; and coming to ourselves, let us rightly dispose of things 
present, that we may easily receive those which are to come, 
through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus 
Christ , with Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost be 
glory, for ever and ever. Amen. 


John v. 31,32. 
/// bear witness of Myself , My witness is not true; there is 

another that beareth witness of Me, and I know that the 

witness which he witnesseth of Me is true. 

If any one unpractised in the art undertake to work a 
mine, he will get no gold, but confounding all aimlessly and 
Together, will undergo a labour uuprofitabl •-*£"££ 
so also they who understand not the method• of Holy Scrip , ^ 
ture, nor search out its peculiarities ■ and ^^-«aU 
its points carelessly and in one manner, will mix »»* goW 
with earth, and never discover the treasure which is laid up 
iu it. I say this now because the passage before ns con- 
tained much gold, not indeed manifest to view but covered 
over with much obscurity, and therefore by dtggtng and 
purifying we must arrive at the legitimate sense. For who 
would not at once be troubled at hearing Chnst say, // 
/ testify of Myself, My witness is not true; inasmuch as He 
often SpLLihavi testified ofHimself? '««-«J 
conversing with the Samaritan woman He said / Am that 

ZS3L, and in like T ™»*^%^C 
He that talketh with thee; and rebuking the Jews, Ye η,, 
thou blasphemest, because I said I am the Son of God? And 
in many other places besides He doth tins. If now all fMs 
assertions be false, what hope of salvation shall we have! 

* Savile reads, ' and to the Jews, How say ye, to.' 

344 The witness of Christ true though He spake of Himself . 

Howl. And where shall we find truth when Truth Itself declare*, 

- My wttness is not true? Nor doth this appear to he the only 

contradiction; there is another not less than this. He saith 

o. 8, 14. farther on, Though 1 bear witness of Myself, yet My witness is 
true; winch then, tell me, am I to receive, and which deem 
a falsehood? If we take them out thus [from the context] 
simply as they are said, without carefully considering the 
person to whom nor the cause for which they are said, 
nor any other like circumstances, they will both be false- 
hoods. For if His witness be not true, then this asser- 
tion is not true either, not merely the second, but the first 
also. What then is the meaning? We need great watch- 
fulness, or rather the grace of God, that we rest not in the 
mere words; for thus the heretics err, because they enquire 
not into the object of the speaker nor the disposition of the 
hearers. If we add not these and other points besides, as 
times and places and the opinions of the listeners, many 
absurd consequences will follow. 

e 8 re ι Wl f ^^ ! V he meanin S b? The Jews were about to 

J-.8, 13. object to Him, If thou bearesl witness* concerning thyself, 

μγη» thy witness is not true: therefore He spake these words in 

g» T _ ant.cipation ; as though He had said, "ye will surely say to 

Me > W °*>f°\° tl,ee »•' ! for no one that witnessed, of himself 

, ;t, « «»d.lj held trustworthy among men." So that the is not 

true must not be read absolutely, but with reference to• their 

silicons, as though He had said, « to you it is not true ;" 

and so lie uttered the words not looking to His own dignity, 

but to their secret thoughts. When He saith, My ,citL is 

Ιού Ί f T h , tlU ' ir ° pini0n ° f Him ' a " d the objection 

c 8 .4 m ; ?Γ δ ^ them agahlSt Him; bllt w,,e » H<^ith, 

oTcWh !Γ ^ ° fMySelf > M * wiiness * «™.Ηβ 
declare* _*e very nature of the thing itself, namelv, that 

as God they ought to deem Him trustworthy even when 

option If * Τϊ ''Γ SiUCe He ^ Sp ° ke " ° f the ~ 

betve* on Η ' " ?>** JUdSUlent ' and that he that 

sh Π 'ι" 1 ," 1,0t , ,U<, S ed ' but —* unto life, and 

that He shall sit ο require account of all men, and that He 

* ΓΓ,1ΐ οη * and Power wi,h the Father; and since 

intent these vrwasweteMid? th What B C , aL with th * addition ' to their 

Christ produceth threefold witness. 345 

He was about again otherwise to prove these things, He ueces- JoHN 
sarily put their objection first. " I told you," He saith, " that V. 
as the Father raiselh the dead and quickeneth them, so the ' 
Son quickeneth ivhom He will ; I told you that the Father 
judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the 
Son; 1 told you that men must honour the Son as they honour 
the Father; I told you that he that honourcth not the Son 
honoureth not the Father ; I told you that he that heareth r . 24. 
My words and believeth them shall not see death, hut hath^^ ex ' 
passed from death unto life; that My voice shall raise the quoted} 
dead, some now, some hereafter; that I shall demand account 
from all men of their transgressions, that I shall judge righ- 
teously, and recompense those who have walked uprightly." 
Now since all these were assertions, since the things asserted 
were important, and since no clear proof of them had as yet 
been afforded to the Jews but one rather 1 indistinct, He 1 a l. « in 
putteth their objection first when He is about to proceed 2 ever ^ 
to establish His assertions, speaking somewhat in this way if 2 δρμαν 
not in these very words d : "Perhaps fe will say, thou as-*-*"" 
sertest all this, but thou art not a credible witness, since thou 
testifiest of thyself." First then checking their disputatious 
spirit by setting forth what they would say, and shewing that 
He knew the secrets of their hearts, and giving this first proof 
of His power, after stating the objection He supplieth other 
proofs clear and indisputable, producing three witnesses to 
what He said, namely, the works wrought by Him, the wit- 
ness of the Father, and the preaching of John. And He 
putteth first the less important witness of John. For after 
saying, There is another that heareth ttitness of Me, and 

1 know that his witness is true, He addeth, 

Ver. 33. Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the 


Yet if Thy witness be not true, how sayest Thou, " I know 

that the testimony of John is true, and that he hath borne 

witness to the truth ?" and seest thou (O man) how clear it 

hence is, that the expression, My witness is not true, was 

addressed to their secret thoughts ? 

[2.] "What then," saith some one, "if John bare witness 

partially 3 ." That the Jews might not assert this, see how He 3 χ ά ριΤί 
d Morel, reads, ' all but conclusively refuting them by what He eaith,' 

346 The Baptist's witness the toitness of God. 

Homil. removeth this suspicion. For He said not, " John testified 
- — — of Me," but, " ye first sent to John, and ye would not have 
sent had ye not deemed him trustworthy/' Nay, what is 
more, they had sent not to ask him about Christ, but about 
himself, and the man whom they deemed trustworthy in what 
related to himself they would much more deem so in what 
related to another. For it is, so to speak, the nature of us 
all not to give so much credit to those who speak of them- 
selves as to those who speak of others ; yet him they deemed 
so trustworthy as not to require even concerning himself 
any other testimony. For they who were sent said not, 
" What sayest thou concerning Christ r" but, Who art 
thou? What sayest thou of thyself f So great admiration 
felt they for the man. Now to all this Christ made allusion 
by saying, Ye sent unto John. And on this account the 
Evangelist hath not merely related that they sent, but is 

< she»- eXaC ! aS t0 the P ersons sent that ' th ey were Priests and of the 
ing that' Pharisees, not common or abject persons, nor such as might 
be corrupted or cheated, but men able to understand exactly 
what he said. 

Ver. 34. But I receive not testimony from man. 
" Why then hast Thou brought forward that of John ?" 
His testimony was not the testimony of man, for, saith he, 
ci,33. He that sent me to baptize with ivater, He said unto me. 
So that John's testimony was the testimony of God; for 
having learned from Him he said what he did. But that 
none should ask, " whence is it clear that he learnt from 
God ?" and stop at this, He abundantly silences them by 
still addressing Himself to their thoughts. For neither was 
it likely that many would know these things; they had 
hitherto given heed unto John as to one who spake of him- 
self, and therefore Christ saith, I receive not testimony from 
man. And that the Jews might not ask, « And if Thou wert 
not about to receive the testimony of man, and by it to 
strengthen Thyself, why hast Thou brought forward this 
man's testimony?" see how He correcteth this contradiction 
by what He addeth. For after saying, / receive not testi- 
mony from man, He hath added, 

But these things I say, that ye may be saved. 

What He saith is of this kind; « I, being God, needed not 

Inconstancy of the Jews shewn in the case of the Baptist 347 

the witness of John which is man's witness, yet because ye ^Joi™ 
gave more heed to him, believe him more trustworthy than 
any, ran to him as to a prophet, (for all the city was poured 
forth to Jordan,) and have not believed on Me even when 
working miracles, therefore I remind you of that witness of 


Ver. 35. He was a burning and a shining light, and ye 
were willing for a season to rejoice in his light. 

That they may not reply, " What if he did speak and we 
received him not," He sheweth that they did receive John's 
sayings: since they sent not common men, but priests and 
Pharisees, and were willing to rejoice*; so much did they ' clause 
admire the man, and at the time had nothing to say against in Ben . 
his words. But the for a season, is the expression of one 
noting their levity 2 , and the fact that they soon started away'jteo- 

from him. 

Ver. 36. But I have greater witness than that of John. 
" For had ye been willing to admit faith according to the 
(natural) consequence of the facts, I would have brought you 
over by My works more than he by his words. But since 
ye will not, I bring you to John, not as needing his testi- 
mony, but because I do all that ye may be saved. For 1 
have greater witness than that of John, namely, that from 
My works; yet I do not merely consider how I may be 
made acceptable to you by credible evidence, but how by 
that (of persons) known 3 to and admired by you. «en,^ 
glancing at them and saying that they rejoiced for a season 
in his (John's) light, He declared that their zeal was but 
temporary and uncertain '. _ . ,. ,., λί „, 

He called John a torch % signifying that he had not light -x- 
of himself, but by the grace of the Spirit; but *^~-. 
stance which caused the absolute distinction «between Him- «^ 
self and John, namely, that He was the Sun of >£«-£» 
this He put not yet; but merely hinting as yet «itoft 
touched' them sharply, by shewing that Horn th -^ 
disposition which led them to despise , Jo to, ne 1 ^ could 
they believe in Christ. Since it was but for a season that 
Ihey admired even the man whom they did admire, and who, 
e This passage is read variously in Ben. and Ms.bnt without any variety of 


348 The witness of the works, 

Homil. had they not acted thus, would soon have led them by the hand 
XL ' to Jesus. Having then proved them altogether unworthy of 
forgiveness, He went on to say, / have greater witness than 
that of John. " What is that ?" It is that from His works. 

For the ivorks, He saith, uhich the Father hath given Me 
to finish, the same works that I do bear witness of Me that 


the Father sent l Me. 



By this He reminded them of the paralytic restored, and 

σταλ /ce of many other things. The words perhaps one of them 

G. T.] might have asserted were mere boast, and said by reason of 

John's friendship towards Him, (though indeed it was not in 

their power to say even this of John, a man equal to the exact 

2 ψι\ο- practice of wisdom 2 , and on this account admired by them,) 

σοφνν but {he works cou]d nQt even among the ma ddest f t he m admit 

this suspicion; therefore He added this second testimony, 

saying, The works which the Father hath given Me to finish, 

the same works that I do bear witness of Me that the 

Father sent Me. 

In this place He also meetetb the accusation respecting 
the violation of the Sabbath. For since those persons 
c. 9, 16. argued, " How can he be from God, seeing that he keepeth 
not the Sabbath ?" therefore He saith, Which My Father 
hath given unto Me. Yet in truth, He acted with absolute 
power, but in order most abundantly to shew that He 
doth nothing contrary to the Father, therefore He hath 
[ 3# ] put the expression of much inferiority. Since why did 
He not say, "the works which the Father hath given Me 
testify that 1 am equal to the Father ?" for both of these 
truths were to be learned from the works, that He did 
nothing contrary, and that He was equal to Him Who 
begat Him; a point which He is establishing elsewhere 
,20,38. where He saith, If ye believe not Me, believe the works) 
that ye may know and believe that I am in the Father 
and the Father in Me'. In both respects, therefore, the 
works bare witness to Him, that He was equal to the 
Father, and that He did nothing contrary to Him Why 
then said lie not so, instead of leaving out the greater and 
putlmg forward this? Because to establish this was His 
hrst object. For although it was a far less thing to have it 

f eV έμυϊ δ Πατήρ, κα -yw eV αύτψ G. T. 

The witness of the Father. 849 

believed that He came from God, than to have it believed John 
that God was equal with Him, (for that belonged to the V ' 37 ' 
Prophets also 1 , but this never,) still He taketh much pains 'al.'the 
as to the lesser point, as knowing that, this admitted 2 , the 5"°^ 
other would afterwards be easily received. So that making said' 
no mention of the more important portion of the testimony, « sa id' 
He putteth 3 its lesser office, that by this they may receive 3 al. 
the other also. Having effected this, He addeth, worthy 

Ver. 37. And the Father Himself, Which hath sent ilie, ° f m , en - 
hath borne witness of Me. 

Where did He bear witness of Him ? In Jordan : This is Matt. 3, 
My beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased; hear Him 1 . 
Yet even this needed proof. The testimony of John 
then was clear, for they themselves had sent to him, and 
could not deny it. The testimony from miracles was in like 
manner clear, for they had seen them wrought, and had 
heard from him who was healed, and had believed ; whence 
also they drew their accusation. It therefore remained to 
give proof to the testimony of the Father. Next in order to 
effect this, He added, 

Ye have neither heard His voice at any time : 

How then saith Moses, The Lord spake, and Moses Ex. 19, 
answered? and David, He heard a tongue which he knew']?'. r 

x. S.o I jO. 

not ; and Moses again, " Is there any such people which 
hath heard the voice of God ?" Deut. 4, 

Nor seen His shape. 33, 

Yet Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, are said to have seen 
Him, and many others. What then is that which Christ 
saith now ? He guideth them by degrees to a philosophical 
doctrine, shewing that with God is neither voice nor shape, but 
that He is higher than such forms or sounds like these. For 
as when He saith, Ye have not heard His voice, He doth not 
mean that God doth indeed utter a voice, but one which 
cannot be heard ; so when He saith, Nor seen His shape, 
He doth not mean that God hath a shape though one 
invisible, but that neither of these things belongeth to God. 
And in order that they might not say, " Thou art a boaster, 
God spake to Moses only ;" (this at least they did say, We «. 9, 29. 
know that God spake with Moses: as for this fellow, we 

« The latter words heard at the Transfiguration. 

350 The witness of the Scriptures. 

Uouil. know not whence He is;) on this account He spake as He 

—did, to shew that there is neither voice nor shape with God. 

" But why," He saith, " name I these things ? Not only 
have ye neither heard His voice nor seen His shape, but it 
is not even in your power to assert that of which you most 
boast and of which you are all most fully assured, namely, 
that ye have received and keep His commandments." Where- 
fore He addeth, 

Ver. 38. And ye have not His word abiding in you. 

That is, the ordinances, the commandments, the Law, and 

the Prophets. For even if God ordained these, still they 

are not with you, since ye believe not on Me. Because, if 

\ JjJ^, tne Scriptures every where say l that it is necessary to give 

B al.'be- ne ed to 2 Me, and yet ye believe not, it is quite clear that 

lieve' His word is removed from you. Wherefore again He 


For Whom He hath sent, Him ye believe not. 
Then that they may not argue, " How, if we have not 
heard His voice, hath He testified unto thee ?" He saith, 

Ver. 39. Search the Scriptures, for they are they which 
testify of Me. 

Since by these the Father gave His testimony. He gave 
it indeed by Jordan also and in the mount, but Christ 
Uvr^- bringeth not forward those voices ; perhaps by doing so 3 He 
*ai. would have been disbelieved 4 ; for one of them, that in the 
would mount > the 7 did not hear, and the other they heard indeed, 
dfsbe blU heeded not ' For this reason He referreth them to the 
lieved* Scriptures, shewing that from them cometh the Father's 5 
5 h a e r'of testimony5 havin S first rem °ved the old grounds on which 
the* they used to boast, either as having seen God or as having 
s P int ' heard His voice. For as it was likely that they would 
disbelieve His voice, and picture to themselves what took 
place on Sinai, after first correcting their suspicions on these 
points, and shewing that what had been done was a conde- 
scension, He then referreth them to the testimony of the 

[4.] And from these too let us also, when we war against 

2Tirn.3, heretics, arm and fortify ourselves. For all Scripture is 

given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, 

for reproof , for correction, for instruction in righteousness, 

We must be perfect : love of money the root of evil. 851 

that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished John 

unto every good work; not that he may have some and not '- 

others, for such a man is not perfect. For tell me what 
profit is it, if a man pray continually, but give not liberal 
alms ? or if he give liberal alms, but be covetous or violent ? 
or if he be not covetous nor violent, but (is liberal) to make 
a show before men, and to gain the praise of the beholders? 
or if he give alms with exactness and according to God's 
pleasure, yet be lifted up by this very thing, and be high- 
minded ? or if he be humble and constant in fasting, but 
covetous, greedy of gain 1 , and nailed to earth, and one whoMj-*•- 
introduceth into his soul the mother of mischief? for the 
love of money is the root of all evils 2 . Let us then shudder ^for 
at the action, let us flee the sin; this hath made the world a hassaid> 
waste 3 , this hath brought all things into confusion, this&o•^ 
seduceth us from the most blessed service of Christ. "It^ted," 
is not possible 4 ," He saith, "to serve God and mammon."^— 
For mammon giveth commands contradictory to those oU hU- 
Christ. The one saith, "Give to them that need;" the^ 
other " Plunder the goods of the needy." Christ saith, 
« Forgive them that wrong thee;" the other, " Prepare snares 
against those who do thee no wrong." Christ saith, " Be 
merciful and kind;" mammon saith, " Be savage and cruel, 
and count the tears of the poor as nothing;" to the intent 
that he may render the Judge stern to us m that day. 
For then all our actions shall come* before our eyes, andj-L^ 
those who have been injured and stripped by us, shutting us 
out from all excuse. Since if Lazarus, who received no 
wrong from Dives, but only did not enjoy any of his good 
things, stood forth at that time 6 as a bitter accuser and 'τ*™, 
allowed him not to obtain any pardon, what excuse, tell me, 
shall they have, who, besides giving no alms of their own 
substance, seize that of others, and overthrow orphans 
houses ? If they who have not fed Christ when He hungered 
have drawn such fire upon their heads, what consolation 
shall they enjoy who plunder what belongs not to them at 
all, who weave ten thousand law-suits, who unjustly grasp 
the property of all men? Let us then cast out this desire; 
and we shall cast it out if we think of those before >ns who 
did wrongfully, who were covetous and are gone. Vo no t< ^ 


35*2 Blessings gained by almsdoing here and hereafter, 

Homil. others enjoy their wealth and labours while they lie in 
XL • punishment, and vengeance, and intolerable woes? And 
how can this be any thing but extreme folly, to weary and 
vex ourselves, that living we may strain ourselves with labour, 
and on our departure hence undergo intolerable punishments 
and vengeances, when we might have enjoyed ourselves here, 
(for nothing so much causeth pleasure as the consciousness 
1 al. of almsgiving 1 ,) and departing to that place might have been 
gfving delivered from all our woes, and obtained ten thousand 
and a blessings ? For as wickedness is wont to punish those who 
con- go after it, even before (they arrive at) the pit, so also virtue, 
science' even before the (gift of) the Kingdom, provides delights for 
those who here practise it, making them to live in company 
with good hopes and continual pleasure. Therefore that we 
may obtain this, both here and in the life to come, let us 
hold fast to good works, so shall we gain the future crown ; 
to which may we all reach through the grace and loving- 
kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom and with 
Whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory, now 
and ever, and world without end. Amen. 


John v. 39, 40. 

Search the Scriptures ; for in them ye think ye have eternal 

life ; and they are they which testify of Me. And ye will 

not come to Me that ye might have [eternal 1 ] life. l not in 

• G. T. 

Beloved, let us make great account of spiritual things, 
and not think that it is sufficient for us to salvation to pursue 
them any how. For if in things of this life a man can gain 
no great profit if he conduct them in an indifferent and 
chance way, much more will this be the case in spiritual 
things, since these require yet greater attention. Wherefore 
Christ when He referred the Jews to the Scriptures, sent 
them not to a mere reading, but a careful and considerate 22 ai. 
search ; for He said not, " Read the Scriptures," but, Search ^ve' 1 ' 
the Scriptures. Since the sayings relating to Him required 
great attention, (for they had been concealed from the 
beginning for the advantage of the men of that time,) He 
biddeth them now dig down with care that they might be 
able to discover what lay in the depth below. These sayings 
were not on the surface, nor were they cast forth to open 
view, but lay like some treasure hidden very deep. Now he 
that searcheth for hidden things, except he seek them with 
care and toil, will never find the object of his search. For 
which cause He said, Search the Scriptures, because in 
them ye think ye have eternal life. He said not, u Ye 
have," but, ye think, shewing that they gained from them 
nothing great or high, expecting as they did to be saved by 


354 The Jews convicted of not loving God. 

HoMiL.the mere reading, without the addition of 1 faith. What He 
- XLI •- saith therefore is of this kind: ci Do ye not admire the 
1 being Scriptures, do ye not think that they are the causes of all 
desti * life? By these I confirm My claims now, for they are they 
which testify of Me, yet ye will not come to Me that ye may 
have eternal life." It was thus with good reason that He 
said, ye think, because they would not obey, but merely 
prided themselves on the bare reading. Then lest owing to 
His very tender care He should incur among them the 
suspicion of vain glory, and because He desired to be 
believed by them, should be deemed to be seeking His own ; 
(for He reminded them of the words of John, and of the 
witness of God, and of His own works, and said all He 
could to draw them to Him, and promised them life 3 ;) 
since, I say, it was likely that many would suspect that He 
spake these things from a desire of glory, hear what He 
saith : 

Ver. 41. I receive not honour from men. 
That is, " I need it not:" " My nature," He saith, " is not 
of such a kind as to need the honour which is from men, for 
if the sun can receive no addition from the light of a candle, 
much farther am I from needing the honour which is from 
men." " Why then," asks some one, " sayest thou these 
things, if thou needest it not?" That ye may he saved. 
This He positively asserted above, and the same He implied 
here also, by saying, that ye might have life. Moreover, He 
putteth another reason : 

Ver. 4*2. But I know you that ye have not the love of God 
in you. 
2 al. For when under pretence of loving God they 2 persecuted 

ofttr? Him because He made Himself equal with God, and He 
knew that they would not believe Him, lest any one should 
ask, "why speakest thou these words ?" " I speak them," He 
saith, " to convict you of this, that it is not for the love of 
God that ye persecute Me, if it be so that He testifieth to 
Me both by works and by the Scriptures. For as before 
this when ye deemed Me an enemy of God ye drove Me 
away, so now, since I have declared these things, ye ought to 
have hastened to Me, if ye had really loved God. But je 

a al. ' and promised all those things so as to draw them to Himself/ 

Christ rejected and Antichrist received. 355 

love Him not. And therefore have I spoken these words, John 
to shew that you are possessed with excessive pride, that 
you are vainly boasting and shading over 1 your own en -ΐώ, 
viousness/' And the same He proveth not by these things 
only, but by those that should come to pass. 

Ver. 43. / am come in My Fathers name, and ye receive 
Me not; if another shall come in his own name, him will ye 


Seest thou that He every where declareth that He hath 
been sent, that judgment hath been committed to Him by 
the Father, that He can do nothing of Himself, in order 
that He may cut off all excuse for their unfairness ? But 
who is it that He here saith shall come in his own name? 
He alludeth here to Antichrist, and putteth 2 an incon-^aL^ 
trovertible proof of their unfairness. " For if as loving God ™£ 
ye persecute Me, much more ought this to have taken place 3 putteth' 
in the case of Antichrist. For he will neither say that he is < ought 
sent by the Father, nor that he cometh according to bis 7**^ 
will but in every thing contrariwise, .seizing like a tyrant 
what belongeth not to him, and asserting that he is the very 
God over all, as Paul saith, Exalting himself above all that is 2 The... 
called God, or that is worshipped, shewing lumsdf that he ' 
is God This is to ' come in his own name.' I do not so, 
but am come in the Name of My Father." That they 
received not One Who said that He was sent of God, was 
a sufficient proof that they loved not God ; but now from the 
contrary of this fact, from their being about to receive Anti- 
christ, He sheweth their shamelessness*. For when they £.<en. 
receive not One Who asserteth that He was sent by God , 
and are about to worship one who knoweth Him not and 
who saith that he is God over all, it is clear that then 
persecution proceeded from malice and from hatmg ; God 
On this account He putteth two reasons for His words and 
first the kinder one*, That ye may be saved; and That j^ 
L have life, and when they would have mocked a Hun, 
He T^tteth the other which was more string shewing „ 
L -n although His hearers should not behe.e £ 
that God was wont always to do His own works. Now 
S^eakin, concerning Antichrist said Wf^J& 
that God shall send them strong delusion, -that they <"' 2n 12 

356 Why the Jeics believed not. 

Homil. might be judged who believed not the truth, but had pleasure 

-in unrighteousness. Christ said not, " He shall come ;" but, 

if He come, from tenderness for His hearers; and because 

1 al. all their obstinacy ' was not yet complete. He was silent as 

ness. " t0 tne reason of His coming ; but Paul, for those who can 

understand, has particularly alluded to it. For it is he who 

taketh away all excuse from them. 

Christ then putteth also the cause of their unbelief, 

Ver. 44. Flow can ye believe, which receive honour one of 
another, and seel•, not the honour that cometh from God only f 
Hence again He sheweth that they looked not to the 
things of God, but that under this pretence they desired to 
gratify private feeling, and were so far from doing this on 
account of His glory, that they preferred honour from men 
to that which cometh from Him. How then were they 
xe^Ur likel y to entertain 2 such hostility towards Him b for a kind of 
honour which they so despised, as to prefer to it the honour 
which cometh from men ? 

Having told them that they had not the love of God, and 
having proved it by what was doing in His case, and by what 
should be in the case of Antichrist, and having demonstrated 
that they were deprived of all excuse, He next bringeth 
Moses to be their accuser, going on to say, 

Ver. 45 — 47. Do not think that I will accuse you to the 

Father; there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom 

ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed 

Me ; for he wrote of Me. But if ye believe not his writings, 

how shall ye believe My words? 

Ukwos What He saith is of this kind: "It is Moses 3 who 

<or, has been insulted more than I 4 by your conduct towards 

M *, ore Me, for ye have disbelieved him rather than Me." See how 

in every way He hath cast them out from all excuse. " Ye 

said that ye loved God when ye persecuted Me; I have 

'arouse' sheWn that ye did S0 from liatrecl of Him: ye say 5 that 
I break the Sabbath and annul the Law; I have rid Me 

Vrofess' ° f tbis slaluler also : Y e maintain that ye believe in Moses 
by what ye dare to do against Me; I on the contrary shew 
that this is most to disbelieve in Moses; for so far am I from 

b or, 'to take on them such hostility as they would have incurred by following Him.» 

Moses will he their accuser. 357 

opposing the Law, that he who shall accuse you is none John 
other than the man who gave you the Law." As then He 

said of the Scriptures, in which ye think ye have eternal life, 
so of Moses also He saith, in whom ye trust; every where 
conquering them by their own weapons. 

" And whence,' 1 saith some one, " is it clear that Moses 
will accuse us, and that thou art not a boaster ? What hast 
thou to do with Moses ? Thou hast broken the Sabbath 
which he ordained that we should keep ; how then should he 
accuse us r And how doth it appear that we shall believe 
on another who cometh in his own name ? All these as- 
sertions thou makest without evidence." Now in truth all 
these points are proved above. " For" (Christ would reply) 
" since it is acknowledged that I came from God, both by 
the works, by the voice of John, and by the testimony of 
the Father, it is evident that Moses will accuse the Jews." 
For what saith he ? " If a man come doing miracles and 
leading you to God and truly foretelling things future, ye 
must hearken unto him with all readiness." Now Christ had 
done all this. He wrought miracles in very truth, He drew ι not in 
all men to God, and (so that He *) caused accomplishment to ^ l pieg 
follow His predictions \ 

" But whence doth it appear that they will believe 
another?" From their hating Christ, since they who turn 
aside from Him Who cometh according to the will of God 
will, it is quite plain, receive the enemy of God. And 
marvel not if He now putteth forward Moses, although He 
said, I receive not witness from man, for He referreth them 
not to Moses, but to the Scriptures of God. However, since 
the Scriptures terrified them less, He bringeth round His 
discourse to the very person (of Moses), setting over against 
them their Lawgiver as their accuser, thus rendering the 
terror more impressive 2 ; and each of their assertions He;al.^ 
refuteth. Observe : they said that they persecuted Him horrible' 
through love for God, He sheweth that they did so through 
hating God; they said that they held fast to Moses, He 
sheweth that they acted thus because they believed not 
Moses. For had they been zealous for the law, they ought 

b Not found in so many words. The 18, 18-22. see also Deut. 13, 1. 
command is given with this test, Deut. 

358 The great folly of wickedness. have received Him Who fulfilled it; if they loved God 
XL1, they ought to have believed One Who drew them to Him, 
if they believed Moses they ought to have done homage to 
One of Whom Moses prophesied. " But" (saith Christ) " if 
Moses is disbelieved before My coming, it is nothing un- 
likely that I, Who am heralded by him, should be driven 
away by you." As then He had shewn from their conduct 
towards Himself that they who admired John (really) 
despised him, so now He sheweth that they who thought 
that they believed Moses, believed him not, and turneth 
back on their own head all that they thought to put forward 
in their own behalf. " So far," He saith, " am I from draw- 
ing you away from the Law, that 1 call yuur Lawgiver him- 
self to be ycur accuser." 

That the Scriptures testified of Him He declared, but 
where they testify He added not; desiring to inspire them 
with greater awe, and to prompt {hem to search, and to 
reduce them to the necessity of questioning. For had He 
told them readily and without their questioning, they would 
have rejected the testimony; but now, if they gave any heed 
to His words, they needed first of all to ask, and learn from 
Him what that testimony was c . On this account He dealeth 
the more largely in assertions and threats, not in proofs 
only, that even so He may bring them over by fear of what 
He saith ; but they even so were silent. Such a thing is 
wickedness; whatsoever a man say or do it is not stirred to 
move, but remaineth keeping its peculiar venom. 

Wherefore we must cast out all wickedness from our 

souls, and never more contrive any deceit ; for, saith one, 

Prov. To the perverse God sendeth crooked paths; and, The holy 

lxx. spirit of discipline 1 uill flee deceit, and remove from 

Wfed.l , thoughts that are without understanding. For nothing 

1 aocpias maketh men so foolish as wickedness ; since when a man 

•α-γνώ- is treacherous, unfair 2 , ungrateful, (these are different forms 

of wickedness,) when without having been wronged he 

grieves another, when he weaves deceits, how shall he not 

exhibit an example of excessive folly ? Again, nothing 

maketh men so wise as virtue ; it rendereth them thankful 

and fair-minded, merciful, mild, gentle, and candid; it is 

c al. ' to enquire even if He held His peace.' 

The fear of God true icisdom. 359 

wont to be the mother of aH other blessings. And what is Johv 
more understanding than one so disposed ? for virtue is the — : — - 
very spring and root of prudence, just as all wickedness hath 
its beginning in folly. For the insolent man and the angry 
become the prey of their respective passions from lack of 
wisdom; on which account the prophet said, There is noPs.M, 
soundness in my flesh : my wounds stink and are corrupt 
because of my foolishness : shewing that all sin hath its 
beginning in folly : and so the virtuous man who hath the 
fear of God is more understanding than any; wherefore 
a wise man hath said, The fear of the Lord is the beginning Prov. l, 
of wisdom. If then to fear God is to have wisdom, and the 
wicked man hath not that fear, he is deprived of that which 
is wisdom indeed ;— and deprived of that which is wisdom 
indeed, he is more foolish than any. And yet many admire 
the wicked as being able to do injustice and harm, not 
knowing that they ought to deem them wretched above all 
men, who thinking to injure others thrust the sword against 
themselves;— an act of extremest folly, that a man should 
strike himself and not even know that he doth so, but 
should think that he is injuring another while he is killing 
himself. Wherefore Paul, knowing that we slay ourselves 
when we smite others, saith, Why do ye not rather tafe?lCor.6, 
wrong? Why do ye not rather suffer yourselves to be ' 
defrauded? For the not suffering wrong consists in doing 
none, as also the not being ill-used in not using others ill ; 
though this assertion may seem a riddle to the many, and to 
those who will not learn true wisdom. Knowing this, let us 
not call wretched or lament for those who suffer injury or 
insult, but for such who inflict these things ; these are they 
who have been most injured, who have made God to be at 
war with them, and have opened the mouths of ten thousand 
accusers, who are getting an evil reputation in the present 
life, and drawing down on themselves severe punishment in 
the life to come. While those who have been wronged by 
them, and have nobly borne it all, have God favourable to 
them, and all to condole with, and praise, and entertain 
them. Such as these in the present life shall enjoy an 
exceeding good report, as affording the strongest example ο 
true wisdom, and in the life to come shall share the good 

3G0 Future reward of true wisdom. 

Hcmil. things everlasting; to which may we all attain through the 
- grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, with 
Whom to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and 
ever, and world without end. Amen. 

Princeton Theological ^.T., |,γί|ϊΐί ι ί Γι I llll I II II 

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DEMCO 38-297